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Exposing new readers to a variety of genres can help them find the books they love. Plus, reading comprehension strategies to deepen their engagement.
Every elementary school teacher is a reading teacher and is essential in helping each child on his or her reading journey. When we provide the resources to meet the literacy needs of our students beginning as early as prekindergarten, students and teachers will feel both confident and competent in teaching and learning to read.
While helping students learn to read, it is also important to create a love of reading. Students who read voluntarily report less negativity about reading than those who are required to read.
Motivation is the key in promoting a love of literacy in children. One of the best resources I have found for creating motivation is a shelf filled with books that match students’ interest level and reading level. They should be surrounded by titles that reflect the lives of themselves as well as their classmates. When students find titles with characters that look like them and families that resemble their own or their neighbors, their interest level increases. Making these connections also increases student comprehension.
Students should be provided with books that represent all genres so that they can determine what they most enjoy reading. Unless a child is given the opportunity to read poetry, mysteries, historical fiction, biographies, autobiographies, and science fiction, he or she may not know all of the types of stories that are created for readers of all ages. Student book choice is the first step in getting children hooked on reading. When students have ownership of their reading, successful, independent readers begin to bloom.
Teachers can be the best book matchmakers for their students. While teachers are building relationships with their students in the beginning of the year, they can also conduct one-on-one interviews or give interest surveys to each child. This practice will help teachers learn the strengths, challenges, likes, and dislikes of their students. This information helps teachers select the best book to spark a child’s interest in reading.
Peers can be a great resource for helping students find what books they will love to read. Encourage classmates to be book matchmakers by creating personalized book recommendations for their peers. It’s easy to create a recommendation template that can be stacked in the class book nook. When students find a book they think would match the interests and hobbies of classmates, they can fill out the personalized book recommendation form and give it to their classmate.
Literacy diagnostic tools such as running records or anecdotal notes can also be used to understand the instructional and independent reading levels of students. During one-on-one or small-group reading instruction, teachers can note the reading behaviors they observe, including any errors made during reading, students’ responses to comprehension questions, or details about their expression, tone, or reading rate.
Through daily guided reading, teachers can introduce students to high-interest instructional text across genres. Daily individualized reading practice gives students the opportunity to read books of choice on their independent reading level and grow as readers. Introduce children to multiple genres of books during small-group reading instruction. When children find a book of interest, they can turn the book into their choice book for independent reading time.
Background knowledge about a topic or subject matter can help students engage in the reading. For example, if a child has never been to a farm, he or she may not understand how the setting of the barn is crucial to the plot of a story that takes place on a farm. If a student has no prior knowledge about the roaring twenties, he or she will not fully comprehend an article about the Great Depression. Making stories and articles relevant to everyday life and current events is one more way to increase background knowledge. In order to build background knowledge before reading, teachers should consider taking students on virtual or live field trips or giving them access to real objects.
Assume that students have no understanding of the vocabulary words or content of the text. Allow them to make predictions, make connections, and ask questions before every reading experience to gauge their knowledge. These three comprehension strategies inform a teacher of the students’ proficiency about a particular topic. Encourage readers to use the title and pictures to make a prediction about what the book is about before reading it. During reading, students confirm their prediction and make a connection. Ask questions such as, “What does this text remind you of?” or “What is going to happen next?” to build comprehension.
Give students daily experiences in instructional guided reading, independent reading, and choice. Exposure them to culturally relevant and diverse genres, and guide them with comprehension strategies to enhance a love of reading.
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But it isn’t exactly like that. Contrary to the popular belief that technology has destroyed meaningful human interaction, you can use your phone in lots of ways to meet and date new people or to improve your existing relationships. But be careful: Sometimes using your phone as a means to find love can work against you.Text Messaging
Think about it–when arranging dinner plans for a date or with your partner or spouse, did you call or text them? Chances are you probably did most of the planning via text. Texting is certainly preferable if you’re arranging a date with somebody you don’t know very well. Let’s face it: Phone calls are awkward, and it is less stressful to send out a 140-character message telling them where and when to meet you.
But texting can have some interesting implications for budding romances. For example, some people feel the need to text their love interests relentlessly. Whether it is mundane facts about their day or “Missin U” type texts, this person shows their affection through SMS.
So tread lightly: If you don’t reply right away, they’ll probably take it personally. If you’re the type that doesn’t like to text a lot (or still have a numerical keypad on your phone), you’re going to have to gently explain that to them—or move on.Dating Site Apps
Meeting people online was once thought of as taboo, desperate, and a little creepy. Thanks to those ubiquitous eHarmony commercials, we now know that normal, attractive-looking people also find love online. And these days, it is even easier to find your future partner on the Internet thanks to mobile versions of your favorite dating sites. Sites like OKCupid, chúng tôi and Plentyoffish all have compatible mobile apps.
The Plentyoffish app lets you check your inbox messages and view your matches. It also uses some location-based technology to show you matches in your area.
But be cautious. That sweet guy with the big green eyes who loves puppies as much as you do could turn out to be a one-armed ex-con who has never met a puppy he didn’t hate. When meeting people on one of these services, make sure you arrange to go to a public, well-lit place, and alert your friends in case you need to bail.Location-Based Apps
But these apps are also a good way to keep tabs on your partner. Facebook even allows users to check in the people they’re with at a given location, indicating not only where they are but who they’re with. So if your girlfriend just checked into the Slanted Door with her ex-boyfriend, you should probably check up on that.
I’ve also heard of people using these apps to avoid exes. You’re about to hit up the gym decked out in your grossest sweats, but–oh, wait–your ex-husband and his new girlfriend just checked in. Better wait until after dark to avoid an awkward confrontation.
Facebook will also send you a notification on your phone when one of your friends checks in at the same place you’ve checked in. This is nice because if that hot girl from your bird-watching club checks in to your grimy local dive, you may have a small window of time to sober up and brush your hair.Video Chatting and Other Apps
For those with spouses or partners traveling or working overseas, the next best thing to actually having them around is video chatting with them. And now, you don’t have to be tied down to your PC to get some face-to-face action with your loved one. Most of today’s high-end smartphones, such as the iPhone 4 or EVO 4G, have front-facing cameras and come preloaded with video-chatting software like Skype or Yahoo Messenger.
Other apps may not be intended for romantic purposes, but can still be used as such. For example, apps that let you share grocery lists–like Grocery Gadget–are also a means to slip a cute “Love ya!” note in between “bread” and “lettuce.”
And what is a more romantic way to ask somebody out than by sending them a Google Calendar invite for dinner at Chez Panisse at 8 PM? Or take it a step further and send your boyfriend or girlfriend a Calendar invite for “Our Wedding” next year, location TBA? Okay, maybe not.
China and Africa: A Love Story? Envoy says investment boom makes up for lost time
Ambassador Zhong Jianhua, China’s special representative for African affairs, addressed an overflow crowd on September 21 in the Metcalf Trustee Ballroom. Photo by Don West ©
The international press has called him China’s “Mr. Africa.” He is Zhong Jianhua, the recently appointed People’s Republic of China special representative for African affairs, and on September 21 he paid a visit to BU as a guest of the African Presidential Center.
The former Chinese ambassador to South Africa, Zhong is the second appointee to serve in the post of special representative, created in 2007 to promote Chinese investment in Africa, defend that investment before its international critics, and troubleshoot in regions where African civil conflicts jeopardize China’s economic interests. Addressing an overflow crowd in the Metcalf Trustee Ballroom, Zhong defended his nation’s position in Africa and called on the international community to be fair. Africans, said Zhong, “should be allowed to choose their own path of development.”
These are boom times for the Chinese in Africa. Africa’s biggest trading partner, China buys a third of its oil from the continent and its investment in mines and textile factories has pumped life into the economies of African republics large and small, among them Kenya, Sudan, Angola, Ethiopia, Zambia, Gabon, South Africa, and Namibia. According to The Economist, manufacturing’s share of total Chinese investment, 22 percent, is catching up with that of mining, which as of 2011 amounted to 29 percent. The Heritage Foundation estimates that from 2005 to 2010 nearly 14 percent of China’s investment abroad was in sub-Saharan Africa, and China’s loans to poor countries, most in Africa, exceed the amount allotted by the World Bank. Facing little or no competition, China’s broad reach in Africa translates into billions in new infrastructure, finance, and free-trade ports.
But increasingly, many Africans are displeased with what they believe are shoddy business practices and worker exploitation on the part of China, which has also drawn international criticism for its role in the illegal trade in elephant ivory. “Once feted as saviors in much of Africa, Chinese have come to be viewed with mixed feelings, especially in smaller countries where China’s weight has been felt all the more,” The Economist reported.
BU Today sat down for a conversation with Zhong about the challenges, rewards, and public perception of China’s expanding role in Africa.BU Today: What is your chief mission as China’s special envoy to Africa?
Zhong: There are two parts of my job. The first and most important part is to handle matters people don’t like to handle, like the Sudan conflict. We have interests there, particularly the Chinese Petroleum Company. So we are trying to do our best to promote peace. I traveled to Juba in South Sudan recently to offer help for a peaceful settlement, and I could sense a kind of progress. I was also in Somalia.
The second part of my job is public diplomacy, including answering your questions and meeting with media, including Chinese and foreign media.How do the Chinese people view their nation’s expanding role in Africa?
People in the Chinese press ask why the Chinese are investing in Africa, and I respond that the Chinese were in Africa a long time ago. It’s not like we just discovered it. I have to introduce to the Chinese people why Africa is important. On the China side, we have a long way to go. For many, all they know about Africa is there are black people living there.
Chinese people are quite conservative. For centuries we called ourselves the Middle Kingdom, the center of the world, and felt we don’t have to care about other guys beyond our borders. That’s why China was beaten so soundly in the 18th and 19th centuries. In the globalized world we are being humiliated for not knowing about the outside world. There is a lot of work to do to make the general public understand why we need Africa.How much do Chinese media report on Africa?
Not as many as I’d expect. And it’s not only a problem of media. It’s a problem of the readers: if they are not interested, there’s no coverage. Chinese media are also being affected by economic factors. If you want success, you better carry news of man bites dog, not dog bites man—carry news of crime committed against Chinese in Africa. According to statistics I have, Chinese are much less likely to be victims of crime compared to local people in Africa. It’s reported that every day is dangerous for Chinese in Africa, and it’s not true.What is being done to counter these stereotypes?
The Chinese embassies have a big task to educate people about what they are going to expect, how to respect the local people, and how to do business under the local law. For those who are already in Africa, there is a need to understand what kind of market they’re in. China is backward in doing business. We are only one generation along in the reform of our policy, compared with more than 10 generations in other countries.You have a lot of love for the African people.
Yes. Africans are the most honest people I’ve ever known. Before I went to Africa I was in Los Angeles. I enjoyed my posting and had a lot of friends there. And then I went to South Africa and had a better relationship with the local people. In 2008, at the start of the Beijing Olympics, we had a reception for Chinese National Day in Pretoria. Every ambassador came forward to congratulate us, but the African ambassadors said, “I am really happy because this is the success of my brother.” That’s the feeling you get from African people, almost all over Africa.What are some of the major success stories of Chinese investment in Africa?
Though it was built in the 1970s, I’d say one of the biggest is the railway between Zambia and Zimbabwe—not just economically, though it was made to transport copper from Zambia. It was built to go around South Africa, which was still under the apartheid regime, so this was not only for transport of minerals but a practical project to help frontier countries be economically independent from apartheid. The project involved about 60,000 Chinese technicians and engineers, and more than 100,000 local people joined the project.
Nowadays we have signed deals employing more than 2,000 local people in South Africa mines, with only seven people from China, an investment of $400 million U.S. dollars. And there’s Hisense, a Chinese brand for electrical appliances, such as refrigerators and TV sets. They have trained more than 2,500 local South Africans to work on the assembly line, and the company accounts for about 40 percent of the South African TV market and also supplies neighboring countries. And we have IT companies working around the continent.How do you respond to Western concerns about the explosion of Chinese investment in Africa?
The fact is that the Western interests have been in Africa for over 500 years. They have established their influence in that continent. But some Western people probably have that feeling like, this is my backyard, what are you doing here? But I don’t know why they regard it as their backyard. This attitude is embarrassing for the local people.Outside of economics, what is China’s political bond with Africa?
In those struggle years, the 1960s and 1970s, there was the fight against colonialism. China supported those national liberation movements. Unfortunately, it mingled with the Cold War, but China supported them, particularly in South Africa, and some of the liberation fighters were trained in China to fight guerrilla wars. And during the Cold War they supported us, when we were under pressure. It was quite a comradeship, as we would call it. After the finish of the Cold War, we’re facing our own challenges. We learned we have to open to the world, participate in the world economic system. So we went around the world, and also to Africa. And that led to our new relationship with Africa.Is African culture traveling back to China in any way; for example, do Chinese listen to African music?
There are fans of African arts and music, and you go to some places in China and find that people have started to become fascinated with African cultural discovery. But it’s not that popular yet. For the general public, most are quite ignorant about Africa.Have the Chinese encountered conflicts involving resource development in protected African preserves or parklands?
We always regard Africa as Africans’ Africa. It’s up to them to decide which part should be national park. We obey the law. There’s no argument on that. This is not the way Chinese do things. We never override what they have decided. We always have respect. The Chinese have been humiliated by other countries, and we don’t want to do that to people in Africa.
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A team of malware developers is preparing to sell a new ransomware program that encrypts files on infected computers and asks victims for money to recover them, according to a volunteer group of security researchers who tracked the development of the threat on underground forums in recent weeks.
Like CryptoLocker, PowerLocker allegedly uses strong encryption that cannot be cracked to recover the files without paying, but it’s also more sophisticated and potentially more dangerous because its developers reportedly intend to sell it to other cybercriminals.
Also like CryptoLocker, PowerLocker allegedly uses strong encryption that prevents users from recovering files unless they pay or have backups. However, it’s also more sophisticated and potentially more dangerous because its developers reportedly intend to sell it to other cybercriminals.
Malware Must Die (MMD), a group of security researchers dedicated to fighting cybercrime, spotted a post on an underground forum at the end of November in which a malware writer announced a new ransomware project. That project, initially under the name Prison Locker, later became PowerLocker.
MMD researchers tracked the development of the threat and decided to make the information they gathered public on Friday out of concern that, if completed and released, the new ransomware program could cause a lot of damage. The group published a blog post with screen shots of several underground forum messages describing the malware’s alleged features at various stages of completion, as well as its planned price.
Based on a progress report by the malware’s main developer—a user with the online identity “gyx”—PowerLocker consists of a single file that’s dropped in the Windows temporary folder. Once run on a computer for the first time, it begins encrypting all user files stored on local drives and network shares, except for executable and system files.
This is similar to how CryptoLocker’s encryption scheme is implemented, but PowerLocker goes even further. Once the encryption stage is done, it disables the Windows and Escape keys and prevents a number of other useful utilities like chúng tôi chúng tôi chúng tôi chúng tôi and chúng tôi from being used.
”While CryptoLocker was tailor-made for a select group of individuals, the PowerLocker as they call it is a tool that would be available for purchase, thus making any script-kiddie a potential attacker.”
The malware is also capable of detecting whether it’s run in virtual machines, sandboxes or debugging environments, a feature designed to prevent security researchers from analyzing it using their usual tools.
Another important difference between CryptoLocker and PowerLocker is that the new threat is supposed to be sold as a crimepack to other cybercriminals.
”While CryptoLocker was tailor-made for a select group of individuals, the PowerLocker as they call it is a tool that would be available for purchase, thus making any script-kiddie a potential attacker,” he said. “If it is real, we expect it to hit really hard.”
“Ransomware is easy money and that’s what cybercriminals are after.”
According to the underground forum messages shared by MMD, the PowerLocker author has partnered with another developer to create the malware’s command-and-control panel and the graphical user interface and is very close to completing them. The developers plan to sell the malware for $100 in Bitcoins per initial build and $25 per rebuild, which is a very accessible price for cybercriminals.
Botezatu expects other similar malware programs to be developed and used this year.
”Trojans like GPcode have set the standard for commercial ransomware, while the ROI [return on investment] rates of the FBI Trojan and CryptoLocker have probably incentivized other cybercriminal groups into joining the ransomware pack,” he said. “Ransomware is easy money and that’s what cybercriminals are after.”
Most malware today is distributed through exploits for vulnerabilities in popular software programs like Java, Flash Player and others, so it is very important to keep all applications up-to-date to prevent infection with ransomware and other threats.
An occupational therapist offers a series of calming whole-body exercises for students to do as a class throughout the school day.
I’ve been a practicing school-based occupational therapist for many years, working with children ages 3 to 18 who have a variety of sensory, self-regulation, and emotional regulation difficulties. In that time, I’ve honed a whole-body movement sequence that provides body awareness and mindfulness on a routine basis.
The sequence works well with a whole class, it takes only about 5 minutes, and students can do the exercises on a rug or mat right next to their desks. It’s best to do the sequence regularly and consistently—I recommend mornings, after lunch or recess, before transitions, and after any high-stimulation activities.
I utilize this sequence before my therapy sessions, and I’ve recommended it to many educators to maintain regulation and decrease fight-or-flight behaviors. The sequence should be done in order, from step one to step eight, and works for students in early elementary and middle school grades.
Note: It’s important to get medical clearance for students with possible musculoskeletal or physical contraindications before having them attempt any exercises in this sequence.
Steps in the Sequence
1. Downward-facing dog. This exercise provides proprioceptive input and vestibular input to the hands, arms, shoulders, and legs, so it’s helpful when students are feeling low levels of physical energy, high levels of physical energy, or emotional dysregulation (an inability to manage emotional responses well).
Students lie on their stomach with flat palms next to their shoulders, and push their body up so their weight is on their hands and feet, keeping their legs as straight as comfortably possible, and hold for 10 seconds.
2. Upward-facing dog. This provides proprioceptive input to the belly, back, arms, and legs and is especially helpful when students are feeling low levels of physical energy or high levels of physical energy.
Students lie flat on their stomach, palms flat on either side of the chest. They then press their body up, keeping their knees on the floor, bearing their weight through their palms. Next, they push their chest up from the floor, feeling the weight pressing down through their palms, and hold for 10 seconds.
3. Tabletop. Not only does the tabletop pose require a lot of physical strength and endurance, but also it has elements of sustained proprioceptive and vestibular inputs (rotational/head below knee). It’s a powerful exercise that can benefit students who are feeling low levels of energy, high levels of energy, or high levels of emotionality.
Students should begin on their hands and knees, shoulder width apart, palms flat on the floor with fingertips pointing toward their toes. They then straighten out their elbows and lift their hips up toward the ceiling, drawing their shoulder blades into their back and lifting their chest, while keeping their back flat (looking straight ahead). If they feel comfortable doing so, they should carefully and gently drop their head back slightly and hold for 5 to 10 seconds.
4. Child’s pose. This position provides both proprioceptive and vestibular inputs. By curling inward, students also have an opportunity to take a moment for themselves and visually block out the world. This is a good exercise to try if students are feeling high levels of physical and/or emotional energy.
Students start by kneeling on both knees and visualizing any challenging physical and/or emotional feeling as being at the center of their body. As they move their body inward, they should picture that feeling being squeezed away. Students bring their bottom toward their heels and stretch the rest of their body down and forward. Once they’re fully stretched, they relax their arms along the floor and rest their stomach along their thighs, with their forehead on the mat, holding the position for as long as it’s comfortable.
5. Wrist cross, ankle cross. This exercise can help your students feel where their wrists, hands, and ankles are by providing proprioceptive (deep pressure) input, while also crossing midline (which is great for focusing and calming). It is helpful when students are feeling emotionally or physically dysregulated; it also can wake them up if they’re feeling low levels of physical energy.
Students cross their wrists together, with the inside of one wrist pressing against the back of the other. They then push their wrists firmly together and hold for at least 5 to 10 seconds. Then they cross their legs together, with the inside of one leg pressing against the top of the other. Students push their legs firmly together, and hold this position for at least 5 to 10 seconds.
6. Students feel where their body is. When students feel physically and emotionally dysregulated and begin to enter fight-or-flight mode, it can be difficult to feel all the different parts of their body. Doing this exercise correctly is very calming because it tells each of the joints of the body where they are through proprioceptive input and relaxes the nervous system.
Students gently squeeze and say the name of each joint in the following order as they do the following:
Cross their hands over opposite shoulders
Cross their hands over opposite elbows
Cross their hands over opposite wrists
Squeeze each finger and the palm of their right hand, then do the same on their left hand
Cross their hands over their hips
Cross their hands over their knees
Cross their hands over their ankles
Cross their hands over their feet
7. Bubble breath with extended exhalation. This is a good strategy to use whether your students are feeling low energy, high energy, or high levels of emotionality. Getting oxygen to the brain can also help students think better and make clearer choices. The exhale breath is longer than the inhale breath.
Students breathe in through the nose slowly for 4 seconds and hold, then breathe out through the mouth slowly and with control for 6 seconds. Alternatively, they can breathe in through the nose slowly for 5 seconds and hold, and then breathe out through the mouth slowly and with control for 7 seconds. Repeat as needed.
8. Picture their peaceful place. Have your students visualize a moment or place that makes them feel the most peaceful. This is a good strategy for students to use when feeling high levels of emotionality.
Students close their eyes and think of a place that makes them feel calm and peaceful. Tell them to picture every detail—what it looks like, what different objects there feel like, any smells and any sounds—and to picture themselves there. Where are they in that special place? What are they doing? When they’re ready, they open their eyes.
After every big snow storm you can expect to see at least one viral video of an adorable animal romping around in the fresh snow. Case in point, from #blizzard2023:
Tian Tian woke up this morning to a lot of snow, and he was pretty excited about it. 🐼🌨 #blizzard2023 chúng tôi National Zoo (@NationalZoo) January 23, 2023
Fresh snow is irresistible to all kinds of animals. Foxes frolic in it; red pandas roll in it; dogs love to slide around in it. Even birds, it seems, like to go sledding:
We love watching animals play in the snow partly because that joyous romping looks so human. So what is it about a fresh snow that makes everyone go crazy?
There’s no straightforward explanation, but scientists think our love for snow is tied to our need to play.The Importance Of Play
“The more we look at different animals, the more we learn that lots of animals enjoy playing,” says animal behaviorist Con Slobodchikoff from Northern Arizona University. “They enjoy making up games, and they enjoy playing them.”
Slobodchikoff does much of his research on prairie dogs. “When it snows they come up and run through the snow and tumble around, and trip themselves so that they fall down. They’ll wrestle, and slide down little hills on their butts.” (Sadly, he doesn’t have any videos.)
Scientists aren’t exactly sure why, but it seems that all animals, from humans to reptiles, have an actual need for play that’s almost as hardwired as the need to sleep, says Vint Virga. Virga, a veterinary behaviorist, wrote a book about the inner lives of animals.
“As children and young animals are growing up, play seems to have a role in giving them an opportunity to practice and explore behaviors,” says Virga. “And it gives them an opportunity to learn how other animals are responding to them, so they can learn about social context of how it’s appropriate to behave.”
Studies show that playing gives an animal greater chances of surviving and reproducing. Animals who aren’t allowed to play, on the other hand, are predisposed to be more aggressive or even violent.Novelty
Sometimes, the novelty of snow might be enough to inspire an animal to play.
“It may be that if the snow is novel, it may be stimulating some creative play in this new texture, this new blanket that’s over the world,” says Virga. He recalls working with a snow leopard in a zoo who seemed inhibited in his habitat, tending not to explore it. But on snowy days, he would go bounding out into his habitat. “With fresh snowfall or other dramatic changes in the environment, like a bright spring day, he seemed to engage in the world in a new way.”
The novelty of snow can make an animal feel curious about its environment, and stimulate him or her to see it in a new way. Plus, snow just feels good.
“Snow is cold, it’s invigorating, it’s energizing,” says Slobodchikoff. “It feels good on the skin or the fur. When you have that combination, and couple it with animals’ love for play, animals just really enjoy making up a game in this wonderful background.”
For Slobodchikoff’s old standard poodle, for example, snow meant an opportunity for new games. “He would run out and I would through snowballs, and he would just delight in going, ‘Where’d it go?’ He’d pretend to be really puzzled.”
These kinds of playful behaviors are a lot more likely if the snowfall is surprising—for instance, if it snows all night while the animal is snug indoors. If it’s just another snowstorm during a long winter, the novelty isn’t there, and the fresh snow doesn’t seem as exciting.A New Toy
There are different kinds of play. There’s movement play, like in the panda video above. There’s social play, when they’re playing together. There’s imaginative or pretend play, like with Slobodchikoff’s poodle. And then there’s object play, where animals use toys. It’s possible that the animals are thinking of the fresh snow as a new toy to play with, says Virga.Personality Are There Any Animals That Don’t Like to Play In The Snow?
Virga and Slobodchikoff had a hard time coming up with animals who wouldn’t flip out over fresh snow, because the urge to play seems almost universal. “Of the animals we’ve looked at, they pretty much all like to play,” says Slobodchikoff. “We know that fish like to play, and it may turn out that even bugs like to play, but we don’t know.”
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