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However, you would be gravely mistaken if you thought that it all ended with the Internet. Humankind, as of now, is at the onset of another revolution – a revolution within a revolution. This torch is being carried by cryptocurrencies and their foundational structure – blockchain technology.

This new technology promises to change the Internet as we know it, from everything related to the financial sector to the information sector. The main selling point of this tech is – Creating a system that is by the people, to the people, and for the people. And, this very technology has started to gain attention from everyone across the globe, with Bitcoin and its companions making headlines with each passing day. 

While the potential of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology is vast, it is by no means without any downsides. At the moment, the one plaguing the cryptoverse most is none other than ransomware attacks. That being said, it should be noted that ransomware attacks are not exclusively a crypto-problem.

Notably, now that this problem is being highlighted, there are several platforms that have come forth to curb its association with crypto, if not completely cut it. And at the forefront of this effort is Binance, one of the world’s largest cryptocurrency exchanges.  

What is ransomware?

Now, as the name suggests, ransomware is a type of malware that when infects your computer or any other software device, it would lock you out of it.

You will regain control of the devices only when you pay the ransom demanded by bad actors. Think of it like being locked out of your own house and the only way back in is by paying the person who put in that situation. 

An attack such as this was first reported in Russia in 2005. Since then, there have been million such attacks taking place on a regular basis across the globe. And, with the inception of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, they have become the most preferred means of extorting money from victims.

The most notable ransomware attack associated with Bitcoin so far is the Wanna Cry ransomware attack that took place in 2023. The malware used for this attack was such that it would spread from one infected PC to another across networks. The nature of the malware had it labeled as a global epidemic.

The malware attack that went on for four days affected around 200,000 people and nearly 150 countries. The attack saw the perpetrators demanding the ransom in Bitcoin, with over $140,000 paid by the victims in the cryptocurrency. 

Taking charge for the future

While cases of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies being used for illicit activities are growing, efforts to curb these activities are also growing. This effort saw the evolution of several crypto and blockchain firms actively taking part in tracing the source of cryptocurrencies, and the movements of illicit actors. 

And the one leading by example is Binance, one of the largest cryptocurrency exchanges in the world. 

In a recent blog post, the exchange said,

“At Binance, we believe that strong controls across exchanges, smart legislation and ongoing education will help immensely with weeding out bad actors”

On the back of its security team and strong AML detection systems, the exchange has managed to take down two malicious actors associated with the crypto-space. The first clampdown came in mid-2024 as part of the Bulletproof Exchanger Project. 

For this case, the exchange collaborated with Ukraine’s Cyber Police after detecting suspicious activity. This, in turn, resulted in the arrest of a cybercriminal organization that has been linked to a ransomware campaign, one accused of laundering over $42 million in cryptocurrencies. In this particular case, the bad actors were making use of nested exchanges to move their illicit cryptos.

“Projects such as our ‘Bulletproof Exchanger’ and our ongoing partnerships with law enforcement, as well as security and blockchain analytics firms, will be a driving force in improving the cybersecurity measures across the wider crypto industry.”

The second case the exchange was involved in saw the apprehension of a criminal organization involved in the laundering of nearly $500 million in ransomware attacks. The group in question is known as FANCYCAT, with their activities involving cyber-attacks such as Cl0p and Petya and laundering money from dark-web operations.

The exchange’s anti-money laundering system detected suspicious activity carried out on the exchange. This prompted the platform to dig deeper by using clusters. Following this, the exchange worked alongside TRM Labs and Crystal – blockchain analytics companies. This resulted in the exchange noticing that these accounts were linked to the laundering Cl0p and Petya attack funds. All of the funds from these illegal activities accounted for close to $500 million. 

This case was immediately classified as high profile as the Cl0p ransomware attack was associated with prominent countries and universities. The ransomware attack held four Korean companies and three U.S universities hostage. The universities in question were the well-known Stanford Medical School, the University of Maryland, and the University of California. 

This operation eventually resulted in the exchange shaking hands with multiple regulatory authorities. This included the Cyber Police of Ukraine, Korean National Police Agency, U.S Law Enforcement, Swiss Federal Office of Police, and the Spanish Civil Guard. 

Since then, the company has adopted several other measures to not only bring down criminal groups engaged in illicit activities but also platforms enabling them. 

Needless to say, the leading cryptocurrency exchange has made it one of their missions to weed out bad actors from the crypto-space.  

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Binance Extends ‘Full Support’ To Pakistan’s Investigation Of $100 Million Crypto Scam

Cryptocurrency exchange Binance has decided to take the path of compliance once more, as it faces yet another investigation in connection to a million-dollar scam in Pakistan affecting thousands of investors. The world’s leading crypto exchange in terms of trade volume has promised full assistance to the country’s Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) in its investigation after receiving a notice about the same.

The FIA cybercrime wing Additional Director Imran Riaz announced on Tuesday that the exchange had contacted the agency to assure them of its full co-operation after its name surfaced in an ongoing online fraud in the region involving “fraudulent online investment mobile applications.”

Break Through in fraudulent online applications linked with Binance case. Binance, contacted FIA Cyber Crime Sindh and assured its full support regarding mega financial scam investigation involving 11 fraudulent apps using Binance blockchain addresses.

— Imran Riaz (@ImmiRizz) January 11, 2023

Binance extends support

The FIA had issued an order of attendance to Humza Khan, the general manager/growth analyst at Binance Pakistan to explain the same. Riaz confirmed that a two-member team consisting of former US finance department employees has been appointed by Binance to coordinate with the agency, adding,

“I appreciate the response of Binance, keeping in view the gravity of the issue, and look forward to continued cooperation in unearthing criminal activities based on cryptocurrency.”

— Imran Riaz (@ImmiRizz) January 7, 2023

A 7 January notice by the FIA regarding the same had noted,

“At least 26 suspect blockchain wallet addresses have been identified where fraudulent amount may have been transferred. A letter has been written to Binance Holdings Limited to give the details of these blockchain wallet accounts as well as to debit block them.”

Users had raised complaints once these applications stopped working after soliciting a huge amount of funds. They have been identified by the FIA as FIA are MCX, HFC, HTFOX, FXCOPY, OKIMINI, BB001, AVG86C, BX66, UG, TASKTOK, and 91fp.

A ponzi scheme?

Suggesting hints of a Ponzi scheme, the FIA’s notice had added,

“These schemes benefit old clients at the cost of new clients and ultimately disappear when they have made substantial capital base worth billions of rupees.”

The agency has also contacted Telegram, where these applications had created groups for investors to send them “so-called expert betting signals, on the rise and fall of Bitcoin.” While the agency has blocked all bank accounts linked to these wallets, it had also issued a warning to Binance if it doesn’t comply with the investigation.

“In case of non-compliance, FIA Cyber Crime will be justified to recommend financial penalties on Binance through the State Bank of Pakistan.”

This “mega financial scam” could put a dent in Pakistan’s growing cryptocurrency economy, which was valued at around $20 billion by financial experts in the country recently. It was also placed as a leader in crypto adoption in the South East Asian region by Chainalysis last year.

This had already irked the FIA after 2,923 transactions were made to purchase digital assets worth $50 million were bought in the country in just six months. The agency has already blocked 1,054 crypto investors involved in the purchase.

In 2010, The Civilian Space Industry Finally Takes Off

Jeff Greason, XCOR’s president, sits in a mock-up of the company’s suborbital rocket ship, the Lynx, seen here as a computer rendering. Compared with SpaceShipTwo, “it will be more of a ‘Right Stuff’ experience,” he says. “You’ll feel more like an astronaut.”. John B. Carnett

For a traveler heading up the highway toward the Mojave Air and Space Port, in the desert 70 miles north of Los Angeles, the surroundings are ghostly. Silent 747s and DC-10 jumbo jets from defunct airlines, along with smaller 727s and DC-9s, some cut up or resting on pylons, are visible from miles away, looking frozen and forlorn. Parked along the road at the airport entrance is a 1962 Convair 990, which began its life as an American Airlines jet airliner. Now the wind whistles through its nacelles and birds nest in its wheel wells.

Mojave is a boneyard, a place where commercial airliners go to die. Yet on the day I visited last October, there was life in the wide blue sky overhead, and it was more striking than the sight of even the most modern airliner. I saw a kind of flying catamaran streaking from west to east. As it came into view, it looked like two business jets flying in formation and high-fiving each other. Closer, I saw twin fuselages joined by large, slightly tilted overhead wings, each with two quiet jet engines on the far side. I was watching the VMS Eve, the airborne launching pad for the smaller rocket ships that in the next few years, Virgin Galactic says, will begin taking paying passengers to space.

Soaring above the elderly airliners, their liveries fading away under the baking sun, Eve, named for Virgin founder Richard Branson’s mother, was the only obvious sign of a spaceport at the airfield. Passengers may one day fly out of Mojave and other spaceports, with sleek underground terminals and gleaming rocket ships taxiing for blastoff. But for the moment, to really see what the future has in store for this quiet patch of desert, you need to pass through a locked door in a chain-link fence and into a large hangar, where you’ll find the heart of Scaled Composites, the aerospace company behind Eve and the rest of Virgin Galactic’s futuristic spaceware. Technicians in smocks and white lab coats swarmed around a spacecraft like bees at a honeycomb. Working with riveters, glue guns, sanders and vacuum pumps, they were busy putting the outer layers on a prototype of SpaceShipTwo, the 60-foot-long, feather-winged vehicle Virgin was preparing to unveil in December. The craft is part of its grand plan to bring space travel, if not to the masses, then to a slightly broader swath of humanity than has ever been able to contemplate it before.

All this, Virgin says, can be yours for a mere $200,000, perhaps as early as next year, although company president Will Whitehorn says you’ll have to take a number behind the 300 passengers that have already put down deposits to do it. For now, space tourists (a term the industry intensely dislikes, preferring to call them “spaceflight participants” or “space explorers”) are the cornerstone of Virgin’s business model, but with NASA struggling to fund its lofty dreams of missions to the moon and beyond, and with the shuttle headed for retirement, Virgin and dozens of other private space entrepreneurs see a golden opportunity to do something much more fundamental—and more profitable. Beyond carrying wealthy passengers into suborbital space, Whitehorn says, Virgin could also launch rockets and satellites, provide affordable transport for scientists who want to do microgravity experiments in space, and even establish a private astronaut-training program. Seen in that light, space tourists become much more than just the idle rich undertaking a mind-blowing experience for the thrill of it. Indeed, the space industry says that demand from tourists—and companies that need satellites—will provide the seed capital for what is, in effect, the privatization of space.

As I walked around the ship, I got to thinking: 100 years ago, after the critics were forced to accept that yes, man can fly, many dismissed flight as a diversion for the wealthy few. “The public has greatly over-estimated the possibilities of the aeroplane, imagining that in another generation they will be able to fly over to London in a day,” wrote a Harvard University astronomy professor, William Pickering, in 1908. “This is manifestly impossible.”

Top Cat

Jeff Greason, XCOR’s president, sits in a mock-up of the company’s suborbital rocket ship, the Lynx, seen here as a computer rendering. Compared with SpaceShipTwo, “it will be more of a ‘Right Stuff’ experience,” he says. “You’ll feel more like an astronaut.”

Fired Up

Burning liquid oxygen and kerosene, the main engine of XCOR’s Lynx shoots flames during a test last March in the Mojave Desert.

Houston, We Have a Solution

So much is uncertain for NASA. Will the president and Congress authorize it to proceed with plans to put astronauts back on the moon? Or to send them to Mars? Or to asteroids? Or none of the above? What is certain, however, is that the space shuttle is headed toward retirement. The U.S. shuttle program is scheduled to run its final mission this year, although most observers expect it to remain in service into 2011.

There is an additional spur that could accelerate the development of Space, Inc. As the White House and Congress sift through details of a new report from that panel, known as the Augustine Committee, a very cold medium-term reality is staring NASA in the face: The U.S. will soon have no way to get to the space station on its own. That gives a monopoly to Russia, which charges private space tourists $35 million per spot per trip and NASA $51 million per spot. Uncle Sam has already inked a $306-million deal for just four trips to the ISS aboard a Soyuz spacecraft, and the Russians have no real reason not to jack up the ticket price after the deal expires in 2013.

SpaceShipTwo in Space Rendering

SpaceShipTwo in Space Rendering

Those payments could turn into a political football, or something even more problematic if the U.S. and Russia have a major disagreement over a geopolitical hotspot such as Georgia or Iran. Some gap is inevitable in which Russia’s craft is the only game in town, and unless the U.S. takes the highly unlikely step of abandoning the billions of dollars’ worth of experiments and research docked at the station it will have little choice but to pay.

Once that uncomfortable fact glows brighter on the political radar, private firms such as SpaceX—which insist they have good-to-go plans that could put astronauts back on American vehicles more quickly and cheaply than anything NASA has in the works—could stand to reap the benefit. Musk says his SpaceX Dragon, a free-flying, reusable spacecraft designed for transporting both cargo and crew to orbit, could do ISS trips for $20 million per seat. “No later than three years from tomorrow is what I’m promising,” he said last November. That’s if he has a firm multiyear contract in place. Several other companies are aggressively bidding for pieces of the COTS pie. All told, those pieces could be worth billions of dollars if—and again, it’s a big if—private companies follow through on their vows that they can meet performance expectations.

Private industry will not take us to the moon, a point on which industry executives are nearly unanimous. What it can do is handle comparatively short-range tasks while NASA focuses on the farther reaches of space. “The rationale here is that NASA needs to do the hard stuff and leave the simpler stuff—granted, human spaceflight is not an easy thing, but it is something we’ve been doing for 50 years—if it wants to go beyond,” says Bretton Alexander, president of the Commercial Spaceflight Federation, a Washington, D.C.–based industry group. “NASA can actually focus on doing the cool stuff”—Mars, asteroids and elsewhere—”and over the long term, you have an industry that is not only focused on NASA. NASA becomes a user, not the sole provider.”

Thirteen former NASA astronauts, with 42 space missions among them ranging from Gemini and Apollo to the shuttle and the ISS, also endorsed this approach in an op-ed published in the Wall Street Journal last October. “We believe that the commercial sector is fully capable of safely handling the critical task of low-Earth-orbit human transportation,” the astronauts wrote. The space agency, they said, “should put its unique resources into pushing back the final frontier and not in repaving the earth-to-orbit road it cleared a half century ago.”

The Augustine panel clearly outlined a path for the private ferrying of astronauts there as well. “NASA ought to be exploring outer space and doing new things,” said the panel’s chair, Norman Augustine, the former chairman and CEO of Lockheed Martin. That would leave low-Earth- orbit missions “a commercial endeavor, in our view.”

The Lynx

The Lynx

Space Invaders

Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo, under construction in October, will launch from 50,000 feet off the back of a double-hulled carrier craft before flying to 380,000 feet.

Humanity’s Plan B?

Get a space entrepreneur talking about the “why” of space travel, and some grand ambitions begin to surface. “Of course, there are many people who ask: Why spend anything at all, with all the problems we have on Earth?” Musk says. “But not only are there significant things we can learn about the universe and our place in it when we go to space, there are things we learn about the Earth.” He points to climate change, ozone depletion, pollution. “And if you really want to go big picture here,” adds Musk, who himself clearly loves to go big picture, “I think it is actually very important that we start making progress in extending life beyond earth and we start making our own existence a multi-planetary one.”

Not that Musk is pessimistic about life on Earth. “The odds are terrific that life will make it just fine through the coming centuries,” he says, but “there’s always a chance there’s a disaster around the corner, some horrible thing that happens—like a super volcano or a killer virus or a meteorite or something, or some invention of science creates a miniature black hole.” Multi-planetary existence, according to Musk, is like a giant insurance policy for the human race. “You don’t buy life insurance because you believe you are going to die tomorrow. But you buy it to prepare for it.”

All told, private companies have more than 40 orbital spaceflights, manned and unmanned, scheduled between now and 2014. California-based Masten Space Systems, which recently won $1 million in a NASA-backed competition to simulate a lunar landing, hopes to eventually perfect its unmanned vehicle for moon exploration. chúng tôi founder Jeff Bezos has sent unmanned suborbital capsules into test flights over property he owns in West Texas, although he’s been quiet about long-range plans for a vertical-takeoff-and-landing private spacecraft. The Web site of his space company, Blue Origin, says it is working “patiently and step-by-step” to make spaceflight and solar-system exploration more affordable. Meanwhile, billionaire Robert Bigelow, the founder of Budget Suites of America, foresees a big demand for “space hotels” in the future and has already sent two prototype inflatable space habitats into space.

It’s true that no bride has yet reached orbit to wear Japanese designer Eri Matsui’s space wedding gown; no passengers have yet been able to honeymoon on the moon. Nonetheless, Virgin Galactic says it is right on target with plans for SpaceShipTwo, of which five more would be built if the prototype can navigate the federal regulations that govern commercial spaceflight. And just a few hangars down from SpaceShipTwo, XCOR Aerospace is working on its own suborbital rocket ship, the Lynx.

XCOR’s president, Jeff Greason, who also served on the Augustine Committee, is developing a variety of low-cost rocket engines that burn various types of fuel. Prospective private passengers, however, will be most interested in the Lynx, which seats just two people—pilot and customer. “Ours is a very different approach from Virgin Galactic’s,” the somewhat cherubic Greason explained to me late one afternoon as we sat in a fiberglass mock-up of the Lynx cockpit. “Ours will be more of a ‘Right Stuff’ experience. You’ll really feel more like an astronaut.”

But of all the entrepreneurs I spoke with, Musk was the most vocal evangelist. “Life cannot be just about solving problems,” he said. “I mean, if all we do in life is solve another bloody problem, that’s depressing. You need things that inspire people.”

SpaceShipTwo and Eve

SpaceShipTwo and Eve

Out of the Blue

Back at Scaled Composites, Tighe led me into the cockpit of SpaceShipTwo. It was a calm early morning over the Mojave, the sky above Southern California a faultless blue, as I felt the engines start up and listened to the pilots count down to liftoff. The sky began to turn cobalt, mauve, violet, indigo and then nearly black. Passing upward through 328,000 feet, I enjoyed a stunning view out the window. I could see both the peninsulas of Baja California and the San Francisco Bay area, the tip of Mount Whitney (the highest peak in the lower 48), the endless Pacific Ocean, the curvature of the Earth.

Actually, I am being inexact on a few of the details. Just like the old airliners out along the runway, SpaceShipTwo hadn’t budged an inch at the Mojave Air and Space Port. I was inside a simulator, just a few feet from the workers and rivet guns. Yet I was still captivated. Now the Earth was ringed with a faint blue halo, and it was strikingly quiet. Tighe pointed upward, and I found it hard not to share his grin. “Nice up here, yes?” he asked. I had to nod.

SpaceShipTwo Under Construction 1

Virgin Galactic’s bullet-nosed rocket, SpaceShipTwo, coming together in the hangar of Scaled Composites in Mojave, California.

SpaceShipTwo Under Construction 2

Virgin Galactic’s bullet-nosed rocket, SpaceShipTwo, coming together in the hangar of Scaled Composites in Mojave, California.

SpaceShipTwo Under Construction 3

Virgin Galactic’s bullet-nosed rocket, SpaceShipTwo, coming together in the hangar of Scaled Composites in Mojave, California.

SpaceShipTwo Under Construction 4

Virgin Galactic’s bullet-nosed rocket, SpaceShipTwo, coming together in the hangar of Scaled Composites in Mojave, California.

SpaceShipTwo Under Construction 5

Virgin Galactic’s bullet-nosed rocket, SpaceShipTwo, coming together in the hangar of Scaled Composites in Mojave, California.

SpaceShipTwo Under Construction 6

Virgin Galactic’s bullet-nosed rocket, SpaceShipTwo, coming together in the hangar of Scaled Composites in Mojave, California.

SpaceShipTwo Under Construction 7

Virgin Galactic’s bullet-nosed rocket, SpaceShipTwo, coming together in the hangar of Scaled Composites in Mojave, California.

SpaceShipTwo Under Construction 8

Virgin Galactic’s bullet-nosed rocket, SpaceShipTwo, coming together in the hangar of Scaled Composites in Mojave, California.

With Android 12L, Google Must Lead By Example

Rita El Khoury / Android Authority

The announcement of Android 12L came as a bit of a surprise for many of us. While we were expecting a minor upgrade to Android 12, we were instead presented with a bigger feature drop that’s targeted at devices with larger screens. In fact, this update is important enough that it got its own name, 12L, and will be the subject of a developer preview program, similar to major Android releases.

It was about time Google dedicated some resources to larger devices. The company already sells millions of Chromebooks per year, and while Android tablets aren’t the hottest ones around, they still take up nearly half of the global market (via Statcounter). That’s not to mention the rise of foldables and all the excitement around that form factor.

But this isn’t Google’s first rodeo. It’s attempted a dedicated tablet OS once and got almost nowhere with it, with one of the reasons being the apparent lack of enthusiasm towards the form factor. Tellingly, many of Google’s own apps were never updated to make use of the larger screen estate, so why should third-party developers care? If Google wants to make Android 12L a success, it needs to learn from its history and its mistakes.

Google and tablets, take one

Honeycomb, otherwise known as Android 3.0, was released nearly a decade ago. It represented Google’s ambitions for the tablet form factor in 2012: an OS that was supposed to usher a new era of apps and software that made use of bigger screens. Instead, only a few of Google’s own apps were optimized for the experience — Gmail, Contacts, Calendar — but the rest were simply stretched versions of their mobile counterpart.

The excitement was palpable for a while, and some third-party developers jumped on the hype train, adapting their apps and using “fragments” like Google recommended to divide the larger screen into different areas. But things never progressed further. The company went back to phones with Android 4.0 a.k.a. Ice Cream Sandwich and left many of its apps — Maps, the Android Market, the web browser, to name a few — in a state of limbo on tablets.

Take two, or the Chrome OS experiment

Google’s second tablet attempt came a couple of years ago, when it launched the Pixel Slate. With Chrome OS supporting Android apps, it thought it would offer a semblance of a tablet experience, while still providing the full setup for those who wanted a keyboard and trackpad.

Chrome OS tablets showed great promise… until Google’s own tablet hit the scene.

Unfortunately, the Slate’s reception wasn’t very enthusiastic mainly because Google had once again failed to properly adapt the interface. Between Chrome’s small icons that weren’t touch-friendly and Android apps’ poor integration with the rest of the operating system, the experience was far from ideal. It’s fair to say that developers didn’t rush to adapt their apps to this new chimera. While there are some great Chrome OS tablets available, the software experience is still profoundly lacking.

Android 12L’s the charm?


Example of how Android 12L handles dragging and dropping apps into split-screen mode

Android 12L marks Google’s third venture into the tablet ecosystem, though this time, it’s not limiting itself to a particular device type. It wants to bridge the gap between phones, foldables, tablets, and computers. The whole point is to create a cohesive software experience, no matter the screen size. Both system and apps would adapt to the canvas given to them, stretching to fill a desktop’s large screen when connected to a Chromebox, then slimming down to fit on a small phone.

Google must lead or it’s game over


Examples of adaptive UI patterns in the Material Design guidelines

By consistency, I mean that Google needs to have a consistent message with Android 12L. Even the most devoted third-party app developers have probably read the new version’s announcement and shrugged. “Fool me once,” as one says. There’s a long road before many devs jump on the bandwagon again, and the only way to shorten it is if Google takes it upon itself to show the way.

All of Google’s built-in apps must be adapted to larger screens for Android 12L’s release. No exceptions.

By the time Android 12L is officially released next year, all of Google’s built-in apps must be adapted to larger screens. No exceptions; there’s no wiggle room this time. Developers need to see that the company is serious about this endeavor and one of the best ways to show that is by making sure all of its internal teams have adopted the new APIs and design recommendations. Stretchy built-in apps cannot ruin the experience, because if Google is phoning it in, other developers will.

Consistency also means that Google can’t roll out Android 12L, pat itself on the back, and leave it at that. Come Android 13, 14, 15, and more, there need to be further improvements to the experience. More features, additional APIs, and different interactions, all of it to send a clear message about commitment to larger screens. Developers that won’t be swayed this year will have more reasons to be the next one, or the one after. And if Google were to make its own foldable, as has been rumored, that would certainly go a long way too.

A glimmer of hope

Eric Zeman / Android Authority

I think Google could really pull it off this time. The only reason I say this with a bit of confidence is that things have been different over the last year. When Material You was introduced in May of 2023, I was certain it would take years to make its way across Google’s various apps. Like Holo and the two iterations of Material Design, I had expected the updates to be slow and the dozens of disparate Google teams to lack any kind of internal communication. A synchronized rollout has never been the company’s forte.

Do you think Android 12L will succeed?

2147 votes

To my surprise, nearly every app — or at least the built-in and most important ones — has received a Material You overhaul already. There was an obvious concerted effort to get this project to the finish line before the Pixel 6‘s launch. If a similar dedication is given to Android 12L, great things could be coming.

Foldables also offer a bigger incentive to everyone involved — Google, device manufacturers, and software developers. If the form factor slowly starts taking over the smartphone market, then everyone will want to offer the best possible experience on these devices. From there to tablets, it’s a small leap. As for Chrome OS laptops and desktops? Well, I wouldn’t dare extrapolate that far.

When To Use Fragments Vs Activities In Android App?


Android apps are created using a variety of components and tools, including activities and fragments. Knowing when to use a fragment versus an activity is key to developing an efficient and successful app. This article will explore the differences between activities and fragments, and guide developers in determining when to use which tool.

What is Activity in Android?

An activity is the most basic form of an Android app. It typically represents a single screen with a user interface, and is used to create a basic user experience. Activities are typically used to launch and manage other components of an app, such as launching a new screen or passing data between screens. Activities can also respond to user input and perform actions, such as launching other activities or starting a service.

What is Fragment in Android?

Fragments, on the other hand, are small pieces of code that are used to build a user interface within an activity. Fragments are typically used to break-up a complex user interface into smaller, more manageable pieces. They can also be used to add functionality to an existing activity or to provide a common user interface across multiple activities. Fragments can contain their own user interface elements, respond to user input, and communicate with other parts of the app.

Difference between Fragment and Activities



Fragment is a part of a specific activity which contains UI of that specific activity.

Activity provides a user interface with which users can interact with any android application.

Fragment is dependent on the activity.

Activity is independent.

Fragment is lightweight and easy to manage.

Activity is comparatively heavy to manage.

Fragments need not to be mentioned in our chúng tôi file.

We have to mention the activity inside our chúng tôi file.

Fragment lifecycle is decided by the activity in which it is hosted.

Activity is having their own lifecycle.

Fragments cannot exist without Activity.

Activity can be created without Fragment.

We can display multiple fragments in a single activity.

At a time we can only display one activity to the user.

When to use Fragment VS Activity in Android application?

When deciding whether to use a fragment or an activity, consider the complexity of the user interface. If the user interface is relatively simple and only requires one screen, then an activity is likely the best choice. Activities are also ideal for launching other components of the app, such as starting a service or launching another activity.

Fragments, however, should be used when the user interface is more complex and requires multiple screens. Fragments can be used to break up a complex user interface into smaller and more manageable pieces, allowing the user to quickly and easily navigate the app. Fragments can also be used to add functionality to an existing activity or to provide a common user interface across multiple activities.

In addition, consider the type of data being passed between screens. If the data is relatively small and simple, then an activity is likely the best choice. Fragments, however, should be used if the data is more complex and requires multiple screens. Fragments allow the user to quickly and easily navigate the app, while also providing an efficient way to pass data between screens.

Finally, consider the user experience. Activities are ideal for providing a basic user experience, as they are relatively simple and can quickly and easily launch other components of the app. Fragments, however, can be used to provide a more complex user experience, as they can be used to create a more complex user interface and to pass complex data between screens.


In conclusion, knowing when to use a fragment versus an activity is key to developing an efficient and successful app. Activities are typically used for simple user interfaces and for launching other components of the app, while fragments are used for more complex user interfaces and for passing complex data between screens. By understanding the differences between activities and fragments, developers can better determine when to use each tool in order to create an efficient and effective app.

Teamwork Takes Teachers To The Moon

This summer, I got the opportunity to visit NASA Kennedy Space Center through a generous grant from the General Electric Fund and the National Science Teachers Association. The partnership sponsored around a hundred of us to go to Cocoa Beach, Florida, and partake in a series of intense professional development sessions on campus. As a math teacher, I wasn’t exactly sure what my purpose was there, but I knew two things: I wanted a rocket shuttle to take home, and I wanted to pretend to be an astronaut when I went back home.

Sadly, I couldn’t take a shuttle home.

Instead, I partook in one of the most relevant PD sessions I ever attended. The premise of the workshops was to build rovers with kits and use all available tools to create a robot that would park in one tight spot. Here, I share some of my learning from that week.

Expertise Should Always Be Valued

Our party consisted of two groups: returning teachers who had already worked on these projects last year and new teachers who hadn’t the slightest idea what they would be doing. I was in the former group. During our first meeting, we spent time building our rovers and making sure they worked. My pair — another math teacher and I — had a hard time just remembering how to put the pieces together to form a rover. After that, however, things went much faster.

Why? Because our test to make sure that our rover worked was to make it drive a few feet, turn left, drive another couple of feet, turn right, drive another few feet, then stop. This involved a bit of angle measurement, and programming. While my partner and I weren’t master rover-builders, we knew our way around a ruler and a protractor. Within an hour, our rover passed the prerequisites and was ready for prime time.

Embrace the Unknown

While the veteran group worked on their rovers, the new group worked on scanning a surface and creating a map of a given square space. The purpose for creating this map was to get the rover to a given point based on the mapmakers’ accuracy. Obviously, the new group had to develop a method for getting as much information as they could by using their rover’s scanners to calculate altitudes and slopes. My pair had to depend on the map we were given — and nothing else.

In other words, we had to see what the rover saw, and work through its point of view.

In many ways, this taught us to embrace the unknown. So many variables go into actual space exploration that we can only estimate based on the information given to us. As learners, we could only control what we knew given the tools we had: a rover, a calculator, a ruler and an eight-bit map.

Playing to Everyone’s Strengths

The temptation for the returning teachers was to take over the project and make the new teachers stand aside. However, they had just acquired a set of skills: programming. They knew how to create loops and send commands in the program comfortably. All they needed was a plan on how to approach this “map” and the mathematics behind it. Naturally, my pair took the lead and started plugging away. We narrated everything as we did it so that everyone else could jump in and contribute when necessary. When we had a refined diagram, the new teachers jumped in and programmed the robot with little help from us.

We played to everyone’s strengths in the group and made sure that they all felt invited.

From there, we set the robot on its mission. Needless to say, within a few minutes, we got it to work consistently. We’d laid out a plan, and now everyone felt comfortable with our plan.

Most importantly, we all felt like engineers. We didn’t “win” anything for having completed the project first or second. The fact that we did a simplified version of what engineers and rocket scientists do for a living gave us enough exhilaration. While other groups had different results, I noticed that, when we stuck to a few key principles for completing these projects, we all felt like winners.

But it still would have been nice to drive down Broadway in the Space Shuttle Atlantis. Oh well.

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