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In today’s digital culture, something that is rapidly created everyday is data. Hence, let’s accept that data is ubiquitous. Numerous organizations have already started harnessing the power of data and have leveraged data insights for their benefits. If you are not using data analysis, you are probably left behind. Hence, the demand forStory Teller
While the essential skills for data analysts are gathering, cleaning and drawing insights from data, the most effective data analysts can tell a story using data. To deliver a meaningful report, the best analysts will first see significant patterns in the data. At the very basic level, data is used to find insights and infer trends that organizations use to recommend to their clients. Reporting constantly, for example, weekly or monthly, can help a data analyst to identify key patterns in the data. All these patterns when accumulated together can picture a trend over time.Fast Coders
While top skills for data analysts include coding, the most effective data analysts are ones that code extremely fast. With this, they can rapidly surf huge datasets, harnessing insights faster than any other specialist. Such rapid insights can help businesses to act fast on the necessary ones and let go the least important ones. Decision-makers can quickly send such insights to ML engineers that saves them a lot of time on tedious mathematically impressive excavations.Collaboration
Good communication is definitely one of the skills required to become a data analyst. Nonetheless, did you know data analysts have to collaborate with other team members a lot for effective data handling and processing? Data analysts deal with a lot of data every day. Nonetheless, not all data is perfect and of good quality. Some data has a lot of holes in it. In such a situation, data analysts have two options -either keep hunting for further data or create artificial information to patch the holes in data. Best data analysts will collaborate with other team members such as a machine learning engineer or data engineer for further insights. Majorly, data analysts can analyze data on their own but huge datasets are beyond their range of abilities. Hence, for massive data sets, machine learning processes are required to process and analyze it. For this, data analysts have to often collaborate with other team members. They help in creating algorithms based on their AI or machine learning experience and data analyst’s analytics expertise.Data Analysts are Key Decision-Makers
If you are wondering what are CEOs and CTOs for if data analysts are key decision-makers, read on to get your answer. With so many essential skills for data analysts, people tend to forget the basic responsibility of a data analyst. They are there to tell you what’s in your data, which is then explained by a statistician to the leaders of your company. To help you understand better, machine learning engineers basically feed data to algorithms, run them and repeat this until appropriate results are produced. But, machine learning engineers cannot see the hidden insights in the data. Without insights, are algorithms even fruitful? That’s where a data analyst comes into the picture. They help ML experts and specialists see and tell them what is there in the data and what problems are to be solved. If data is summarized by a data analyst, half the job of taking a data-driven decision is already done. Hence, they play an important role in decision-making.
In today’s digital culture, something that is rapidly created everyday is data. Hence, let’s accept that data is ubiquitous. Numerous organizations have already started harnessing the power of data and have leveraged data insights for their benefits. If you are not using data analysis, you are probably left behind. Hence, the demand for data analysts is likewise growing. But ever wondered what are the skills of a data analyst? You may probably know the skills required to become a data analyst, but do you know the extraordinary data analyst key skills? So much information on the web talks about the skills needed for data analysts such as programming, data gathering, data cleaning, and processing the data to draw meaningful conclusions. These, of course, are required, but we will be talking about the less-talked skills of a data analyst. While the above-mentioned skills somewhat overlap the skills and responsibilities of a data scientist, many people get confused between a data scientist and a data analyst. But to give you a clear distinction, data scientists should have a strong maths and statistical foundation, and business acumen. On the other hand, for data analyst job skills, you need a moderate level of maths and statistical, and coding skills. Let’s dive into the less-talked skills of a data analyst.While the essential skills for data analysts are gathering, cleaning and drawing insights from data, the most effective data analysts can tell a story using data. To deliver a meaningful report, the best analysts will first see significant patterns in the data. At the very basic level, data is used to find insights and infer trends that organizations use to recommend to their clients. Reporting constantly, for example, weekly or monthly, can help a data analyst to identify key patterns in the data. All these patterns when accumulated together can picture a trend over time.While top skills for data analysts include coding, the most effective data analysts are ones that code extremely fast. With this, they can rapidly surf huge datasets, harnessing insights faster than any other specialist. Such rapid insights can help businesses to act fast on the necessary ones and let go the least important ones. Decision-makers can quickly send such insights to ML engineers that saves them a lot of time on tedious mathematically impressive chúng tôi communication is definitely one of the skills required to become a data analyst. Nonetheless, did you know data analysts have to collaborate with other team members a lot for effective data handling and processing? Data analysts deal with a lot of data every day. Nonetheless, not all data is perfect and of good quality. Some data has a lot of holes in it. In such a situation, data analysts have two options -either keep hunting for further data or create artificial information to patch the holes in data. Best data analysts will collaborate with other team members such as a machine learning engineer or data engineer for further insights. Majorly, data analysts can analyze data on their own but huge datasets are beyond their range of abilities. Hence, for massive data sets, machine learning processes are required to process and analyze it. For this, data analysts have to often collaborate with other team members. They help in creating algorithms based on their AI or machine learning experience and data analyst’s analytics chúng tôi you are wondering what are CEOs and CTOs for if data analysts are key decision-makers, read on to get your answer. With so many essential skills for data analysts, people tend to forget the basic responsibility of a data analyst. They are there to tell you what’s in your data, which is then explained by a statistician to the leaders of your company. To help you understand better, machine learning engineers basically feed data to algorithms, run them and repeat this until appropriate results are produced. But, machine learning engineers cannot see the hidden insights in the data. Without insights, are algorithms even fruitful? That’s where a data analyst comes into the picture. They help ML experts and specialists see and tell them what is there in the data and what problems are to be solved. If data is summarized by a data analyst, half the job of taking a data-driven decision is already done. Hence, they play an important role in decision-making. Did you know about any of these skills of a data analyst before? It’s time to hire more data analysts as they can be the possible fix of all problems just like the last jigsaw piece that completes the entire puzzle structure.
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Check out Opera’s Cryptocurrency browser
Opera browser may have just unlocked a new level that sets it apart from other browsers.
Crypto fans are in for a surprise with the latest features introduced to the browser.
You will now be able to access your crypto without having to add browser extensions.
If you are into crypto, Opera is set to make your activities simpler with the latest features introduced to the browser.
The first version of the Crypto Browser was built by the engineers at Opera earlier in the year, but now a team of five people is developing the browser, which is built on Chromium, Opera’s open-source web platform.
The Opera browser has long been known for its speed and compression capabilities. And now it’ll have yet another distinction: enabling users to interact with decentralized apps (dApps) built on top of blockchain technology.Crypto-based browser
While there are many ways to access cryptocurrency and purchase digital collectibles (NFTs) in a decentralized manner, the Opera Crypto Browser aims to simplify this process.
The browser will provide cryptocurrency wallet capabilities and support for Ethereum-based ERC-721 non-fungible tokens (NFTs). Users will also be able to access decentralized exchanges such as ForkDelta and RadarRelay within the browser.
It’s not entirely clear what implications this move will have for Opera’s business model or if it will charge fees for using its crypto wallet service.
Better manage your NFTs and cryptocurrencies while still relying on the best browser out there.
The Opera Crypto Browser Project is about more than just surfing traditional websites through a one-size-fits-all solution.
It’s specifically designed to work with a variety of decentralized apps, or dApps, as well as provide deeper functionality than a traditional browser that has a basic web wallet add-on.
This is possible thanks to a wide array of built-in, Web3 focused features, as well as the inherent speed that Chromium already offers the suite of Opera browsers.
For starters, the Crypto Corner gives you access to the latest blockchain news, upcoming airdrops, an industry events calendar, NFTs, crypto communities, educational content, podcasts, and videos as well as crypto prices, gas fees, and market sentiment, all in one spot.Key features
The most notable feature is the wallet, which will be non-custodial and let you hold multiple cryptocurrencies from day one.
Another interesting aspect of the wallet is the ability to swap one cryptocurrency for another directly in your wallet. This means you can swap ETH for BTC or vice versa without having to go through an exchange.
Security-wise, Opera offers a secure clipboard that ensures data copied outside of the app (for example if you copy the text in a cryptocurrency exchange) cannot be read by other apps. If a developer tries to read it, it will be encrypted in such a way that only Opera can make sense of it.
Opera’s move is a small but significant step in establishing cryptocurrencies as a force to be reckoned with alongside more established payment methods.
Opera claims a significant percentage of the desktop browser market worldwide, and its crypto-enabled browser will likely have an immediate impact on that figure. As the crypto space continues to grow, Opera’s approach will be closely watched by rivals like Mozilla, Apple, and Google.How do I get started?
Yes, you can already download Crypto Browsers in beta for Android, Windows, and Mac, while the iOS version will become available in the near future.
When you start up your Crypto Browser on your computer, the browser is already set up with the most popular Web3 and Crypto websites.
In the sidebar, you will find Twitter, Telegram, and Whatsapp integrated, as well as Opera’s native Crypto Wallet.
Also, you can search or access Crypto Twitter, Discord, Reddit, or DappRadar directly from the browser’s speed dial.
The Crypto Pinboard icon will lead you to a tutorial explaining the individual parts of the Crypto Browser Project and how to use them.
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To install any of these apps, just go to the App Finder section on the left-side menu:1. TuneWiki
Any karaoke fans in the house? TuneWiki displays the lyrics to the song you’re currently playing and scrolls through them in real-time. If no one has synced the lyrics to that particular song yet, TuneWiki gives you the option to sync them yourself (hence the “wiki” concept).2. MusiXmatch
I don’t see any significant differences between TuneWiki and MusiXmatch except that (A) TuneWiki is more popular, and (B) MusiXmatch seems to have more lyrics available for the assorted music tests I’ve put it through. This varied, though; for example, TuneWiki was more keen on Leonard Cohen’s lyrics than MusiXmatch was. Oh, and MusiXmatch automatically features artist photographs in the background of the lyrics display. Like TuneWiki, MusiXmatch gives you to option to sync lyrics that aren’t already synced, as in the screenshot below.3. Last.fm
Last.fm is a wonderful music service unto itself, dedicated to tracking your music listening habits and suggesting related music. The Spotify app for chúng tôi lets you “scrobble” – the chúng tôi term for recording the tracks you listen to – and access most other features of chúng tôi such as artist information and similar artist recommendations, straight from the Spotify interface. To get the most out of this app, you should make a chúng tôi account.4. Moodagent
The results screen gives you a playlist along with the ability to manipulate the five-factor control curve. This lets you base the generated playlist on Moodagent’s assessment of your base song’s sensuality, tenderness, happiness, angriness, and tempo.
So how did it do? Pretty well, I thought, though it didn’t have data for all of the songs I tried it with. I don’t know exactly how their algorithm works except that it takes into account your starred songs, top tracks, and current playlists as a starting point for gauging your tastes.5. Tastebuds
Tastebuds is a social app for meeting people in your area with similar music tastes. To get started, scan your library:
Next Tastebuds will present you with your matches, which you can filter by age, gender, and location.
After you log in, you can edit your own profile. This is what mine looked like after I logged in through Facebook; as you can see, it guessed on some of the details:
I found the interface a little buggy at times. For instance, I would try to type information into the form fields, but no characters would show up. This may be a bug in my version of Spotify, though, which is the beta for Linux.
Tastebuds presented me with an impressive number of matches in my area, proving that it has an active userbase. If you’re rebounding from an epic breakup or just looking for some new friends in your area, this is a nice alternative to traditional online dating and meetup services.6. Songkick Concerts
Songkick has a simple goal: To show you upcoming concerts by the artists you listen to.
By default, it seems to only show mainstream artists on your front page, but you can log in at the Songkick website to edit your tracked artists if you’d like to switch the focus.
Did we miss your favorite Spotify app? Which ones do you use?
Rebecca “Ruji” Chapnik
Ruji Chapnik is a freelance creator of miscellanea, including but not limited to text and images. She studied art at the University of California, Santa Cruz and writing at Portland State University. She went on to study Linux in her bedroom and also in various other people’s bedrooms, crouched anti-ergonomically before abandoned Windows computers. Ruji currently lives in Portland, Oregon. You can find her experiments at chúng tôi and her comics at dondepresso.rujic.net.
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About this Fxtec Pro1 review: I tested the Pro1 over a period of two weeks, using the phone as my primary device. The phone ran Android 9 Pie with the September 5 security patch. Fxtec provided the review unit to Android Authority.
Fxtec Pro1 review: The big picture
The first real smartphones from the likes of BlackBerry and Palm featured tiny keyboards for typing. I happily poked at my BlackBerry 8700 and Palm Treo 650 back in the day. Many millions of mobile professionals cut their teeth on these devices, often supplied by work, and were the first real wave of smartphone users.
The tech industry moves fast, however, and the Apple iPhone changed everything in 2007.
Keyboard-equipped phones lost to big-screened devices for a reason: people prefer phones with large displays. (Have you see the size of the screen on the Samsung Galaxy Note 10 Plus?) Keyboards eat into the real estate available for those screens, and solutions such as Gboard, Swype, and auto-correct helped resolve the typing issues prevalent on screen-only phones.
Still, some of those early original smartphone adopters miss the keyboard, which they felt provided a better experience for composing emails on a screen. Fxtec isn’t necessarily targeting older people, but it is eyeing, in the words of founder and CEO Adrian Li Mow Ching, “people who need to get shit done.”
Did the Fxtec Pro1 help me get more stuff done in the time I used it? I’m here to tell you.
See also: Best smartphones with keyboards
What are the Fxtec Pro1’s hardware features?
As far as basic features are concerned, the Pro1 might surprise you. The screen measures 5.99 inches across the diagonal with Full HD+ resolution (2,160 x 1,080). It is protected by Gorilla Glass 3. I’d call it a decent screen, but also a forgettable one. The size and resolution are fine, it offers plenty of light, and the colors are accurate. Outdoor visibility is good enough.
The Pro1 is comparable to other phones with 6-inch screens, at least in terms of length and width. Its 14mm depth, however, makes it chunky. The front may be glass, but Fxtec had no choice but to use lots of metal in the sliding hinge mechanism and the bottom half of the phone. It’s heavy. At 244.6g or 8.63oz, the Pro1 is heavier than a Samsung Galaxy Note 10 Plus — with a case on.
Fxtec smoothed over the profile of the phone, giving it curved side edges (including the display) and rounded corners. This absolutely necessary design decision helps reduce the overall footprint to a more pocketable size. The rear metal has a matte black finish with a pleasing grain.
The Pro1 is thick and heavy, but the aluminum and glass feel nice.
Three buttons are on the right edge of the phone, including a volume toggle, power button, and camera key. I am not a fan of the buttons, which make loud clacky sounds when pressed. The volume toggle is loose and floats a bit, while the camera button hardly moves at all.
A fingerprint reader is mounted on the right edge, too. It’s a bit low. I found it easy to train, but it hardly ever worked properly. I gave up and resorted to a password.
See also: Best Bluetooth keyboards you can currently buy
Should you buy Fxtec Pro1?
To put it simply, no. While I have a lot of respect for the team behind the Fxtec Pro1, this device is not polished enough. Hardware and software issues compromise the performance too much. The hinge is difficult, the buttons loose, and the processor not up to par. I do genuinely like the keyboard itself, and battery life is solid. These aren’t enough, however, to salvage the entire phone.
Moreover, the value isn’t there. Fxtec charges $699 for the Pro1. Phones in this price range need to work well across the board. Also, the phone will take four to six weeks to reach you once you place an order.
If you truly need the extra real estate for multitasking and typing, you’ll be much better served by the LG G8x ThinQ, with its second screen accessory that can serve as a keyboard if you wish.
In the end, I can only recommend this phone to those who absolutely, positively, must have a physical keyboard attached to their phone — and even then I think the two-year-old BlackBerry Key2 is a better overall pick.
Android smartphone with a full-sized keyboard
Typing on the glass screens of modern smartphones isn’t ideal for everyone. The Fxtec Pro1, with a physical keyboard, brings back the tactile experience.
See price at Fxtec
There are times when the inbuilt speakers of our computers and TV do not cut it. When you are watching movies with surround sound or listening to music in high-definition, you might realize that the internal speakers usually cannot be compared to a dedicated speaker system, especially due to the lack of enough bass and power output. If you want to experience punching bass out of your speakers, then investing in a good 2.1 speaker system is the least you can do. The 2.1 speaker system includes a pair of satellite speakers and a sub-woofer for producing good bass, and hence the name, 2.1. These speakers are usually great when it comes to all-around performance, like playing music, movies, and even games. So, if you’re keen on purchasing a new 2.1 speaker system for your computer or television, here are the 12 best 2.1 speakers you can buy in 2023.Best 2.1 Speaker Systems You Can Buy in 2023
In this article, we have listed the best 2.1 Speaker Systems that you can buy at various price points. No matter what your budget is, you can find a speaker in this list.1. Logitech Z333 2.1 Speaker System
Logitech has been making speakers for a long time now, and it has become one of the market leaders in sound system. So if you want a proper 2.1 speaker system with sheer audio quality, you simply can’t go wrong with Logitech Z333. As you can see, the system has two tweeters and a sub-woofer to amp up the rumbling bass. It’s fairly simple to get this system running, and there’s also a convenient control pod with a headphone jack for easy volume and listening control.
Buy from Amazon (Starts $59.99)2. Sony HT-S350 Soundbar with Wireless Subwoofer
At first blush, the Sony HT-S350 may not look like something that belongs to this list. However, the soundbar has two built-in tweeters and a wireless subwoofer, just like any other 2.1 speaker system. This one-piece design makes it look clean and subtle, and can be easily tucked under your TV. Apart from that, the Sony HT-S350 can deliver total sound up to 320W which is crazy good. The 6.3-inch wireless subwoofer offers richer and deep bass to make the overall audio experience incredible.
The best thing about the Sony speaker is that it can easily be connected to compatible Sony wireless speakers with which you can enjoy even more immersive experience. The wireless nature of the connection allows you to set up wireless speakers in other rooms to experience multi-room listening. Other noteworthy features of the Sony HT-S350 include HDMI Audio Return Channel, multiple sound modes, and Bluetooth streaming with which you can cast your favorite music, shows, and more.3.
We have mentioned a Logitech speaker at the very beginning for users who want a good 2.1 surround sound system at an affordable price. On the other hand, the Logitech Z623 is also relatively affordable when you compare its pricing with the likes of Sony and Bose, but it brings stellar sound quality — almost comparable to the premium ones. It has two satellite speakers and both of them can deliver sound output up to 35 Watt which is amazing. Further, the Logitech Z623 comes with a powerful subwoofer that can fill even large entertainment rooms with its incredible bass. Collectively, the whole set up can deliver sound up to 400 Watt and that is just bonkers. What’s more, the speakers are THX-certified which means the sound output will precisely be the same as the audio engineer intended while recording the track.
Apart from that, the Logitech Z623 comes with an RCA connector and 3.5mm jack which makes it easy for you to plug your audio device whichever way you want. You can connect your computer, smartphone, gaming console, TV, etc. and get immersive sound quality without any setup hassle. All in all, I would say, if you want impressive sound quality without barging into Sony or Bose’s territory then Logitech Z623 is the best 2.1 speaker system you can buy right now.4. Bose Acoustimass 5
Series V Stereo Speaker System
Only a handful can match the level of sophistication that Bose brings to the table, in the audio department. The company’s Acoustimass 5 Series V 2.1 speaker system is no exception in this regard, as it features a minimalistic, yet elegant design that makes it stand out from the rest of the competition. The satellites in this speaker system have a sleek profile with precisely angled drivers to fill the room with spacious performance without any sweet spots.
The sub-woofer used here is called the Acoustimass module, that’s capable of reproducing low-note performance with deep, clear precision, no matter what the volume is. Lastly, the Bose Acoustimass 5 Series V is aimed towards home theater setups and its recommended power varies from 10 to 200 W, with receivers rated from 4 to 8 ohms.
Buy from Amazon ($399)
5. JBL Bar 2.1
Buy from Amazon: ($249.95)6. Edifier USA M3600D Multimedia 2.1 Active Speaker System
Edifier is a popular name when it comes to speakers, music systems, personal, and home entertainment systems. So, it’s hard to compile a list without adding Edifier’s products, more so when the speakers are THX-certified. THX-certified means these speakers have gone through 200 rigorous THX tests to ensure accurate tonal balance with minimal distortion and noise. The subwoofer packs an 8-inch bass driver, and it is capable of producing 130 watts of power.
Buy Edifier USA M3600D Multimedia 2.1 Active Speaker System from Amazon ($150)7. Creative Pebble Plus 2.1
If you are looking for a 2.1 speaker system on a budget then Creative Pebble Plus 2.1 is the apt choice for you. Creative is quite popular for making affordable yet impressive speakers, and the company’s Pebble Plus 2.1 is just one of them. For under 40 bucks, you’re getting a 2.1 multimedia speaker system that offers RMS power of 8 Watts and peak power of up to 18 Watts, which is certainly good enough for most of the budget-minded consumers.
The Pebble Plus downward-firing sub-woofer is custom-tuned for offering a rich base without much distortion at higher volumes. Further, the frequency distribution of the whole system is ensured, thanks to Creative’s Dual Slot Enclosure. Well, if you think the other speakers featured in this list are too expensive for your budget, this is definitely worth checking out.8. Bose Companion 5 Multimedia Speaker System
While the Acoustimass 5 Series V speakers were aimed towards home theater setups, the Companion 5 is primarily intended for computers. Just like most of the Bose products, pricing is on the expensive side, and it pretty much costs the same as the Acoustimass V speakers. The overall package is compact and the satellite arrays come fully assembled on stands for superb performance and more usable desktop space.
The Companion 5 comes with a handy control pod, which lets you adjust or mute the volume and houses the headphone jack and an extra port for a second audio source. What’s unique about this speaker system is the fact that it houses a compression circuitry in order to keep your music clear and distorted at even maximum volume. Whether you’re playing games, movies, or music on your computer, the Companion 5 can offer a surreal audio experience.
Buy Bose Companion 5 Multimedia Speaker System from Amazon: ($550)9. Cyber Acoustics 2.1 Computer Speaker with Subwoofer
This speaker system comes with a desktop control pod that gives you full control over the speakers, as it includes an on/off switch, volume control, bass control, LED power indicator, headphone jack and auxiliary input to connect your phone, tablet or gaming console. The peak power is rated at 62 Watts, whereas the RMS power is rated at 30 Watts, which is seriously good for a speaker system costing under 40 bucks.
Buy from Amazon ($39.95)10. Altec Lansing VS4621 Octane 7
Altec Lancing is a manufacturer that’s been making waves in the audio equipment industry for years now. The company has some of the best speakers and headphones and is quite popular among audiophiles. Not only do the Altec Lancing speakers sound good, but they also look attractive. And the VS4621 Octane 7, which we have here, is no exception. The tweeters have specially engineered micro drivers that reproduce crystal-clear highs.
With the VS4621, you’ll also get exceptional sound dispersion thanks to the down-firing midrange drivers. The 6.5″ woofers, on the other hand, will deliver thunderous bass and formidable lows. Other noteworthy features of the speaker include built-in volume controls, an auxiliary input jack, and more.
Buy Altec Lansing VS4621 Octane 7 from Amazon ($129)11. Harman Kardon Soundsticks III
If you’re more concerned about stellar looks rather than actual performance, you’re bound to fall in love with the Harman Kardon Soundstricks III. This 2.1 speaker system features a completely futuristic design, as it’s made of transparent plastic, that lets you see through the internal components of the speakers. The sound quality is quite good, but for its price point, we expect much more, especially because it’s coming from Harman Kardon.
Buy from Amazon ($199.94)12.
Goldwood Bluetooth 2.1 Speaker System
Goldwood may not be a popular name in the audio segment, but of late, it has been producing some good sound systems at an affordable price. If you are looking for a wireless speaker system that comes with two speakers and a subwoofer — basically a 2.1 sound system — then Goldwood Bluetooth would be a decent choice. The company claims that the total sound output can peak up to 350W which is awesome, but you might experience distortion and noise at the peak volume. Apart from that, the Goldwood speaker system offers SD card reader, both RCA input and output, Aux, USB ports, and more. What I love about this speaker is that it has got hardware knobs for controlling bass, sound, and treble just like the old sound systems. So to conclude, if you want a wireless 2.1 speaker system for cheap then you can definitely check out Goldwood.
Buy from Amazon ($61.03)Best 2.1 Speakers You Can Buy at Different Price Points
This article was published as a part of the Data Science BlogathonIntroduction
In our routine life, we come across a lot of statistics that vary to and fro. The prominent ones being the environmental factors such as temperature, humidity level, the amount of rainfall, etc. These factors generally change many a time during the day.
Apart from these, we visit many shops which sell various types of items and keep a record of their sales either daily or monthly
Now, what is the common feature in all such types of data and how can this data be pre-processed before applying any suitable model to it?
In this article, we will get the answer to such questions and see what criteria such dataset follow and how these criteria can be monitored in the python language.Table of Contents
Method to check Stationarity of data
Implementation of code
Objective –To examine the stationarity of time series data in python by comparing two different datasets with the help of two test Rolling statistics and Augmented Dickey – fuller test.Overview-
Time Series data -The set of observations that are collected at the regular intervals of time form a time series data. It tells the magnitude of data collected over a period of time. For example, you have data of a mobile store that describes the total sale of mobile phones per day or data of the amount of rainfall per day of a particular place, such types of data are called time series data where one of the variables is the time.
The time-series data must be in equal intervals of time as a day, a month, a week, a decade, etc.Uses:-
Time series data is used to predict future data values with the help of previous data.
It helps to forecast the business opportunity in the future by analyzing the previous sales data, observing the previous trend, analyzing the past behavior, etc.
It helps to evaluate the current accomplishment.Patterns in time series
They are 3 types of patterns that are usually observed in time series data:-
1) Trend: – It describes the movement of data values either higher or lower at regular intervals of time over a long period. If the movement of data value is in the upper pattern, then it is known as an upward trend and if the movement of data value shows a lower pattern then it is known as a downward trend. If the data values show a constant movement, then is known as a horizontal trend.
2) Seasonality: – It is a continuous upward and downward trend that repeat itself after a fixed interval of time.
3) Irregularity: – It has no systematic pattern and occurs only for a short period of time and it does not repeat itself after a fixed interval of time. It can also be known as noise or residual.Stationarity
The Time series data model works on stationary data. The stationarity of data is described by the following three criteria:-
1) It should have a constant mean
2) It should have a constant variance
3) Auto covariance does not depend on the time
*Mean – it is the average value of all the data
*Variance – it is a difference of each point value from the mean
*Auto covariance –it is a relationship between any two values at a certain amount of time.Method to check the stationarity of the Time Series Data:-
There are two methods in python to check data stationarity:-
1) Rolling statistics:-
This method gave a visual representation of the data to define its stationarity. A Moving variance or moving average graph is plot and then it is observed whether it varies with time or not. In this method, a moving window of time is taken (based on our needs, for eg-10, 12, etc.) and then the mean of that time period is calculated as the current value.
2) Augmented Dickey- fuller Test (ADCF): –
In this method, we take a null hypothesis that the data is non-stationary. After executing this test, it will give some results comprised of test statistics and some other critical values that help to define the stationarity. If the test statistic is less than the critical value then we can reject the null hypothesis and say that the series is stationary.
Implementation of Code Data set Description
Dataset 1:- Monthly electricity production
Dataset 2:- Monthly sunspots#Importing modules import numpy as np import pandas as pd import matplotlib.pylab as plt %matplotlib inline #Loading Datasets data=pd.read_csv(r'C:UsersnishthaDesktopelec.csv') data1=pd.read_csv(r'C:UsersnishthaDesktopmonthly-sunspots.csv') Converting data into date time format #Dataset1:- data['DATE']=pd.to_datetime(data['DATE'],infer_datetime_format=True) index=data.set_index(['DATE']) from datetime import datetime index.head() #Dataset2:- data1['Month']=pd.to_datetime(data1['Month'],infer_datetime_format=True) index1=data1.set_index(['Month']) from datetime import datetime index1.head() Plotting the graphs
#Dataset 1:-plt.xlabel("DATE") plt.ylabel("Electric Production") plt.plot(index)
#Augmented Dickey-fuller test #Dataset1 from statsmodels.tsa.stattools import adfuller print("Observations of Dickey-fuller test") dftest = adfuller(data['prod'],autolag='AIC') dfoutput=pd.Series(dftest[0:4],index=['Test Statistic','p-value','#lags used','number of observations used']) for key,value in dftest.items(): dfoutput['critical value (%s)'%key]= value print(dfoutput) Observations of Dickey-fuller test Test Statistic -2.256990 p-value 0.186215 #lags used 15.000000 number of observations used 381.000000 critical value (1%) -3.447631 critical value (5%) -2.869156 critical value (10%) -2.570827 dtype: float64 #Dataset2 from statsmodels.tsa.stattools import adfuller print("Observations of Dickey-fuller test") dftest = adfuller(data1['Sunspots'],autolag='AIC') dfoutput=pd.Series(dftest[0:4],index=['Test Statistic','p-value','#lags used','number of observations used']) for key,value in dftest.items(): dfoutput['critical value (%s)'%key]= value print(dfoutput) Observations of Dickey-fuller test Test Statistic -9.567668e+00 p-value 2.333452e-16 #lags used 2.700000e+01 number of observations used 2.792000e+03 critical value (1%) -3.432694e+00 critical value (5%) -2.862576e+00 critical value (10%) -2.567321e+00 dtype: float64 #Rolling Statistics Test #Dataset1 rmean=index.rolling(window=12).mean() rstd=index.rolling(window=12).std() print(rmean,rstd) orig=plt.plot(index , color='black',label='Original') mean= plt.plot(rmean , color='red',label='Rolling Mean') std=plt.plot(rstd,color='blue',label = 'Rolling Standard Deviation') plt.legend(loc='best') plt.title("Rolling mean and standard deviation") plt.show(block=False) #dataset2 rmean1=index1.rolling(window=12).mean() rstd1=index1.rolling(window=12).std() print(rmean1,rstd1) orig=plt.plot(index1 , color='black',label='Original') mean= plt.plot(rmean1 , color='red',label='Rolling Mean') std=plt.plot(rstd1,color='blue',label = 'Rolling Standard Deviation') plt.legend(loc='best') plt.title("Rolling mean and standard deviation") plt.show(block=False) Observation
We observed the following things on two datasets after implementing both the test.Augmented dickey-fuller test :
The result of the dickey-fuller test consists of some values like test statistics, p-value critical values, etc. For dataset1 the test statistic value (-2.25) is not less than the critical values (-3.44 , -2.86 , -2.57) at different percentage . In this case, we cannot reject our null hypothesis and conclude that our data is not stationary,
For dataset2, the test statistics value (-9.56) is less than the critical values (-3.43,-2.87,-2.56) at different percentage. In this case, we can reject our null hypothesis conclude that our data is stationary.Rolling Statistics Test :
The Rolling statistics test gives the visual representation of the dataset.
For the first dataset, the graph of rolling mean and rolling standard deviation is not constant, this shows that our first dataset is not stationary while for the second dataset graph of rolling mean and rolling standard deviation is constant, this shows that our second dataset is stationary.Conclusions
Both tests can be used to check the stationarity of the data. The Rolling statistic test gives the pictorial representation while the dickey-fuller test gives some values which help to determine whether data is stationary or not.
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