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Introduction to IoT Products

In today’s fast-growing world, the trending technology present in the market named the Internet of Things (IoT) is widely used to transmit data from one place to another place using the internet. And for doing this the IoT devices are used. The IoT devices are the products that have the software, wireless sensors and other computer devices installed in it. These products are connected to the internet and used to transmit data without any human intervention. For example, the traffic sensor device installed in a car which can be used to identify traffic ahead and notify the person accordingly.

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Different Types of IoT Products

For reducing the human effort and also make the process automated there are several types of IoT devices present in the market which are used daily. Some of them are mentioned below:

1. Single Board Computer

Source: fossbytes

The single-board computer is a type of IoT product that can be used in computing devices. The single-board computer has various networking options like Bluetooth chip, Ethernet, and Wi-Fi.

2. Amazon Echo

The Amazon Echo is Bluetooth speaker that recognize the voice and can be controlled by voice to play music. The device is supported by wi-fi connectivity and the device uses the cloud platform to perform its functions. When the user gives any instruction the device process the request and gives output. This device can also be integrated with a home automation device to control the devices.

3. Digital Watches

4. Security Systems

The other IoT product is cameras which are IP enabled which sues the local Wi-Fi connection. The footage of the camera can be seen from anywhere in the mobile phones which increases the importance of these types of cameras. The security system can also generate an alarm and can send a message to the owner to inform about any suspicious activity.

5. Sensors

The sensors are the most important product which uses the IoT technology. The sensors are mostly used in factories, buildings, energy, and many other sectors. Any product which uses the IoT uses the sensors for its design. In sensor, there is a transducer that converts the input signal into another form. The sensors are designed to sense surrounding conditions and take appropriate action according to that condition. And after detecting the event the sensors communicate to the connected system so that further action can be taken. The surrounding condition can be any factor like temperature, sound, light, gas or any chemical component.

6. Actuators

Advantages of IoT Products 1. Making of Home Appliances Automatic 2. Support for LOC Monitoring

The IoT products can be applied to LOC for capturing the images and monitoring the activities at LOC. And then the report can be created from that input. The devices can be automatically captured the movement to save life at LOC. The device can trigger the alarm immediately if it notices any suspicious activity and can alert the military. These devices are installed very easily and do not require any maintenance.

3. IoT Products Can Communicate with Each Other

The IoT products are designed such that they are inter-compatible. It can be better understood by example i.e. Google Home. The google home not only used to control home appliances but also to control google’s assistant. The google assistant helps to play music, news, translate anything to some other language. The google assistant also provides every possible information as it is directly connected to the internet. For example, if a person wants to know the current temperature he can ask to google assistant and it will automatically tell the current temperature. The person can get any information by just saying to google assistant.

Conclusion

In the current scenario of market share, the IoT products have captured a major area that is using in every sector. These products can be installed easily and can be used in homes, industries and other organizations. The main aim of these products is to make human work easy and reduce human efforts to do daily routine work.

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Types And Measures Of Risk Averse With Advantages

Definition of Risk Averse

Risk averse refers to investors who prefer lower risk over a high rate of returns. They choose to invest their money to earn a guaranteed return, even if it is less, so there remains little or no risk of loss. Generally, the rate of returns remains the same or exceeds slightly depending upon inflation for risk averse investors.

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Explanation

Risk averse describes the attitude of the investors willing to get a guaranteed return. There is always a risk in investment, but higher returns also attract higher risks. Some investors don’t want to risk their savings getting subsumed with any kind of loss. Hence, they prefer to invest in such investments where they can constantly earn, no matter low or high. The high rate of return does not attract these kinds of investors but gets facilitated by the idea of earning constantly, and due to their lower risk appetite, they want to take a very low risk.

Example

Consider investments like fixed deposits, certificate deposits, or other fixed-income instruments. These kinds of investments offer fixed returns with no or very low risks. An investor who is risk averse would consider such investments for the portfolio to maintain the risk at the lowest level possible.

Types of Investors Risk Averse

There are three types of investors depending upon their way of dealing with the risks:

Risk averse: Such investors avoid risk as much as they can. They prefer a lower rate of return with no risk rather than a high rate with higher risk, as they are afraid to bear any loss in their investments.

Risk Neutral: Such investors neither take too much risk nor avoid risks. They take a calculated risk because they don’t want to bear heavy losses. They usually take medium risks to get a medium or high rate of return.

Risk Loving: Such investors love to take risks, and they look at investment as a gamble in which they can earn a huge rate of return or bear huge losses. They are not afraid of losses because they always get lured by the high rate of returns.

Measures of Risk Averse

Measures of Risk Averse are:

1. Absolute Risk Averse (ARA)

When the risk is high, u(c) curvature will also get higher. However, there is a measure ‘Arrow-Pratt measure of absolute risk aversion that stays constant with respect to these transformations. It is named Arrow Prat measure after the names of the economists Kenneth Arrow and John W. Pratt. It is defined as

A (c) = – un (c)

u1 (c)

Where,

2. Relative Risk Aversion (RRA)

The Arrow-Pratt measure of relative risk aversion (RRA) is defined as

R (c) = cA (c) = –cun (c)

u1 (c)

where,

u(c) represents the utility curve as a function of wealth being “c” It is not like ARA, whose units are $-1; the RRA measure is a dimensionless measure due to which it is applied universally. This measure of risk-averse is still valid.

The implication of increasing/decreasing absolute and relative risk aversion: The implication of increasing or decreasing absolute and relative risk aversion helps form the portfolio with one asset risky and the other risk-free. If the investor’s wealth increases, then there is an increase in the risk asset; likewise, if there is a decrease in the investor’s wealth, the investor will choose to increase the risk-free assets.

3. Portfolio Theory

A=dE(c) / dσ

An = dE(c) / d nõn

Advantages

Investment without fear: A risk averse investor can invest without any fear of getting losses as the money invested here provides a return guarantee. This attracts investors who don’t want to bear any kind of loss in investment.

Constant return: Risk averse investors enjoy the constant return on their investment. They get almost the same or similar returns.

Low risk: There is a very low or almost no risk for risk averse investors.

Loss of opportunity: The main fallback of risk averse approach is that the investor loses the opportunity of earning a high return as they are not ready to take any significant risk.

Almost No Increase in Return: The returns the investors get are almost the same as there is no increment in the return, or a very little increase in return can be seen.

Dependent On Inflation: The increase in the rate of return for risk averse investors is dependent on inflation, which means the rate of return increases only when there is inflation in the country.

Conclusion

Every investor has their own preference for investments. Risk averse investors are those who are not attracted by high returns or a chance of getting a huge profit. They just don’t want their investment to bear any kind of loss; they want guaranteed returns on investments regardless of low returns.

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What Are Different Types Of Mutagenesis?

Chemical Mutagenesis

Chemical mutagenesis involves the use of chemicals to induce mutations in the DNA of an organism. Chemical mutagens can act by a variety of mechanisms, including base substitution, frameshift, and DNA strand breaks. Examples of chemical mutagens include alkylating agents, such as ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), which add alkyl groups to DNA bases, causing base substitution mutations. Nitrosoguanidine is another example of a chemical mutagen that causes base substitution mutations. Chemical mutagenesis is a useful tool for generating large numbers of random mutations in a short period of time. However, it can also lead to a high frequency of non-specific mutations, making it difficult to identify the specific mutations responsible for a particular phenotype.

Radiation Mutagenesis

Radiation mutagenesis involves the use of ionizing radiation, such as X-rays or gamma rays, to induce mutations in the DNA of an organism. Radiation can cause DNA damage by ionizing molecules in the cell, leading to strand breaks, base damage, and other types of DNA damage. Radiation mutagenesis is a useful tool for generating large numbers of mutations in a short period of time. However, it can also cause a high frequency of non-specific mutations, making it difficult to identify the specific mutations responsible for a particular phenotype. In addition, radiation mutagenesis can be hazardous to researchers, and precautions must be taken to prevent exposure to radiation.

Site-Directed Mutagenesis

Site-directed mutagenesis involves the targeted introduction of specific mutations into a gene of interest. This technique is particularly useful for studying the effects of specific mutations on gene function. Site-directed mutagenesis can be performed using a variety of methods, including PCR-based mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. PCR-based mutagenesis involves the use of PCR to amplify a gene of interest, with modified primers that introduce specific mutations into the amplified product. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis involves the use of synthetic oligonucleotides to introduce specific mutations into a gene of interest. Site-directed mutagenesis is a useful tool for studying the effects of specific mutations on gene function, but it can be time-consuming and labor-intensive.

Transposon Mutagenesis

Transposon mutagenesis involves the use of transposable elements, or transposons, to randomly insert DNA sequences into the genome of an organism. Transposons are mobile genetic elements that can move from one location to another within the genome. They can be used as mutagens by introducing new DNA sequences into the genome, disrupting gene function, or causing changes in gene regulation. Transposon mutagenesis is a useful tool for identifying genes involved in specific biological processes, as well as for studying the effects of random mutations on gene function. However, it can also lead to a high frequency of non-specific mutations, making it difficult to identify the specific mutations responsible for a particular phenotype.

Conclusion

Mutagenesis is a powerful tool for studying the effects of mutations on gene function and identifying genes involved in specific biological processes.

Transposon mutagenesis is useful for identifying genes involved in specific biological processes but can also lead to a high frequency of non-specific mutations. CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis allows for precise targeting of specific mutations but requires specialized equipment and expertise.

Overall, the choice of mutagenesis method depends on the specific research question and the resources available to the researcher.

FAQs

Q1. What is mutagenesis?

Ans. Mutagenesis is the process of inducing mutations in the genetic material of an organism.

Q2. What are the different types of mutagenesis?

Ans. The different types of mutagenesis include chemical mutagenesis, radiation mutagenesis, site-directed mutagenesis, transposon mutagenesis, and CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis.

Q3. What is chemical mutagenesis?

Ans. Chemical mutagenesis involves the use of chemicals to induce mutations in the DNA of an organism.

Q4. What is radiation mutagenesis?

Ans. Radiation mutagenesis involves the use of ionizing radiation, such as X-rays or gamma rays, to induce mutations in the DNA of an organism.

Q5. What is site-directed mutagenesis?

Ans. Site-directed mutagenesis involves the targeted introduction of specific mutations into a gene of interest.

Q6. What is transposon mutagenesis?

Ans. Transposon mutagenesis involves the use of transposable elements, or transposons, to randomly insert DNA sequences into the genome of an organism.

What Are Different Types Of Computer Keyboards? – Webnots

This is a digital era and every one of us have at least one mobile phone. However, desktop computers are still popular in organizations and educational institutions. Unlike smartphones, keyboard is the primary component you need while working on desktops. Many people also connect longer keyboard as an external device to their laptops which normally come with a smaller compact keyboard. Whether you have a Mac or Windows based PC/laptop , using a longer keyboard can easily improve your productive work and make things easier for you.

Types of Computer Keyboards

There are various types of keyboards available in the marketplace and selecting the best one depends on your need and creative use. In addition, choosing the layout like QWERTY or AZERTY can also impact your decision. Having a longer keyboard with separate number pad also helps to make use of thousands of alt code key keyboard shortcuts for making symbols.

1. Mechanical Keyboards

As the name indicates, mechanical keyboards are meant for harder usage. The keys are placed conveniently on switches generally called spring-activated switches. Below the switches, there will be an electric circuit which will give signals to the computer for the pressed keys. Mechanical keyboards will make louder noise compared to the rubber membrane keyboards used commonly on the desktops/laptops. Gamers and people who learn typing look for using mechanical keyboard as it reduces the possibility of mistakenly pressing a different key.

Mechanical Keyboard

2. Wireless Keyboards

Bluetooth Wireless Keyboard

3. Membrane Keyboards

Membrane keyboards are quite opposite in nature compared to mechanical keyboards. The keys are tightly packed and sometimes covered with a transparent membrane. This helps to avoid key movements and key pressing sounds. They are lightweight and protected from accumulating dust between keys. However, membrane keyboards are not widely used due to error prone nature while typing. In addition, people those like key sound may not like the quiet key movements.

Membrane Keyboard

4. Flexible or Foldable Keyboards

Flexible keyboards are foldable in nature that you can roll and move easily by keeping in your pocket. These keyboards are water and dust resistant and typically made with rubber like material. Flexible keyboards are mostly Bluetooth keyboards that come with a connector. Though it is easy to use, flexible keyboard needs a hard surface to place and type. In addition, they can be easily damaged and you can’t keep it on the lap or use conveniently like mechanical keyboards.

Flexible Foldable Keyboard

5. Ergonomic Keyboards

As per Oxford dictionary, the word ergonomic means “designed for efficiency and comfort in the working environment”. Ergonomic keyboards are designed in such way to avoid wrist and arm problems. The shapes of ergonomic keyboards differ and generally have curves to accommodate your palms for offering relaxed experience. Combined with ergonomics monitor and mouse, you can get a complete comfort while using your computer for longer time. Though generic ergonomic keyboards are much cheaper, you may need to go for a custom design when needed for medical reasons.    

Ergonomic Keyboard

6. Multimedia Keyboards

Apple keyboard on Mac, by default comes with multimedia keys for play/pause, rewind, froward and volume adjustments. However, most other desktop/laptop keyboards do not have dedicated multimedia keys. If you have the habit of frequently watching videos or listening songs on your PC, then multimedia keyboard with special keys can be handy for you. Multimedia keyboard replaces the controls on the video/audio player apps in your computer. You can use the keyboard keys as a quick control instead of using the media player app in your device. Multimedia keyboards are generally mechanical keyboards with bright backlit display. Some multimedia keyboards also come with gaming controls which you can use along with normal audio/video controls.

Multimedia Keyboard

8. Projection Keyboards

Computers come with default onscreen or virtual keyboard which you can use in case your physical keyboard is damaged. It is also useful with touch screen monitors thus avoiding the need to have a physical keyboard all the time. Projection keyboards are similar to onscreen virtual keyboards and do not have physical components on the layout section. However, the projection of keyboard layout needs a small handheld device which you need to connect with computer using Bluetooth or USB cable.

Once switched on, the device will show a laser projection of keyboard layout. You can simply type on the projected keyboard layout like normal keyboard. Projection keyboards are costlier compared to other models and you need a flat solid surface for projecting the layout. In addition, the data accuracy may not be perfect leading to errors and the projection may not be convenient for all users.

Projection Keyboard

Final Words

The above listed are the major types of keyboards available for your computer. As mentioned, some keyboard models may also fall into multiple categories. For example, a multimedia keyboard can be a wireless or mechanical type. In addition, there are special keyboards for gaming which are generally considered under mechanical or multimedia category. Therefore, make sure to understand the basic types and check the available features compatible with your device before purchasing an external keyboard for your device.

What Are The Different Types Of Plant Bioinformatic Methods?

Keywords

Bioinformatics, biotic and abiotic, GWAS, NGS, plant breeding, plant sequencing, plant pathogen, sequence analysis, computational proteomics, microarray data analysis, bio-ontology, biological database.

Introduction

In plant biotechnology, the amount of information has multiplied exponentially with many databases available from many individual plant species. Efficient bioinformatics tools and methodologies are also developed to allow rapid genome sequence and the study of plant genome in the ‘omics’ approach.

Bioinformatics, as a new emerging interdisciplinary field, has many tools and techniques that are essential for efficient sorting and organizing of biological data into databases. Bioinformatics can be referred to as a computer-based scientific field which applies mathematics, biology, and computer science to form into a single discipline for the analyses and interpretation of genomics and proteomics data.

In short, the main components of bioinformatics are (a) the collection and analysis of databases and (b) the development of software tools and algorithms as a tool for interpretation of biological data. Bioinformatics played a crucial role in many areas of biology as its applications provide various types of data, including nucleotide and amino acid sequences, protein domains and structure as well as expression patterns from various organisms.

Biotechnology and Bioinformatics for Plant Breeding

Plant breeding can be defined as the changing or improvement of desired traits in plants to produce improved new crops for the benefit of humankind. The revolution of life science in molecular biology and genomics has enabled the leaps forward in plant breeding by applying the knowledge and biological data obtained in genomics research on crops.

The evolution of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and other sequencing technologies produces a large size of biological data which requires databases to store the information. SNP is the unique allelic variation within a genome of same species, which can be used as biological markers to locate the genes associated with desired traits in plants such as rice, wheat, and maize.

Rice

In rice biotechnology, one of the most widely known GM rice is golden rice. Golden rice is a variety of rice engineered by introducing the biosynthetic pathway to produce β-carotene (pro-vitamin A) into staple food to resolve vitamin A deficiency.

Vitamin A is an essential nutrient to humans as it helps with development of vision, growth, cellular differentiation, and proliferation of immune system; insufficient intake of vitamin A may lead to childhood blindness, anemia, and reduced immune responsiveness against infection.

Wheat

Wheat, as the most widely grown consumed crop, together with rice and maize contributes more than 60% of the calories and protein for our daily life. Advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms and other bioinformatics tools have revealed the extensive structural rearrangements and complex gene content in wheat, which revolutionized wheat genomics with the improvement of wheat yield and its adaptation to diverse environments.

For instance, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an approach used in genome research which allows rapid screening of raw data to select specific regions with agronomic traits.

Maize

Maize, a globally important crop, not only has a wide variety of uses in terms of economic impact but can also serve as genetic model species in genotype to phenotype relationship in plant genomic studies.

The introduction of NGS techniques in several crops including maize allowed the rapid de novo genome sequencing and production of huge amount genomics and phenomics information. The integration and visualization of high-quality data with these tools enables quick prioritizing phenotype of interest in crops, which play a crucial role in the improvement of plant breeding.

Bioinformatics for Studying Stress Resistance in Plants

Stress response in plants can be divided into biotic and abiotic. Biotic stress mainly refers to negative influence caused by living organism such as virus, fungi, bacteria, insects, nematodes, and weeds while abiotic stress refers to factors such as extreme temperature, drought, flood, salinity, and radiation which dramatically affect the crop yield.

NGS technologies and other potent computational tools, which allowed sequencing of whole genome and transcriptome, have led to the extensive studies of plants towards stress response on a molecular basis.

Bioinformatics Approaches to Study Resistance to Plant Pathogen

The study of plant pathogens plays an essential role in the study of plant diseases, including pathogen identification, disease etiology, disease resistance, and economic impact, among others. Plants protect themselves through a complex defense system against a variety of pathogens, including insects, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. A clearer picture of plant-pathogen interactions in the context of transcriptomic and proteomics can be visualized through the application of different bioinformatics tools, which in turn made feasible the engineering resistance to microbial pathogen in plant.

Applications of Bioinformatics in Plant Biotechnology

The introduction of bioinformatics and computational biology into the area of plant biology is drastically accelerating scientific invention in life science.

Sequence analysis is the most fundamental approach to obtaining the whole genome sequence such as DNA, RNA, and protein sequence from an organism’s genome in modern science.

A complete sequence data consists of coding and non-coding regions, which can act as a necessary precursor for any functional gene that determines the unique traits possessed by organisms.

With the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and some other omics technologies used to examine plants genomics, more and more sequenced plants genome will be revealed.

To deal with these vast amounts of data, the development and implementation of bioinformatics allow scientists to capture, store, and organize them in a systematic database.

Conclusion

Types And Benefits Of Recourse Loan With Example

What is a Recourse Loan?

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Key Takeaways

Some of the key takeaways of the article are:

A recourse loan is a financing instrument in which the lender can seize the collateral and any other assets in the defaulter’s name to recover the debt money.

Examples of other assets include other bank deposits, income sources, etc.

A recourse loan is backed by collateral and the borrower’s liability. Hence, the lender has to assume significantly lower risk in this type of loan.

Although there are many different recourse loans, the two most common types are hard money loans and auto loans. Not all mortgages are recourse loans, but the hard money loans in real estate purchases are recourse loans.

Examples of Recourse Loan

Let us now look at the following example to understand the concept of recourse loans.

Four years back, John got a stable job in a multinational company with an annual package of $75,000. Three months after joining the job, he purchased a house worth $300,000 in the countryside. However, when he checked his savings account, he realized that he had a savings of $60,000, which he decided to use as equity in this real estate purchase. So, he approached a bank for a housing loan of $240,000.

Unfortunately, today John defaulted on the bullet payment, and the lender immediately seized his house for foreclosure and subsequent recovery of the debt from the sale, resulting in proceeds of $75,000. So, the remaining $75,000 (= $150,000 – $75,000) plus the interest cost will be recovered through garnishment, wherein the outstanding loan balance will be directly deducted from his monthly paycheck until the entire loss amount is settled.

In this way, the recovery of losses occurs in a recourse loan when the borrower defaults.

Types of Recourse Loan

Hard money loans: In the case of a real estate acquisition, a hard money loan is considered a recourse loan because its terms give the lender the right to take possession of the borrower’s property after default and then resell it for a more significant gain.

Auto loans: Since the value of automobile cars depreciates over a period, which exposes the lenders to the risk of adequate recovery in the event of a default. Hence, most auto loans are recourse loans in nature.

Benefits of Recourse Loan

Some of the significant benefits of a recourse loan are as follows:

Some assets adequately back it in the form of collateral. Besides, there is the total liability of the borrower, which means that the lender doesn’t need to bear too much risk.

Borrowers get recourse loans as per their credit profile and financial position. People with good credit histories are offered favorable interest rates, while those with poor credit histories can get the loan on the back of their unlimited liability.

With such flexibility in lending terms, these loans result in the maximum flow of money in an economy through more frequent and easy lending.

First, the borrowers who default on a recourse loan may lose much more than the collateral provided because the lender invariably goes after the borrower’s other assets and income stream to recover the outstanding loan balance.

Further, the borrower who fails to repay a recourse loan loses not just the money, but such an event can be a very traumatic experience for them. It can get tricky for them to cope psychologically.

Conclusion

So, it can be seen that a recourse loan is a binding debt financing instrument that secures the lenders and makes their life much easier. But, on the other hand, it is not so favorable for the borrowers as they may be exposed to severe consequences in the event of a default. Hence, borrowers should consider all the aspects of the loans before signing up for any recourse loan.

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