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Introduction to Ansible Add User to Group

The following article provides an outline for Ansible Add User to Group. In Ansible, you have multiple default modules which comes with its package and you can also create customized modules using a supported scripting language like Python. The use of these module depends upon the requirements and available parameters as well as options. Some of the modules are basic and needed for day to day tasks such as user module, which is used to create, remove, update a user on remotes hosts. This is for Linux based OS on remotes hosts. For Microsoft Windows based remote hosts, there is another similar module named win_user. Here we will see user module and its alternatives to add user to group on remote hosts.

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Ansible Add User to Group

In a operating system, user and groups are created to organize the privileges hierarchy. Also, to manage the user as per their roles, groups are created and assigned to those users. This is a general practice which takes place across all those operating systems which supports multiuser environment and login support. Using a configuration management automation tool like Ansible, makes such operational tasks, easy and smooth to execute when you have tens of target hosts.

Few parameters, while adding user to group.

Given below are the few parameters:

1. append: This parameter is useful when you want to append a user to a group or a list of groups.

This accepts two values:

yes: To append all the listed groups in groups field, to the user’s mapped group list or you can say, add the user to the groups specified in groups.

no: To overwrite the assigned group list of the user with only groups mentioned under groups field, meaning removing the user from all groups except mentioned in groups. This is the default option if nothing is mentioned.

2. group: To set the user’s primary group. Acceptable option is a valid group name.

3. groups: To give the list of secondary groups, to which the user will be added to. When an empty string (‘ ’) is given, user will be removed from all the groups except its primary group.

How to Add User to Group?

To add a user to a group, we can have two scenarios related to user’s existence:

User is new and need to be added to existing groups.

User is existing and need to be added to existing groups.

In both the cases, we can use command module or user module in Ansible, to add user to group. For command module, we can directly pass Linux command as plain text to run on remote hosts. For using user module, we can use either ansible to do this by passing all parameters and options on command line or ansible-playbook by mentioning all parameters and options in a playbook and execute it.

How to Remove User from Group?

To remove a user from a group or list of groups we can either use command module and pass Linux command in plain text or use user module via ansible or in a playbook and execute by ansible-playbook.

One point to note that while using user module, there is no direct way to remote a user from a group or list of groups.

We should use append field and provide the list of groups to groups section in playbook.

Examples of Ansible Add User to Group

Given below are the examples mentioned:

Example #1

Add a new user to a list of secondary groups while creating it.

This can be done by below different ways:

a. Use command module and pass Linux command to add as user and assign a list of groups as secondary group to it.


ansible all -m command -a "useradd testuser -G testgroup1,testgroup2,testgroup3"


You can check the user is created in remoted hosts and assigned groups like below:


id testuser



id testuser


b. Use ansible and pass all the parameters on command line like below:


ansible all -m user -a "name=testuser groups=testgroup1,testgroup2,testgroup3 append=yes"


Upon checking on target systems, you will find that user is created and assigned to the listed groups as secondary groups.


id testuser



id testuser


c. Use ansible-playbook and write all your requirements in a YAML file called Playbook which have all the values in key-pair form.

The playbook content will be like below:


append: yes


ansible-playbook useradd_assign_secondary_group.yaml


On remote hosts, you can check like below:


id testuser



id testuser


Example #2

For adding an existing user to a group. You can use either command module or user like above. But better we practice writing playbooks, as this is more organized. Also, the output is easily readable.

We can write a playbook like below:


append: yes

Then execute it like below:


ansible-playbook adding_user_to_group.yaml


Also, on checking remote hosts, we can see that a new group have been added to the list of secondary groups.




id testuser


Example #3

For removing a user from group, we have use append with value.

To do this, we can create playbook like below:


append: no

Then executes it like below:


ansible-playbook removing_user_from_groups.yaml


On remote hosts, if you check you will find that, the user testuser have only testuser4 as secondary group and it has been removed from rest of all secondary groups,

On remote hosts, if you check you will find that, the user testuser have only testuser4 as secondary group and it has been removed from rest of all secondary groups,


id testuser



id testuser



Adding and removing users from a group or a list of groups is a repetitive task. Which is important but confusing sometimes when doing it manually on command line. So, better practice is to maintain a playbook for such tasks and pass the actual values on real time during execution.

Recommended Article

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How To Add Users To A Group In Linux

Groups are the bread and butter of a Linux system. These are special lists that allow you to group multiple users into different categories. Along with securing your system’s application privileges, it allows you to finely control how each account in the system can access and share its files and folders.

This article shows how you can use the groups utility to add and modify existing groups in Linux. Further, it will also highlight how the Linux permissions system works in conjunction with the groups system.

How Do Groups and Permissions Work?

At its core, a Linux group is a collection of users that share the same permissions and privileges for a specific file or program. Every file in the system has a set of ownership and permission bits. One of the easiest ways to find this is to run ls -l on your home directory.

That will list all the visible files and folders in the directory along with their ownership and permission bits. For the most part, the general format for this looks like:



ramces maketecheasier 8.7k Oct





chúng tôi first, third and fourth columns show both the permission and ownership bits of the current file. For example, the “rwxrwxr-x” valuetells the system that everyone can read this file, but only the user “ramces” and group “maketecheasier” can write to it.

These two bits work hand in hand to create a finely tuned access control system in Linux. The permission bits tell the system how a file can be used by the users and groups in the ownership bits.

Viewing the Group Memberships for a User in Linux

The first step to modify a group in Linux is to know which are available to a user to give you an idea of the active groups in the system.

Running the following command will list all the available groups for the current user:


Viewing the Available Groups in the System

Along with looking at user-specific groups, it is also possible to list every group in the system by running the following command:







This will print the entire “/etc/group” file in your terminal screen. Scroll through the file by pressing J or K.

By default, “/etc/group” is a colon-delimited file that contains both user and system-specific groups. Each line in thie file represents a currently active group in the machine.

The general format for each line looks like:


The group-name is the label for the group. In most cases, system groups start with an underscore to differentiate them from regular groups.

The password is an optional field to create secure groups, which is useful if you are sharing the system with multiple people.

GID is the Group ID for that particular group.

Lastly, the users field is a comma-separated list that contains all the users that are part of that group.

Note: even if you are not in the root group, you can still open files as root. Learn how to do that.

Creating a New Group in Linux

To create a new group in Linux, use the groupadd command. Unlike id, this is a utility that only deals with group creation.

For example, I can run the following command to create a new group with the name “test.”




Creating a New User With a New Group

It is also possible to create both a new user and group in a single command, which is useful when you are setting up a shell scripting account with predetermined permissions.

To do this, run the following command:












The –m flag tells useradd to create the new user’s home directory, as, by default, Linux does not create a home directory for the “test” user.

The -G flag tells useradd to create and add the “test” user to the “maketecheasier” group.

The -s flag sets the default login shell for the “test” user. In my case, I am telling the useradd utility to set the login shell for the “test” user to Bash.

Adding an Existing User to a New Group in Linux

Along with creating a group and its user, you can also add existing users to a group by running the following command:




maketecheasier user Adding Multiple Users to a New Group

Lastly, it is also possible to include multiple users to your new group. To do this, run the following command:







This will set the member roster for the “maketecheasier” group to include both “ramces” and “test.” However, it is important to note that the -M flag always replaces the users value in the “/etc/group” file.

Appending new users to your group will also require you to include the users that are already in the group. For example, running the following command will append both “alice” and “bob” to the “maketecheasier” group:






,alice,bob maketecheasier

Tip: learn how to switch to another user account with the sudo command.

Frequently Asked Questions Is it possible to edit the /etc/group file to modify a group in Linux?

While it is possible to modify the “/etc/group” file, it can potentially ruin the file’s internal format, leading to systems with non-functional groups and missing permissions. As such, it is not a good practice to edit the “/etc/group” file directly.

My new group does not show up on my user's group list. Is my machine broken?

No! By default, the Linux groups system does not apply any changes that you make to online users. This approach protects these users from any sudden system changes that may prevent them from accessing a file or program.

To update your user’s group list, either log out from the current session or restart the entire machine.

Image credit: Unsplash. All alterations and screenshots by Ramces Red.

Ramces Red

Ramces is a technology writer that lived with computers all his life. A prolific reader and a student of Anthropology, he is an eccentric character that writes articles about Linux and anything *nix.

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How To Improve Group Dynamics For Teams?

Improve Group Dynamics

Whenever three or more people converse on a common topic of interest, we can see group dynamics at play. Kurt Lewin coined the term “Group Dynamics” in 1940. Kurt was a social psychologist and a change management expert who described the effect of the behavior pattern on a group. Many recent studies on Group dynamics are based on his ideas which have also become key in generating best management practices.

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Group Dynamics

Group dynamics can be observed in various settings, such as business meetings, volunteer organizations, children chatting in classrooms, and social gatherings. In any group setting, a person takes the lead in conversation and offers their thoughts, while others are often seen as mute spectators; while one would like to have a conversation faster, others would try to change the track. As there are different people, different minds are working, and so are different behavior and attitude, this creates hindrances in meeting a goal and arriving at a conclusion. On many occasions, meetings may simply go out of hand. It is not new if people assume these meetings are a failure or have been a waste of time.

However, in any corporate setup, management has to see group interactions and meetings improve, and there are ways for this. Principally changes occur in the team in how the members interact and relate with each other towards their organization and management.

A good team shows the following traits:

They orient themselves towards the goal.

Share common objectives.

Feel a sense of belonging towards the group or a section.

Cherish versatility and diversity.

Motivated to be creative and show an inclination towards taking risks.

Team Development

The team’s anticipated growth keeps the group sustained and moving. Any group passes through the different development stages, which are:

Forming: It is an initial stage of the development process where each member has ideas to achieve the group’s purpose. People ought to be very careful about what they talk about and how the way they take their conversation. Each of them displays their behavior and shares their own ideas. The group should value each member’s suggestion and formulate a combined goal.

Norming: The group decides on activities that help its members reach a consensus, which requires negotiations. Individual members generally think what they are saying and talking about is correct, but they might be wrong, or their ideas might not meet the group’s objectives. Still, by listening to other viewpoints or understanding other person thoughts, they can develop the inclination in them to think in a different way. Explaining or understanding the reason or cause of something can allow someone to see or perceive it differently.

Performing: It is a stage of the final performance of a group. When group members reach a consensus, they become committed to serving the task and also listening to diverse ideas. Each person contributes in his or her way. The group carries out its norms excessively well and exerts collective pressure to ensure its effectiveness.

Adjourning: If temporary groups are developed for a specific task, they go through a process known as adjournment. This means that once the project is over, the group is disbanded, and many emotions may arise within the group.

Help the Team To Get Acquaint With Each Other

Since we are all related to each other, it is sensible and courteous to make sure that we get acquainted and introduced to each other. In the meetings, newcomers feel exclusive as the old and senior executives make no room for the new aspirants to speak as they themselves are always deeply engrossed with each other.

Here, a manager or team leader should intervene, help newcomers feel at ease, and motivate them to speak first and share their thoughts. Some groups also incorporate activities called Ice Breakers or “Get Acquainted Activities.”. These are simple games that enthuse people to start interacting. This step can prove to be a valuable investment as members then understand each other behavior and how each one of them reacts to a particular situation or an idea.

Clear Expectations

Each member carries their assumptions or expectations of the meetings. It is often very little talked about idea on how things should be or how people behave and react. The members can experience a situation where their expectations of the group dynamics activities and goals differ from what they encounter, making it challenging for them to react positively and appropriately to the real situation. It is best to give a few moments to clear the member’s doubts and make them acquainted with the main theme of the meeting for a discussion. They would then realize whether their expectations are conjuring with the group’s goals, and a simple question like “What is an expectation for us today and what we would be accomplishing today can meet the purpose.

Divide the Group into Teams

If the group is large, the leader can divide it into different teams, with each team allotted a prescribed task based on their group dynamics. Each member of a team can work in coordination and cooperation with each other to achieve a common goal.

To enhance teamwork, experts suggest assigning different roles among team leaders and encouraging them to ask open-ended questions. By the end of the meeting, organize the list of who is responsible for the action and what is the due date to work on the next action.

Develop Cohesiveness

The members in the team interconnect with and positively value each other. These group dynamics teams are either task cohesiveness in nature or social cohesiveness. If a team engages in fun and play during work, they develop a deep bond that results in displaying more liveliness due to a higher degree of social cohesiveness. Task cohesiveness refers to how the team blends its abilities and skills to produce effective results.

Cohesiveness has many positive impacts, including providing satisfaction, low absenteeism, turnover, and productivity; higher cohesive groups may negatively impact organizational performance if their goals are not aligned with those of the organization. They may also be more vulnerable towards groupthink, which happens when any group member tries to pressure the other to come to a consensus. Groupthink occurs due to the people’s carelessness, unrealistic judgments, and lack of realities.

Effective Communication Skills

Having effective communication is not just the right way of talking but about being a great listener, getting and receiving feedback, and adopting the practice in comprehensive verbal messages. A team can ensure its effectiveness by establishing a proper communication network and being aware of who is communicating with whom and who is outside the network. The team should also develop appropriate norms for establishing communications. The group needs to choose and implement standards to guarantee that each member participates actively and to prevent any one or two members from monopolizing the group and its time.

Show Commitment

Each member should participate in a team and understand that the team’s mission is very important. The leader should ensure that each member is committed to fulfilling the mission; Commitment only comes when each member feels that his or her contribution is valuable for the group and for their own career growth. Each member should also display a higher degree of loyalty and trustworthiness towards the team, group, leader, organization, and himself. A leader should align each member’s mission with the group’s, even though they have individual tasks and personalities.

Show Competency Problem-Solving

Generally, people form groups to achieve a social purpose or to accomplish a specific goal and discuss or be involved in a controversial or debatable issue. In this situation, group dynamics are generally stronger, mainly when the group has restricted time and resources. A strong leader is crucial here as he can intervene to neutralize the heated debate. He can offer the solution and then request each person in the group to express his or her views on the said topic but within a prescribed time limit. A leader will then analyze how many are in favor or against his suggestion and make the final decision as per the suggestions of the majority and what is in the organization’s or group’s best interest.

To achieve this:

A leader should help each member understand the problem, its implications, and what they intend to achieve.

Each person in the group should understand on how he can contribute to coming up with the solution and resolving the problem.

Every group member should be able to recognize and understand the kind and nature of the contributions others are making.

Each member should have the capability and willingness to share the information or provide help to contribute.

Be Humorous

Nothing can reduce the walls more than laughter, which is the best remedy to ease the tensions and reduce any differences. Between the work and meetings, keep adding jokes and pranks that make the members laugh and feel comfortable. Humor is the best remedy to ease tension and stress. A bit of humor can also bring people much closer. Give or tell something to the group on which they can cheer, whether it is about celebrating a company’s success or the success or achievement of any individual group member.

Group dynamics is all about how members from diverse backgrounds have different mindsets, thoughts, values, and ideologies to achieve a common goal. We build a team, work as a team, and make each member feel like they are needed. And it can be possible by having a great and effective leader who can make the people in a group adopt the values of working in a team and orient their behavior and mission towards the group, mission, and goal, and is not just driven by a small but a picture as a whole. Each team member should be motivated to speak and listen, value others’ ideas and thoughts, and feel important.

Recommended Articles

Here are some articles that will help you to get more detail about the Group Dynamics for Teams, so just go through the link.

5 Steps To Better Branded User

Unleashing the potential of user-generated content from brands

We now live and work in the ”social media 2.0″ era, when consumers demand real-time, fluid conversations with brands. From product reviews to hashtags, consumers expect to have their say.

Leveraging UGC well can generate powerful results, and if you want your brand to succeed in the long term, doing so is practically unavoidable. Simultaneously, there are substantial risks to giving users free rein over your brand’s image. Here’s how you can balance the risks with the rewards for optimal results:

1. Bring influencers into your UGC process early.

Don’t just think of influencers as a distribution channel. Involve them in crafting your strategy as early as possible. It will increase the likelihood that your campaign will succeed and that the community will be receptive to it. Partnering from the onset will produce better ideas, more engaging campaigns, and superior outcomes.

2. Focus on authenticity.

Giving influencers a chance to engage in the creative process will make the content — and, in turn, your brand — more genuine.

Just make sure you avoid mistakes like Scott Disick’s Instagram gaffe. In a paid Instagram post for Bootea last year, the reality star accidentally included instructions from the brand in his caption. If you partner with an influencer who already loves what you do, the collaboration will be authentic and the influencer will be invested in preventing situations like this. At the very least, make sure you feel like the influencer understands your brand and can properly represent your brand online.

3. Know how to respond to controversy.

Scandals are almost impossible to predict, but you can identify red flags by examining a collaborator’s background and existing content before investing in the partnership. Make sure you’re OK endorsing everything your brand ambassador has said or done.

You also need to have a plan in place to respond if your influencer behaves in a way that’s inconsistent with your brand. Stay up to date on influencers’ content, even if it’s not for your brand. If your partner posts something that doesn’t align with your message, you should be the first to know — and the first to react.

For example, when one of YesJulz’s tweets included racist language, two festivals that were working with the social media influencer quickly cut ties. They dropped her from their events and openly condemned the tweets.

The bottom line is this: Your audience won’t separate your brand from any controversial content your influencer has already produced or might in the future. You need to be prepared to act decisively.

4. Give influencers clear guidelines.

You shouldn’t have to micromanage an influencer. In fact, it should be just the opposite. Clearly lay out brand guidelines, and let the influencer get to work. A campaign brief is an excellent way to communicate these ground rules. Plus, brand ambassadors can refer to this resource whenever they need to.

It’s also important to make sure the influencer’s branded content meets legal standards. If an influencer is receiving any compensation for the work, the Federal Trade Commission will treat it like any other ad. The FTC recently reminded influencers of this in a letter that directed them to clearly disclose their relationships with brands when promoting products on their social media channels.

5. Vet your influencer’s audience.

Take the time to examine an influencer’s follower base. While the influencer might have a massive following, if most of those followers are bots or fake accounts, your campaign won’t deliver good ROI. It won’t matter how great the content is if it doesn’t generate any conversations about your brand. Followers who don’t have profile pictures, don’t post their own content, or don’t engage with others are cause for suspicion.

Checking users one by one will paint the clearest picture, but time is money, so use a site like FollowCheck to analyze an influencer’s social media followers. It may not be 100 percent accurate, but it’ll point you in the right direction.

Successful user-generated campaigns are made up of authentic content that comes from authentic relationships. With the right influencer and the right channels, UGC will elevate your brand and raise your bottom line.

How To Reset Group Policy Settings In Windows

Good to know: learn how to back up your registry in Windows.

1. Reset Individual Group Policy Settings

If you’ve only made a couple of changes, then you can reset the Group Policy settings individually. This can be done via the Local Group Policy Editor.

From the “Local Computer Policy” section on the left, expand “Computer Configuration,” open “Administrative Templates,” and select “All Settings.”

Reboot your computer for the changes to take effect.

You can repeat the same steps for another Group Policy and reset everything one by one.

Tip: need to access BIOS on your PC? Learn several ways to do it.

2. Bulk Reset Group Policy Settings

If you are not sure which policies you’ve changed or when there are too many changes and it is not feasible to find and change them one at a time, you can just delete the folders where the policy settings are stored. This will bulk reset the group policy settings to their default values. You can use Windows Terminal to do this. By the way, if Windows Terminal is not opening for you, you can take these steps to fix it.

Paste the following command line into PowerShell and press Enter:







Execute one more command in PowerShell:







End with this and press Enter:




Reboot your computer to apply the changes.

3. Reset Local Security Policy Settings with Windows Terminal

Resetting the Local Security Policy settings can be a good idea to ensure no misconfigurations remain in this part of the system.

These settings are in a separate console, and you can reset them using Windows Terminal with administrative rights.

Type the following command line into PowerShell and press Enter:











db chúng tôi



Reboot your computer so that the changes will take effect.

Tip: getting a “This installation is forbidden by system policy” error on your Windows PC? Learn what to do about it.

Frequently Asked Questions How can I manually refresh Group Policies?

You must refresh Group Policies after you’ve edited a Group Policy Object (GPO) to save the new configurations. To do so, enter gpupdate.exe /force into a Command Prompt and press Enter, then reboot your computer for the changes to take effect.

Why do I get “gpedit.msc not found” in a Windows error message?

If you or someone else reconfigured the Local Group Policy incorrectly, there’s a good chance it’s the main reason you are seeing this error message when trying to open the Group Policy Editor in Windows. Try using the methods described in this guide to reset your policy.

Malicious software is another possible reason behind the “gpedit.msc not found” error. Make sure that you have an antivirus active on your PC, even if it’s just Windows’s built-in Defender.

Note that third-party programs are not always safe to use. Sometimes they can cause conflicts with the Local Group Policy and result in data corruption. Therefore, if you’ve installed a program recently, uninstall it.

If you’ve recently installed your Windows operating system and are getting this error, you may have had an incorrect Windows installation.

Image credit: Pexels. All screenshots by Farhad Pashaei.

Farhad Pashaei

As a technophile, Farhad has spent the last decade getting hands-on experience with a variety of electronic devices, including smartphones, laptops, accessories, wearables, printers, and so on. When he isn’t writing, you can bet he’s devouring information on products making their market foray, demonstrating his unquenchable thirst for technology.

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How To Add Office Auto

Microsoft Office is currently the best Office suite across the globe. Although there are other free Office suites like LibreOffice, they are in no comparison when it comes to the feature set of Microsoft Office. Microsoft Word includes features like auto-complete, automatic spelling correction, Autotext etc. which make Microsoft Word the most productive word processor. I have always wished if all these features of Microsoft Word could be added to the entire Windows Operating System so that each and every individual app could make use of these features and make us more productive.

PhraseExpress is a software suite which makes it possible to integrate the features discussed above in Windows. The integration process is seamless. It is like “set it and forget it”. You just have to install and enable PhraseExpress and everything else will be taken care by the software itself. PhraseExpress sits in the system tray quietly and does its job when needed.

PhraseExpress is free for personal use. You can download PhraseExpress and install it on any 32-/64-Bit Microsoft Windows XP, 2003/2008, Vista or Windows 7. When running the setup, PhraseExpress will ask you if you want to use the network feature. Please un-check this feature as it will install PhraseExpress as a 30 day trial.

Here you can also organize the phrases in different folders. You can also assign a hotkey for automatically inserting the phrase anywhere you want.

The auto-correct and auto-complete features works along with the text snippet manager. For example, There is a common phrase “also known as“. We are adept at typing the shorter version as “aka“. When PhraseExpress is working, typing “aka” will automatically print “also known as“. While you can create your own custom phrases, you can also download commonly used text templates from the PhraseExpress site.

Another handy feature of PhraseExpress is that it includes a built-in pocket calculator which can perform calculations on the go while you are typing in the text. See the following screenshot to see the beauty of the pocket calculator.

Usman Khurshid

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