Trending December 2023 # 6 Useful Linux Command Line Tools For System Administrators # Suggested January 2024 # Top 13 Popular

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The command line is seriously powerful. With it users can execute powerful actions on computers and even servers in quick succession without the need to fuss with heavy GUI tools, and even invoke automated scripts that can do massive amounts of actions at once. This is especially useful when it comes to doing serious system administration.

With a terminal-based tool, users can gain access to massive amounts of information remotely and with ease. What are some of the best command-line based tools on Linux? Let’s find out!


When programs operate, they often have access to certain files on the system. These files could be images, video files, or even just library files being accessed. This tool is useful because it allows the user to view a list of any and all open files, along with processes from the programs accessing them.

Since Lsof is so well known, users don’t need to go out and install it. Chances are it’s already installed on the system. To test it out just run the lsof command.


Nmap (Network mapper) is a command line tool that allows the user to create a map of a network. Despite being just a command line tool, Network mapper has many, many options. It can discover network hosts, operating systems, and scan ports, check firewall security, and even find network exploits that may be present.

Like many of the tools on this list, Nmap is found in most Linux distributions’ software repositories. To install it, search for nmap and install it.


Tcpstat is a terminal program that can read and report back network interface information to the user. The program can do this by directly monitoring one specific device in real time or by reading data from a dump file. A simple, but useful utility especially for system administrators looking to find out the performance of specific network cards.

To install Tcpstat, check your Linux distributions’ package repository. Alternatively, download a package of it at chúng tôi or get the source code directly from the developer.


Htop is an improvement on a terminal-based tool known as “Top.” It offers improvements on top such as better visual readouts (menus and user interfaces), more user-friendly and interactive than Top, etc. This program allows users to view running programs, processes, memory usage, and pretty much everything you’d see in a normal task management GUI tool on the Linux desktop.

This tool is especially helpful for system administrators who look for easy ways to kill, restart or suspend unresponsive programs over a remote connection. It also comes in handy when checking in on the overall CPU and Memory performance. The program is available in most Linux distributions’ package repositories. Open up a terminal window and search for “htop” to install it.


For those looking for a way to look over network packets there is Tcpdump. It’s a simple package analyzing tool that can show TCP/IP network traffic as it happens. Using Tcpdump allows users to view detailed information about the contents of packets both coming (and leaving) through the network in real time and dump it into files for further viewing later.

This sort of tool is a favorite for forensic and security professionals, as it allows the ability to “spy” on Internet traffic from any computer it can connect with. To install Tcpdump, open up a terminal and search and use the package manager to install Tcpdump. It’s most likely in the default repositories.


System administrators on Linux might find themselves in a command line for most of their work from managing servers or even client computers and other things. That’s why it’s very important to find out the best command line-based tools to make the job easier. Each tool featured on this list does exactly that: makes system administration easier on Linux, each in its own way.

Derrik Diener

Derrik Diener is a freelance technology blogger.

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7 Best Tabbed Command Line Tools For Windows 10

7 best tabbed command line tools for Windows 10




Command line might not be the most visually appealing or the simplest feature of Windows 10, but it’s without a doubt the most powerful one. Although Command Prompt is one powerful tool, it still lacks certain features such as tabs.

In practice this means that if you want to run Command Prompt and see your network information and a developer console at the same time, you have to open two different command line windows and switch between them. This is impractical, but since Command Prompt doesn’t have native support for tabs, it’s currently the only way to do it. Since there’s no way to use tabs with Command Prompt on Windows 10, we decided to show you few command line alternatives that support tabbed interface.


Console2 is a simple and lightweight Command Prompt alternative for Windows 10. This tool has been one of the best Command Prompt alternatives for years and even though it hasn’t received any updates recently, it’s still an outstanding tool. Console2 comes with support for tabbed interface which allows you to simultaneously run different command lines. If you want to differentiate your tabs, you can assign a different name to each tab in order to organize your tabs more easily.

READ ALSO: PyCmd is an Alternative to Windows Command Line Console

Console2 comes with all sorts of customization options, and it allows you to set the transparency of your console window. One thing we didn’t like about this tool is the lack of support for standard copy and paste shortcuts. Besides that, Console2 sounds like an amazing alternative to Command Prompt, and if you’re looking for a command line tool that supports tabs, Console2 is one of the tools that you should check out.


It’s worth mentioning that this tool also supports Windows style text editing, thus allowing you to select, cut, copy and paste into command line similarly to any text document while using the familiar shortcuts. Another feature we need to mention is the search toolbar that allows you to quickly search for any output in command line. In fact, PowerCmd will highlight each word from your search query in a different color thus making it easier for you to find it.

Lastly, if you heavily use command line, you’ll be pleased to know that PowerCmd allows you to automatically save console output log, so you can examine it at any time, even if your PC or application crashes.


We have to mention that ColorConsole comes with rather simplistic search feature, but at the same time, it allows you to manually select and highlight output in command line, so you can easily find it when needed. Another feature is the ability to export your output as HTML or RTF which some users might find helpful.

Expert tip:


This tool comes with support for Unix commands and it allows you to launch remote sessions such as SSH, Telnet, FTP, VNC and many others. Each session is listed in the sidebar on the left so you can easily create new sessions.

MobaExtrem comes with graphical SFTP browser, so you can easily drag and drop files when you’re using SFTP connection. In addition, you can also display remote application directly on your PC while running SSH, TELNET or RLOGIN/RSH sessions. If you’re connecting to remote server using SSH, you can edit remote files directly from MobaExtrem by using built-in MobaTextEditor. This tool also allows you to remotely control Windows desktop computers by using RDP protocol. Of course, there’s support for remote Unix desktop by using XDMCP.

READ ALSO: How to Add Run Command to Start menu in Windows 10

Terminal Wings

Terminal Wings comes with minimalistic and visually appealing interface, and just like all the predecessors on this list, it supports tabbed interface. This application is simple to use and it allows you to easily select, copy and paste any input from the command line.


ConEmu is another free command line tool with tabbed interface. This tool comes with a simple user interface, which makes it perfect for basic users. Despite its simple appearance, ConEmu has a wide range of features hidden in its settings. You can change the visual appearance of the command line, set predefined code to run and much more.

PowerShell ISE

If you want to use command line with tabs on Windows 10, there’s no need to download alternative tools from the Internet since you can use Microsoft’s PowerShell ISE. This tool is integrated in Windows 10 and it comes with many features, one of them being tabbed interface.

Of course, there’s support for a wide range of PowerShell commands, but if you’re not too familiar with PowerShell commands, there’s a list of commands along with additional details about each command available right from the PowerShell ISE.

Although Command Prompt doesn’t support tabs, Windows 10 comes with its own alternative in form of PowerShell ISE. If you’re looking for a third-party alternative, PowerCmd offers wide range of features along with a user-friendly interface. Unfortunately, PowerCmd isn’t available for free, but if you’re looking for a free tabbed command line tool for Windows 10, ConEmu might just be what you need.

READ ALSO: Complete List With All Shell Commands in Windows 10

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How To Reboot Linux System (6 Methods)

Linux users often take pride in the fact that they don’t need to reboot their system often, unlike Windows. However, sometimes in order for the changes to take place after a major software update, you may need to reboot even a Linux system. In addition to applying changes after an update, rebooting a system is also a highly effective solution to solve various issues. When you reboot the system, all running programs are removed from the primary memory as the Linux system is shutdown, and the initial boot-up process is followed from the scratch. But, rebooting a Linux system is quite different as compared to its counterparts. In this article, we will share command line and GUI methods for how to reboot your Linux system.

Reboot Linux System How to Reboot Linux System Using Command Line

Linux command line gives its users great flexibility and options to play with when they need to reboot their systems. The command line method is handy when you need to reboot a Linux server. We recommend you use these commands carefully, otherwise, unintentionally executed commands can lead to data loss or data corruption altogether. That said, let’s look at the Linux commands we can use to reboot our Linux systems.

Reboot Linux Using shutdown Command

Firstly, shutdown is the easiest and one of the most used commands to reboot the Linux system. The syntax to reboot a Linux PC using the shutdown command is:

sudo shutdown -r 10:20

One great feature of the shutdown command is that all users who are currently logged into the system will get a broadcast message from the root user, informing them about the scheduled restart. To use a custom message for the users when a reboot is scheduled, you need to use this syntax:

For example, if you want to let the users know about the scheduled system restart at 10:00 AM, use this command:

All users will get notified of the reboot on their terminal wall with the above broadcast message.

Reboot Linux Using reboot Command

When you reboot the system normally, the system goes through the process of first shutting down, and then the normal boot process is followed. When the reboot command is executed, the system firmware takes care of turning the system back on again. While the reboot command does not have a ton of options, it is simple to work with. The syntax to use the reboot command is:

Some of the options to use with the reboot command are:

Reboot System Forcefully

sudo reboot -f

Reboot Linux With the halt Command

The halt command is generally used to enable the halt mode, where the normal process of the shutdown is followed, except the power stays on. But you can also use the halt command to reboot your Linux system. When you reboot your PC with the halt command, it reboots the system immediately by following the normal reboot process. The syntax to reboot the system using the halt command is:

sudo halt --reboot

Reboot Linux Using systemctl Command

The systemctl command refers to a centralized system management tool that can be used to manage and check the status of various services. One great use of this command is that it can also be used to change the system state. For example, systemctl command can also be used to reboot your Linux system. Use this command if you want to reboot using the systemctl command:

A default broadcast message is sent to all active users when you execute this command, informing them about the reboot. To send a custom message to all users, use this syntax:

For example, if you need to alert the users about a reboot session, you can use this command:

sudo systemctl --message="System update, will be back soon" reboot

System update, will be back soon

Reboot Linux Using init Command

The init process is the first process that starts after the system has finished booting. init command is used to alter the system run levels. In order for Linux and other Unix-like operating to have a smooth operating, they have some pre-defined states known as “run Levels”. In each run level, a specific set of services and daemons are activated for the OS that can be modified by the user. There are 6 different run levels accessible to the root user:

RunlevelDescription0Shuts down the system via normal procedure.1set single user-mode2set multi-user mode without networking3set multi-user mode with networking4used by the user for their specific needs5used to set multi-user mode with networking and GUI6used to reboot the system

To reboot your Linux system with the init command, use the following syntax:

sudo init 6

How to Reboot Linux Using the GUI Method Reboot Gnome-Based Linux Systems

2. Then, select the “Restart” option from the sub-menu.

Reboot KDE-Based Linux Systems

1. Open the Applications tray from the bottom left-hand corner or press the Super key on the keyboard. The super key is labeled as the “Windows Icon” on most keyboards.

3. A new dialogue box will open with 3 options – Suspend, Restart, and Shutdown. Select the “Restart” option to reboot your Linux system.

Reboot MATE-Based Systems

Reboot Your Linux System Easily

Diskpart And Fsutil Command Line Tools For Disk Management In Windows 11/10

You don’t need to have 3rd Party Partition Manager Software to achieve resize partitions in Windows 11, Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7 & Windows Vista. The operating system includes a very useful Disk Management Tool that lets you resize partitions and more. In this post we will see how to resize a partition in Windows, using the built-in Disk Management Tool.

You cannot merge partitions in Windows with this utility. If your 2nd partition is empty, you can delete the 2nd partition and then extend the 1st partition, to use the freed-up space. Also, note that you can extend only to the right; if you are desirous of extending the partition to the left, you may have to use a 3rd party tool. You can read more here about the Disk Management Tool.

Sometimes one or more options may be grayed out and thus unavailable. If this happens, it could mean that such a step may not be physically possible.

You can resize a Partition even if Disk Management fails using DISKPART and FSUTIL command-line tools for Disk Management in Windows 10.

Resize a Partition in even if Disk Management fails

It may happen that the Disk Management tool may fail to complete an operation successfully. Should you wish to continue, nevertheless, please first backup your important data should anything go wrong. You may have to use diskpart.exe.

Diskpart Utility

The  Diskpart utility can do everything that the Disk Management console can do, and more! It’s invaluable for scriptwriters or anyone who simply prefers working at a command prompt.

Among several other things, you can use Diskpart to do the following:

Convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk

Convert a dynamic disk to a basic disk.

Create a partition at an explicit disk offset.

Delete missing dynamic disks.

There are two types of partitions you can create: Primary and Extended. Only a Primary partition can be made bootable, so if you are planning to install an OS, you will have to select this option. For backup purposes, you may opt for Extended partitions.

Now, to see which number is associated with the volume you are planning to work with, type: list volume.

Depending on what you want to do to the partition you can select any of the following commands. Typing help and hitting Enter enumerates the options.

Example :

To extend size by 5GB, type Extend size=5000 To shrink the volume by minimum 1GB, up to a maximum of 5 GB, type, Shrink desired=5000 minimum=1000 You can even delete a partition by typing, Delete Partition and hitting Enter.



Windows also includes an additional command-line tool for file, system, and disk management, called Fsutil. This utility helps you to change the short name of a file, find files by SID’s (Security Identifier) and perform other complex tasks.

FSUtil and Diskpart are powerful, but not for inexperienced Windows user. So do be careful, please.

There is not enough space available on the disk(s) to complete this operation

What do you do if you get the message – There is not enough space available on the disk(s) to complete this operation?

Most new computers with OEM Windows pre-installs come with 4 partitions. Hard disks configured as basic disks are limited to 4 primary partitions or 3 primary partitions and 1 extended partition and multiple logical drives. And as such, if you try to shrink the OS partition, you may find that you cannot create a 5th partition due to this limit.

There could be two possible solutions for this issue:

As the disk pre-configured by OEM may have conflicts with the disk management tool in Windows, you should try some 3rd party tool to re-partition the disk.

You may try to delete a less important partition created already and merge the space to create a new partition with a proper drive letter.

Deleting the partitions created by the OEM is often not possible due to the way the OEMs configure the partitions. Therefore the option then is to extend the operating system partition back to the original size to regain use of the unallocated space. If additional storage is needed, consider adding an external USB hard disk.

Installation Steps For Linux & Windows Operating System

How to Install Splunk?

At first, we will brief you about the Splunk Components.

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Components of Splunk Architecture



Deployment Server

License Master

Master Cluster


There are two ways in which we can set up the installation for Splunk Enterprise:

Standalone Environment – Here, all the Splunk components reside on the same server (except for forwarders as the sole purpose of forwarders is to forward data from an input device to Splunk(Indexer), so it will not make any sense to have the forwarder on the same machine)

Distributed Environment – Here, all the Splunk Components are distributed on different servers like Indexer on server1, Search Head on server 2, License Master and Deployment Server on server 3 and likewise!

Splunk Core Products

Splunk Enterprise – On-Premise installation, more administration overhead. Here, you are responsible for all the upgrades, making changes to configuration files and keeping Splunk up and running.

Splunk Cloud – On Cloud installation, less administration overhead. It is the responsibility of Splunk Incorporation to keep your spunk up and to run.

Splunk Light – This is the light version of Splunk Enterprise with limited functions and capability.

Install Splunk Enterprise On Windows

Source: From My Browser

3. If you are not logged in or if you do not have an account associated with Splunk, it will ask you to create an account. Please do the required and then log in.

4. Next screen that you will see is.

Source: From My Browser

Source: From My Server

7. Here, we will select the Local System as we are on our local machine.

Source: From My Server

8. Here, please provide your password. You should be able to login to your Splunk instance using this password.

Source: From My Server

Source: From My Server

10. Now, you can either open your Splunk instance from your windows programs or by visiting localhost:8000 via your web browser.

Source: From My Server

The username for an administrator is always admin, and the password will be the one that you had provided during the installation process.

Install Splunk Enterprise On Linux

Source: From My Server

4. Next screen that you will see is

Source: From My Server

Source: From My Server

The remaining steps are the same as we had done in Windows installation, as GUI steps are almost the same irrespective of OS.


Source: From My Server

wget -O Splunk-7.2.4-8a94541dcfac-Linux-2.6-x86_64.rpm

1. Now the rpm package of Splunk is downloaded, it is time to install it

Command :

rpm –ivh splunk-7.2.4-8a94541dcfac-linux-2.6-x86_64.rpm

2. Splunk is installed now, and now it is time to start it for the first time. Navigate to the bin directory of Splunk and run the following


/opt/splunk/bin/splunk start

3. Read the license and press the “y” button to agree with the license agreement.


/opt/splunk/bin/splunk start –accept-license


./splunk start –accept-license

(Assuming you are in the bin directory of Splunk)

Install Splunk Cloud

We have seen an installation of Splunk Enterprise on Windows and Linux platforms, but apart from Splunk Enterprise, Splunk also offers a Cloud version of Splunk, which is known as Splunk Cloud.

Steps for cloud installation:

Source: From my browser

3. If you are not logged in or if you do not have an account associated with Splunk, it will ask you to create an account. Please do the required and then log in.

Source: From my browser

5. Then, you will get redirected to a screen that will look something like the below:

Source: From my browser

Recommended Articles

We hope that this EDUCBA information on “Install Splunk” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.

How To Use The Dig Command In Linux

Dig is a simple yet powerful tool in Linux that looks up Domain Name System (DNS) information about a specific remote server. Unlike tcpdump, it allows you to gain an insight on how a machine interacts with name servers. This tutorial will teach you the the basics of how to use the dig utility in Ubuntu and how to use the dig utility to understand how DNS works.

What Is DNS and How Does dig Work?

At its core, DNS is a system that allows a machine to seamlessly translate a human-readable domain name to its appropriate IP address. In that regard, DNS is similar to a phone directory where it lists a machine’s address along with an easy-to-remember label.

The Domain Name System works by storing domain records on a set of hierarchical name servers, which announce these records whenever a user attempts to resolve a domain name.

The dig utility unmasks this process by showing you how your computer communicates with name servers. It labels and prints every step that it takes from the initial connection to name resolution. This makes dig helpful in understanding any potential DNS issues with your server.

Installing dnsutils on Linux

The dig command is preinstalled in most Linux distributions. If it is not found in your system, you need to install the dnsutils package to access the dig command.

On Ubuntu and Debian systems, install it with the command:





On Fedora:


yum install


On Arch Linux and its derivatives:




bind-tools Querying DNS Servers With dig in Linux

One of the most basic actions you can do with dig in Linux is to query the A record for a Web address. The A record contains the primary IPv4 address for a domain name and is what your web browser queries whenever it tries to access a website.

To query the A record using dig, run the following command:


chúng tôi will print a long string of text that will show the actions that dig took to resolve the domain. For the most part, you can divide this string into four sections: the header, question, answer and nameserver.

The header section shows a brief summary of the command that you ran. The “opcode” value shows the action that dig did. Meanwhile, the “status” value prints overall result of the query.

The question section shows a list of queries that you made through dig. The first column prints the complete domain name followed by the query class and DNS record type.

The answer section shows the result of your query. The first column contains the complete domain name followed by its “Time To Live” value. The third and fourth columns show the query class and DNS record type, while the fifth column prints the result.

The nameserver section contains details about the DNS server that dig used for this command. The “QUERY TIME” is the amount of time that it took for the server to process the query. The “SERVER” value is the IP address of the name server, and the “MSG SIZE” shows the size of the query in bytes.

If you just want to quickly find the IP address of a website, include the +short option for it to only return the IP addresses.


+short chúng tôi a Custom DNS Record Type

Aside from doing A queries, it is also possible to use dig for looking up other DNS types. You can run the following command to check whether the domain has any IPv6 record:


chúng tôi aaaa

Querying a custom DNS type is also helpful if you are doing reconnaissance work during a penetration test. For example, you can use dig to check whether a domain name is also being used in a mail server:


chúng tôi mx

Lastly, dig can also be incredibly useful in learning more about the upstream services for a domain. Both the “CNAME” and the “NS” records will show more details about the server and the nameserver it is using:


chúng tôi cname


chúng tôi ns

Tip: learn how to enable DNS over HTTPS in various browsers.

Custom Dig Queries in Linux

By default, dig works by connecting to a name server and asking it for a domain name’s details. However, the program also provides a number of additional features that can help in resolving DNS issues.

One of the most useful features of dig is +trace. Similar to traceroute, it looks at all the hops that your machine makes whenever it connects to a domain.


chúng tôi +trace

You can also customize the name servers that dig uses to poll a specific domain name. This is useful if you have a name server and want to check if it is working correctly.

To force a custom name server, run the following command:


chúng tôi A


Lastly, dig is also a highly flexible program that can work in a Bash script. To do this, force dig to only print the result of your query:

Batch Processing dig Queries

Aside from processing individual domain names, it is also possible to use dig to resolve multiple web addresses. This is especially helpful if you are a network engineer and want to check on multiple domains at once.


+qr chúng tôi ns chúng tôi a

You can also use the -f option to tell dig to get its instructions from an external file. However, you should only write this file in a “dig query” format. Knowing that, consider the following lines of text:

Frequently Asked Questions Is it possible to use dig on a local network?

Yes. In most cases, these queries will only be resolved in your local DNS server. This can be helpful if you have an internal DNS server and want to see if it is being recognized in the network.

Is it possible to hack websites and Linux servers using dig?

While dig is a highly useful tool, it is only a small part of a penetration tester’s toolkit. Its primary role is in helping you understand how a machine and its domain name interact with DNS servers. If you are concerned about server breaches, check out securing a Linux server.

My ISP does not support IPv6. Can I run dig purely in IPv4?

It is possible to run dig in either IPv4-only or IPv6-only modes. To do this, you need to add either -4 or -6 options to your dig command. For example, running dig -4 +qr chúng tôi mx will force dig to only use IPv4 in its queries.

What's the difference between dig and nslookup?

Both dig and nslookup are command-line tools that will query DNS servers. The main difference between them is that dig is a much more powerful tool with many more options. Nslookup is simpler to use but does not have as many features. However, for most basic DNS queries, either tool will work just fine.

Image credit: Unsplash. All alterations and screenshots by Ramces Red.

Ramces Red

Ramces is a technology writer that lived with computers all his life. A prolific reader and a student of Anthropology, he is an eccentric character that writes articles about Linux and anything *nix.

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