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Key Difference between Emulator and Simulator

Emulators are written in machine-level assembly languages, whereas Simulators are written in high-level languages.

Emulators are more suitable when it comes to debugging purposes, while simulators can be difficult in terms of debugging purposes.

An emulator comes as a complete re-implementation of the original software, whereas A simulator is just a partial re-implementation of the original software.

Both Emulators and Simulators are virtual devices. A virtual device is not the real phone but a software which gives the same functionality as the real phone (except a few functionality like the camera).

What is Real Testing Device?

Testing on a real device allows you to run your mobile applications and checks its functionality. Real device Testing assures you that your application will work smoothly in customer handsets.

What is Emulator?

An emulator is a software program that allows your mobile to imitate the features of another computer or mobile software you want them to imitate by installing them to your computer or Mobile.

Difference between Simulator and Emulator Testing

Here are the main difference between Simulator and Emulator Testing

The simulator-based testing The emulator based testing

Simulator’s objective is to simulate the internal state of an object as close as possible to the internal state of an object. The emulator aims at emulating or mimicking as close as possible the outer behavior of an object

Simulators are preferable whenever the testing team needs to test the mobile’s internal behavior like its internal hardware, firmware, and so forth. Emulators are preferable whenever the testing team needs to test the mobile’s external behavior like calculating, making transactions, and so forth.

Simulators are written in high-level languages. Emulators are written in machine-level assembly languages.

The simulators can be difficult in terms of debugging purpose. Emulators are more suitable when it comes to debugging purpose

A simulator is just a partial re-implementation of the original software. Often an emulator comes as a complete re-implementation of the original software.

Advantages of Real Device and Emulator/Simulator based testing

Issue Emulator Testing Real Device Testing

Situation-based application There are specific situations where the deadline to produce text execution results are short, and purchasing the required mobile devices maybe not possible. Thereby it might be necessary to use the emulator/simulator in these circumstances for testing the relevant mobile applications which need to be tested. The real device allows the testers to test almost all the real time scenarios which can be tested for the mobile applications. These devices are operated using fingers and simulate real-life usage. They also help in situation Real context: is it easy to use the app on the train, or while walking down the street? The situation about in bright sunlight or in the rain?

Feeling of closeness towards the real handheld devices The wide gamut of mobile devices creates problems, whereby the testers are not confident about which mobile devices to invest in for testing, considering the budget constraints. Emulator/simulator (s) is tailor-made for this type of situation(s). The real device allows the testers to test even usability issues like the look and feel of the application, color resolution of the screen, whether the picture is bright or not under both day and night conditions and so on.

Ease of availability Emulator/simulator(s) are in most cases open and free software which can be very easily downloaded from the Internet and ready to be tested for. The real devices allow stringent Performance Testing issues like working with a real time transport application for 15 hours continuously, which cannot be successfully simulated by the emulators.

Ease of opening a Web application through URL It is easier to do web application testing when it comes to opening the web application. The user just needs to copy and paste the application URL. Testing on real devices provides more in terms of reliability.

Capturing screenshots of the situations where defects appear Capturing issue of screenshots over simulator is very easy with the simulator since we just need to use Microsoft office facilities. Testing with real-world devices is very helpful in terms of interoperability testing.

Simulation of validation of battery scenarios The emulator/simulators are not able to simulate the battery issues. Real-world devices can easily perform the same.

Validation of incoming interrupts The emulator/simulators are not able to simulate the incoming interrupts for SMS as well as the incoming calls. Real-world devices can easily simulate incoming interrupts.

Validation of exact color displays The emulator/simulator is not able to properly emulate/simulate the exact color display of the devices when the real device is in sunlight or in black. Real world devices can easily simulate the exact color displays.

Validation of the performance The performance of the emulator/simulator tends to be slower than the original devices at times. The original devices tend to perform faster than the emulator or the simulators.

Simulating memory related issues The memory available at the emulator/simulator tends to be far more than the real devices so this may create misconception for the users who would be using the same validations. The memory storage level of the devices tend to be far less than the emulators thus it may

Emulators/ Simulators Real Device

The emulator/simulator is not always the best type of solution for scenarios such as the ones whereby the testing team needs to validate the performance of the application for a longer period of time. The real devices are costly compared to the emulator/simulators. Thereby projects under budget and timeline constraints may risk profitability as well as the viability of the overall project.

The emulator/simulator is suitable mostly for certain types of functional test case executions. There is a very wide variety of mobile devices from Apple to Samsung to android and to Symbian, and so on. Considering this wide range of mobile devices, it is very hard for the testing team to arrange all sorts of mobile devices while working under a considerable amount of budget and timeline related constraints.

The emulator/simulator can sometimes not be supportive of certain types of application and in these cases, the testing team may need to purchase software patches which may not always be free but could be costly at times. Real Mobile devices when used in the developing stage for Unit Testing and similar purposes could turn out to be harder to connect to the IDE than the emulators, and this causes tremendous problems for debugging, and in a project, with timeline constraints, this may very well hamper the overall conclusion of the project.

Not all the emulator/simulator supports the complete gamut of mobile applications. For example, the bada simulator supports the Maemo (such as Nokia N900), Symbian Touch (such as Nokia N8) and Symbian non-touch (such as Nokia E71) but it does not support other mobile devices like Android. As per the application testing functionalities are concerned, bada does not support direct web browsing testing, but it allows the user to test and create only webapps and widgets. In order to test with the real world devices, the devices need to be always connected to the USB port of the machines. So if the USB ports are not working properly, the testing would not be possible. Without providing adequate security measures mobile devices (if they happen to be costly like the Apple iPhone) may be lost or stolen, thus hampering the overall effort. Increasing security may also go on to increase the overall expenditure involved with the project.

Emulator vs Simulator vs Real Device Testing: Conclusion

Considering the significant role the mobile applications plays, nowadays, in our day to day life, testing of these applications are going to evolve, and thus they require a lot of testing to make them work as required. Testing in both the simulator/emulator as well as the real-world devices is necessary to maintain strong standards and quality assurance.

Careful deliberation of both the pros and cons of mobile emulators and real devices, it would be worthwhile to reach at the conclusion that the optimal mobile testing solution for enterprises is neither putting all the eggs into the basket of the real devices nor putting them into the emulator but rather what we need is an optimum combination of both.

Emulators can be considered as very suitable for the initial stages of application development.

However, to avoid the costly scenario of releasing a business-critical application with defects, enterprises need to ensure that they perform the major part of their mobile testing on real devices before the application goes into production.

Each organization needs to strategize and plan carefully to determine at what stage to introduce real devices. They also need to decide how many devices are sufficient to cover market needs, and what could be the best possible option to adopt for managing those devices.

Best practices would indicate that actual development should use emulators (and a few reference real handsets) in order to speed up the debugging of the application during the coding phase, while sanity, Smoke Testing, performance, interoperability, and network feasibility and Regression Testing should be done on real handsets.

It is also an emerging practice to ensure that the developers use the emulator for fast execution during the development phase whereas then the testing team should test with the real device during the testing phase in order to ensure overall Quality Assurance goals and targets. To save on cost, they can consider using Virtual Mobile Testing tools. These services offer developer to test their application on a wide variety of handsets using different mobile networks geographically located throughout the world (useful for applications using GPS). Such services are offered on an hourly basis and are very cost-effective compared to buying new phones.

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Agile Vs Waterfall – Difference Between Methodologies

Key Difference Between Waterfall and Agile

Waterfall is a Linear Sequential Life Cycle Model, whereas Agile is a continuous iteration of development and testing in the software development process.

In Agile vs Waterfall difference, the Agile methodology is known for its flexibility, whereas Waterfall is a structured software development methodology.

Comparing the Waterfall methodology vs Agile, which follows an incremental approach, whereas the Waterfall is a sequential design process.

Agile performs testing concurrently with software development, whereas in Waterfall methodology, testing comes after the “Build” phase.

Agile allows changes in project development requirements, whereas Waterfall has no scope of changing the requirements once the project development starts.

What is Waterfall methodology?

Waterfall Model methodology which is also known as Linear Sequential Life Cycle Model. Waterfall Model followed in the sequential order, and so project development team only moves to next phase of development or testing if the previous step completed successfully.

What is the Agile methodology?

Agile methodology is a practice that helps continuous iteration of development and testing in the software development process. In this model, development and testing activities are concurrent, unlike the Waterfall model. This process allows more communication between customers, developers, managers, and testers.

Advantages of Waterfall Model:

It is one the easiest model to manage. Because of its nature, each phase has specific deliverables and a review process.

It works well for smaller size projects where requirements are easily understandable.

Faster delivery of the project

Process and results are well documented.

Easily adaptable method for shifting teams

This project management methodology is beneficial to manage dependencies.

Advantages of the Agile Model:

It is focused client process. So, it makes sure that the client is continuously involved during every stage.

Agile teams are extremely motivated and self-organized so it likely to provide a better result from the development projects.

Agile software development method assures that quality of the development is maintained

The process is completely based on the incremental progress. Therefore, the client and team know exactly what is complete and what is not. This reduces risk in the development process.

Limitations of Waterfall Model:

It is not an ideal model for a large size project

If the requirement is not clear at the beginning, it is a less effective method.

Very difficult to move back to makes changes in the previous phases.

The testing process starts once development is over. Hence, it has high chances of bugs to be found later in development where they are expensive to fix.

Limitations of Agile Model

It is not useful method for small development projects.

It requires an expert to take important decisions in the meeting.

Cost of implementing an agile method is little more compared to other development methodologies.

The project can easily go off track if the project manager is not clear what outcome he/she wants.

Difference between Agile and Waterfall Methodologies

Below is a difference between Agile and Waterfall methodologies:

Agile Waterfall

It separates the project development lifecycle into sprints. Software development process is divided into distinct phases.

It follows an incremental approach Waterfall methodology is a sequential design process.

Agile methodology is known for its flexibility. Waterfall is a structured software development methodology so most times it can be quite rigid.

Agile can be considered as a collection of many different projects. Software development will be completed as one single project.

Agile is quite a flexible method which allows changes to be made in the project development requirements even if the initial planning has been completed. There is no scope of changing the requirements once the project development starts.

Agile methodology, follow an iterative development approach because of this planning, development, prototyping and other software development phases may appear more than once. All the project development phases like designing, development, testing, etc. are completed once in the Waterfall model.

Test plan is reviewed after each sprint The test plan is rarely discussed during the test phase.

Agile development is a process in which the requirements are expected to change and evolve. The method is ideal for projects which have definite requirements and changes not at all expected.

In Agile methodology, testing is performed concurrently with software development. In this methodology, the “Testing” phase comes after the “Build” phase

Agile introduces a product mindset where the software product satisfies needs of its end customers and changes itself as per the customer’s demands. This model shows a project mindset and places its focus completely on accomplishing the project.

Agile methdology works exceptionally well with Time & Materials or non-fixed funding. It may increase stress in fixed-price scenarios. Reduces risk in the firm fixed price contracts by getting risk agreement at the beginning of the process.

Prefers small but dedicated teams with a high degree of coordination and synchronization. Team coordination/synchronization is very limited.

Products owner with team prepares requirements just about every day during a project. Business analysis prepares requirements before the beginning of the project.

Test team can take part in the requirements change without problems. It is difficult for the test to initiate any change in requirements.

Description of project details can be altered anytime during the SDLC process. Detail description needs to implement waterfall software development approach.

The Agile Team members are interchangeable, as a result, they work faster. There is also no need for project managers because the projects are managed by the entire team In the waterfall method, the process is always straightforward so, project manager plays an essential role during every stage of SDLC.

Soap Vs Rest Api: Difference Between Web Services

Key Difference Between SOAP and REST API

SOAP stands for Simple Object Access Protocol whereas REST stands for Representational State Transfer.

SOAP is a protocol whereas REST is an architectural pattern.

SOAP uses service interfaces to expose its functionality to client applications while REST uses Uniform Service locators to access to the components on the hardware device.

SOAP needs more bandwidth for its usage whereas REST doesn’t need much bandwidth.

Comparing SOAP vs REST API, SOAP only works with XML formats whereas REST work with plain text, XML, HTML and JSON.

SOAP cannot make use of REST whereas REST can make use of SOAP.

What is SOAP?

SOAP is a protocol which was designed before REST and came into the picture. The main idea behind designing SOAP was to ensure that programs built on different platforms and programming languages could exchange data in an easy manner. SOAP stands for Simple Object Access Protocol.

What is REST?

REST was designed specifically for working with components such as media components, files, or even objects on a particular hardware device. Any web service that is defined on the principles of REST can be called a RestFul web service. A Restful service would use the normal HTTP verbs of GET, POST, PUT and DELETE for working with the required components. REST stands for Representational State Transfer.

Difference Between SOAP and REST

Below is the main difference between SOAP and REST API



SOAP stands for Simple Object Access Protocol REST stands for Representational State Transfer

SOAP is a protocol. SOAP was designed with a specification. It includes a WSDL file which has the required information on what the web service does in addition to the location of the web service.

Client Server



Layered System

Uniform Interface

SOAP cannot make use of REST since SOAP is a protocol and REST is an architectural pattern. REST can make use of SOAP as the underlying protocol for web services, because in the end it is just an architectural pattern.

SOAP uses service interfaces to expose its functionality to client applications. In SOAP, the WSDL file provides the client with the necessary information which can be used to understand what services the web service can offer.

<SOAP-ENV:Envelope xmlns:SOAP-ENV SOAP-ENV:encodingStyle <Demo.guru99WebService


SOAP can only work with XML format. As seen from SOAP messages, all data passed is in XML format. REST permits different data format such as Plain text, HTML, XML, JSON, etc. But the most preferred format for transferring data is JSON.

When to use REST?

One of the most highly debatable topics is when REST should be used or when to use SOAP while designing web services. Below are some of the key factors that determine when REST and SOAP API technology should be used for web services REST services should be used in the following instances

Limited resources and bandwidth – Since SOAP messages are heavier in content and consume a far greater bandwidth, REST should be used in instances where network bandwidth is a constraint.

Statelessness – If there is no need to maintain a state of information from one request to another then REST should be used. If you need a proper information flow wherein some information from one request needs to flow into another then SOAP is more suited for that purpose. We can take the example of any online purchasing site. These sites normally need the user first to add items which need to be purchased to a cart. All of the cart items are then transferred to the payment page in order to complete the purchase. This is an example of an application which needs the state feature. The state of the cart items needs to be transferred to the payment page for further processing.

Caching – If there is a need to cache a lot of requests then REST is the perfect solution. At times, clients could request for the same resource multiple times. This can increase the number of requests which are sent to the server. By implementing a cache, the most frequent queries results can be stored in an intermediate location. So whenever the client requests for a resource, it will first check the cache. If the resources exist then, it will not proceed to the server. So caching can help in minimizing the amount of trips which are made to the web server.

Ease of coding – Coding REST Services and subsequent implementation is far easier than SOAP. So if a quick win solution is required for web services, then REST is the way to go.

Next in this SOAP and REST difference tutorial, we will learn when to use SOAP API.

When to use SOAP?

SOAP should be used in the following instances

Asynchronous processing and subsequent invocation – if there is a requirement that the client needs a guaranteed level of reliability and security then the new SOAP standard of SOAP 1.2 provides a lot of additional features, especially when it comes to security.

A Formal means of communication – if both the client and server have an agreement on the exchange format then SOAP 1.2 gives the rigid specifications for this type of interaction. An example is an online purchasing site in which users add items to a cart before the payment is made. Let’s assume we have a web service that does the final payment. There can be a firm agreement that the web service will only accept the cart item name, unit price, and quantity. If such a scenario exists then, it’s always better to use the SOAP protocol.

Stateful operations – if the application has a requirement that state needs to be maintained from one request to another, then the SOAP 1.2 standard provides the WS* structure to support such requirements.

Next in this REST vs SOAP API difference, we will learn about challenges with SOAP API.

Challenges in SOAP API

API is known as the Application Programming Interface and is offered by both the client and the server. In the client world, this is offered by the browser whereas in the server world it’s what is provided by the web service which can either be SOAP or REST.

Challenges with the SOAP API

WSDL file – One of the key challenges of the SOAP API is the WSDL document itself. The WSDL document is what tells the client of all the operations that can be performed by the web service. The WSDL document will contain all information such as the data types being used in the SOAP messages and what all operations are available via the web service. The below code snippet is just part of a sample WSDL file.

<definitions name=”Tutorial”

As per the above WSDL file, we have an element called “TutorialName” which is of the type String which is part of the element TutorialNameRequest.

Now, suppose if the WSDL file were to change as per the business requirements and the TutorialName has to become TutorialDescription. This would mean that all the clients who are currently connecting to this web service would then need to make this corresponding change in their code to accommodate the change in the WSDL file.

This shows the biggest challenge of the WSDL file which is the tight contract between the client and the server and that one change could cause a large impact, on the whole, client applications.

Document size – The other key challenge is the size of the SOAP messages which get transferred from the client to the server. Because of the large messages, using SOAP in places where bandwidth is a constraint can be a big issue.

Next in this RESTful vs SOAP difference, we will learn about challenges with REST API.

Challenges in REST API

Lack of Security – REST does not impose any sort of security like SOAP. This is why REST is very appropriate for public available URL’s, but when it comes down to confidential data being passed between the client and the server, REST is the worst mechanism to be used for web services.

Lack of state – Most web applications require a stateful mechanism. For example, if you had a purchasing site which had the mechanism of having a shopping cart, it is required to know the number of items in the shopping cart before the actual purchase is made. Unfortunately, the burden of maintaining this state lies with the client, which just makes the client application heavier and difficult to maintain.

Difference between SOAP Vs CORBA Vs DCOM Vs Java RMI

Remote access techniques such as the RPC (Remote Procedure calls) methods were in common use before SOAP and REST API came along. The various remote access techniques which were available are mentioned below.

DCOM – This is the Distributed Component Object Model, which is a proprietary Microsoft technology for clients to access remote components. The biggest issue with this mechanism was it was up to the client application to free up resources when no longer required.Secondly, when the client sent the request, it was up to the client to ensure that the request was wrapped or marshaled in a correct way so that the web service could understand the request sent. Another issue was if the client application was a Java based application which had to work DCOM (Microsoft Technology) additional coding was required to ensure that applications built in other programming languages could work with DCOM based web services.

Java RMI – Known as Java Remote Method Invocation, this was Java implementation on how remote objects could be called through remote procedure calls. The biggest restriction of this technology was that Java RMI could only be run on a Java Virtual Machine. This meant that the calling application also has to be run on the Java framework in order to make use of Java RMI.

The main differences between SOAP and these techniques are as follows

Working over HTTP – All of the RPC techniques have one big limitation, and it is that they don’t work by the HTTP protocol. Since all applications on the web had to work on this protocol, this used to be a major roadblock for clients which had to access these RPC-style web services.

Working with non-standard ports – Since the RPC style web services did not work by the HTTP protocol, separate ports had to be open for them for clients to access the functionality from these web services.

Difference Between While And Do

Key Differences between while and do-while loop in C

While loop checks the condition first and then executes the statement(s), whereas do while loop will execute the statement(s) at least once, then the condition is checked.

In the while loop, we do not need to add a semicolon at the end of a while condition, but we need to add a semicolon at the end of the while condition in the do-while loop.

While loop statement(s) is executed zero times if the condition is false, whereas the do-while statement is executed at least once.

While loop allows initialization of counter variable before starting the body of a loop, whereas do while loop allows initialization of counter variable before and after starting the body of a loop.

What are loops?

A Loop executes the sequence of statements many times until the stated condition becomes false. A loop consists of two parts, a body of a loop and a control statement. The control statement is a combination of some conditions that direct the body of the loop to execute until the specified condition becomes false. The purpose of the loop is to repeat the same code a number of times.

What is While Loop?

After the body of a loop is executed, the control again goes back to the beginning, and the condition is checked. If it is true, the same process is executed until the condition becomes false. Once the condition becomes false, the control goes out of the loop.

In a while loop, if the condition is not true, then the body of a loop will not be executed, not even once.

What is a Do-While Loop?

A Do-while loop is similar to the while loop except that the condition is always executed after the body of a loop. It is also called an exit-controlled loop.

In the do-while loop, the body of a loop is always executed at least once. After the body is executed, then it checks the condition. If the condition is true, then it will again execute the body of a loop. Otherwise, the control is transferred out of the loop.

Syntax of While loop in C

Here is a syntax of While loop in C programming:

while (condition) { statements; }

In the while loop, we have to write a condition that needs to be evaluated. The statement inside curly braces indicates the code to be executed.

Syntax Do While Loop in C

Here is a syntax of Do while loop in C programming:

do { statements } while (expression);

In the do-while loop, we need to first write the statement inside curly braces, which indicates the code to be executed. After this, we need to mention Java, C, or C++ program expressions that need to be evaluated.

How While Loop Works?

While loop works as follows:

Flow Chart Explanation:

Step 1) Start of while loop

Step 2) The test expression or condition is evaluated

Step 3) Next, if the test expression is true, the program executes the body of do-while loop

Step 4) If the test expression is false, the program outside while loop is executed

How Do-While Loop Works?

The Do-while loop works as follows:

Flow Chart Explanation:

Step 1) Start the do-while loop

Step 2) The body of do-while loop is executed

Step 3) The test expression or condition is evaluated

Step 4) If the test expression is true, the compiler executes the body of do-while loop

Step 5) Next, if the test expression is false, the compiler executes the statements after the loop body

Step 6) Statements that come after the loop body are executed

While vs Do-While Loop: Difference Between Them

Here is an important difference between While and Do While Loop:

While Do While

It checks the condition first and then executes statement(s) This loop will execute the statement(s) at least once, then the condition is checked.

While loop allows initialization of counter variables before starting the body of a loop. Do while loop allows initialization of counter variables before and after starting the body of a loop.

It is an exit controlled loop.

We do not need to add a semicolon at the end of a while condition. We need to add a semicolon at the end of the while condition.

In case of a single statement, we do need to add brackets. Brackets are always needed.

In this loop, the condition is mentioned at the starting of the loop. The loop condition is specified after the block is executed.

Statement(s) can be executed zero times if the condition is false. Statement is executed at least once.

while (condition) { Statements; } do{ Statements; } while (condition);

While Loop Example in C

Following program illustrates while loop in C programming with an example:

int main() { int num=1; while(num<=4) { printf(“%dn”,num); num++; } return 0; }


1 2 3 4

The above program illustrates the use of a while loop. In the above code, we have printed a series of numbers from 1 to 4 using a while loop.

We have initialized a variable called num with value 1. We are going to print from 1 to 4. Hence the variable is initialized with value 1. If we want to print from 0, then assign the value 0 during initialization.

Next, in a while loop, we have provided a condition (num<=4), which means the loop will execute the body until the value of num becomes 4. After that, the loop will be terminated, and control will fall outside the loop.

In the body of a loop, we have a print function to print our number and an increment operator to increment the value per execution of a loop.

An initial value of num is 1, after the execution, it will become 2, and during the next execution, it will become 3. This process will continue until the value becomes 4, and then it will print the series on the console and terminate the loop.

Do While Loop Example in C

The following program is a Do-while loop example to print a table of number 2 in C:

int main() { int num=1; do { printf(“%dn”,2*num); num++; } while(num<=4); return 0; }


2 4 6 8

In the above example, we have printed a multiplication table of 2 using a do-while loop. First, we have initialized a variable ‘num’ with the value 1. Then we have written a do-while loop.

In a loop, we have a print function that will print the series by multiplying the value of num with 2. After each increment, the value of num will increase by 1, and it will be printed on the screen.

Initially, the value of num is 1. In a body of a loop, the print function will be executed in this way: 2*num where num=1, then 2*1=2.

Hence the value 2 will be printed. This will go on until the value of num becomes 10. Next, the loop will be terminated, and a statement which is immediately after the loop will be executed. In this case, it will return 0.

Which One Should We Choose?

When checking a condition, if the first iteration is compulsory, we need to use the while loop. It can also be used if the number of iterations is unknown or uncertain.

Do while loop mainly requires in the case where we have to execute the loop minimum one time. The do-while loop is typically needed in a menu-driven programming language where the final condition is based upon the end-user.

Difference Between Ecm And Pcm

ECMs (Engine Control Modules) and PCMs (Powertrain Control Modules) are employed in the engine’s computer module. Although a PCM is a single unit from the outside, it often has a separate ECM and TCM, each with its CPU and programming ROM. During most activities, they operate independently, exchanging data only when a function needs both systems to work together.

For tuners, this implies that programming on one system may be altered while keeping the other unaffected. The PCM may monitor the car’s performance using sensors such as temperature, oil and fluid level, air intake, emission level, camshaft angle, or throttle position. The check engine light will turn on when the PCM cannot restore them to optimal levels.

The PCM guarantees that your car’s idle speed is not increased over the necessary RPM to manage any ancillary tasks, such as air conditioning. Vehicles have been moving toward a single operational unit (the PCM) since 1996. The PCM manages all systems, yet, as previously said, they can still function independently. Because there was no need for a computer to handle the transmission operations, automobiles with manual transmissions had an ECM.

Read this article to find out more about ECM and PCM and how they are different from each other.

What is an ECM?

An Engine Control Module (ECM) is sometimes called an Engine Control Unit (ECU). It is a computer that collects sensory data from all sections of the vehicle and processes it before transferring it to electronic systems for improved performance. In the early 1980s, the first ECMs were created. ECMs could only regulate fuel injection at the time.

ECM functionality and design developed and got more efficient over time, thanks to developments in-car technology.

An ECM now collects data from the cooling system, exhaust, intake, and other internal components. ECM issues the commands based on this information. It regulates ignition timing, throttle position, wastegate pressure, and fuel injection time, among other things.

What is PCM?

The Powertrain Control System (PCM) oversees all vehicle activities, from gearbox control to the primary engine. PCMs are meant to coordinate each activity to enhance fuel efficiency and power delivery. When the driver decides to change gears, this is an example of PCM operating as a holistic system.

A PCM can throttle back ahead of time to provide for smoother transitions. On the surface, the PCM may look like a single unit. Most cars, however, have a separate ECM and TCM (transmission control module) to set the ROM for optimal performance. Both of these systems (PCM and ECM) operate independently for the majority of operations. However, they can collaborate and exchange data for most processes.

The PCM (Powertrain Control Module) is the vehicle’s main computer that regulates its functions. The PCM may better coordinate their activities for greater power delivery and fuel economy by combining control of the gearbox and engine into a single unit. When the PCM changes gears, it can, for example, back off the throttle to make the transition smoother.

The Powertrain Control Module (PCM) is an abbreviation for the Powertrain Control Module. A vehicle’s powertrain comprises various components, including the engine, gearbox, and driveline. For maximum efficiency, its onboard computer monitors and regulates the functioning of each system. The PCM receives data from a network of sensors, which transfer the information to the PCM.

When each sensor delivers data to the computer, a sophisticated network of software programmes works together to alter settings such as fuel/air mixes for the fuel system, and gearbox shifting RPMs. The PCM receives data from computer systems such as ABS, throttle position sensors, and the Check Engine Light.

Differences between ECM and PCM

The following table highlights the major differences between ECM and PCM −





ECM is an abbreviation for the engine control module.

The powertrain control module is referred to as the PCM.


ECMs are in charge of regulating the engine.

PCMs are in charge of controlling the powertrain.


Engine control modules (ECMs) continually monitor engine characteristics and make modifications to guarantee peak performance.

PCMs are in charge of controlling the powertrain.


ECMs are required for optimal vehicle performance.

PCM continually monitors and adjusts powertrain settings to guarantee peak performance.


To control the engine, ECM employs a number of algorithms.

The PCM collects data from many sensors to alter the air/fuel mixture, ignition timing, and other engine characteristics.


The fundamental distinction between the two is that the ECM regulates and sends orders to particular areas of the engine. In recent models, the PCM controls practically all engine functions. However, there is a narrow line that separates the two. Most people, even automotive professionals, mistake the two.

The ECM and PCM govern engine operations that must work together to burn fuel effectively. When the engine stumbles, coughs, or stalls, it may be due to the PCM or ECM failing to regulate the fuel mixture or the firing of ignition components

Difference Between Abduction And Adduction

Abduction and adduction are two fundamental terms used to describe the movements of body parts. These terms are often used in anatomy, kinesiology, and physical therapy to describe the movements of the limbs, fingers, toes, and other body parts. Abduction refers to the movement of a limb or body part away from the midline of the body, while adduction refers to the movement of a limb or body part towards the midline of the body. In this essay, we will explore the differences between abduction and adduction and how they relate to the body’s movements and functions.

What is Abduction?

Abduction refers to the movement of structures or limbs away from the middle of the body by the contraction of abductor muscles. Toes and fingers are pulled apart by contraction of the abductor muscles.

Anatomical structure involved in Abduction − The physiological function of a muscle is related to fiber length and cross-sectional area. It has been found that abductors usually have a shorter muscle fiber length (in general) than an adductor muscle.

Abductors of the hand − There are many examples of abductor muscles in the human body. Some are even partly named for the action they perform. For instance, abductor pollicis brevis and abductor pollicis longus which are two muscles acting on the thumb, causing the abduction of the thumb. The abductor pollicis longus, as the name implies, is a long muscle that attaches to the bones of the forearm and thumb. The dorsal interossei are muscles found between the long bones that bring about abduction of the fingers.

Abductors of the arm − Part of the deltoid muscle is responsible for abduction of the arm, as is the supraspinatus muscle. The deltoid muscle covers the shoulder region. The supraspinatus is attached to the shoulder blade (scapula) and the upper arm bone (humerus).

Abductors of the leg − These muscles are often called abductors of the hip. They include the following muscles: gluteus minimus and gluteus medius which are found in the gluteal region. The gluteus medius is the larger of these two muscles and is very important in keeping the hip stable during walking. Abduction muscles allow you to move your legs sideways, and also function in stabilizing the hip joint. Abductor muscles found in the hip region contract to produce a lateral movement of the pelvic region of the body. Any weakness of abductor muscles that are found in the hip region can cause an abnormal gait.

Abductors of the foot − Abductor movement of the big toe is brought about by the abductor hallucis and movement of the little toe is brought about by the digiti minimi pedis. The dorsal interossei bring about some abduction of the toes.

What is Adduction?

Adduction refers to the movement of structures or limbs towards the middle of the body by the contraction of adductor muscles. Toes and fingers are moved closer together by contraction of the adductor muscles.

Anatomical structure for Adduction − Adductor muscles generally have a longer average muscle fiber length when compared with an abductor muscle. Longer fibers and fibers with greater cross-sectional area produce greater force, even within a type of muscle. Research has shown therefore that the adductor magnus, which is longer and has greater cross-sectional area than adductor longus and adductor brevis, also has greater force.

Adductors of the hand − The adductor pollicis is a muscle that acts on the thumb. The palmar interossei are muscles found between the long bones that bring about adduction of the fingers.

Adductors of the arm − The latissimus dorsi is a back muscle that helps in adduction of the arm. The pectoralis major is a very large chest muscle that is involved in adduction of the arms.

Adductors of the leg − There are three very important adductor muscles that are found on the human thigh. These are the adductor magnus, adductor longus and adductor brevis. These muscles attach to the lower parts of the pelvic bones and to the long bone (femur) of the upper leg. The contraction of the adduction muscles moves the leg inwards towards the middle of the body, allowing you to move your thighs together.

Adductors of the foot − Adductor movement of the big toe is brought about by the adductor hallucis. The plantar interossei are also important in the adduction and spreading of the toes.

Differences: Abduction and Adduction

In summary, the main difference between abduction and adduction is the direction of movement. Abduction refers to the movement of a limb or body part away from the midline of the body, while adduction refers to the movement of a limb or body part towards the midline of the body. Both movements are important for many physical activities and for maintaining balance and stability during movement.

It is worth noting that both abduction and adduction can be performed by various muscles throughout the body. For example, the abductor muscles of the hip are responsible for abducting the leg, while the adductor muscles of the hip are responsible for adducting the leg. Similarly, the deltoid muscle of the shoulder is responsible for abducting the arm, while the pectoralis major muscle of the chest is responsible for adducting the arm.

The following table highlights the major differences between Abduction and Adduction −





Abduction is the movement of a limb away from the middle of the body.

Adduction is the movement of a limb towards the middle of the body.


Abduction is caused by the contraction of abductor muscles.

Adduction is caused by the contraction of adduction muscles.

Anatomical structure

Abductor muscles have relatively short fibers.

Adductor muscles have relatively long fibers.

Hand muscles

Abductors include for instance, the abductor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis brevis, and dorsal interossei.

Adductors include the adductor pollicis and palmar interossei. Fingers are spread apart by abductors and fingers are moved together by adductors.

Arm muscles

Examples of abductors include the deltoid and supraspinatus muscles.

Examples of adductors include the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major.


In conclusion, understanding the differences between abduction and adduction is important for anyone studying anatomy, kinesiology, or physical therapy. These terms are fundamental to describing the movements of the body and are essential for many physical activities.

By understanding these movements and the muscles that control them, we can better understand the mechanics of the body and how to optimize our movements for improved performance and injury prevention

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