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Hacking is done to gain unauthorised access to any computer system to perform malicious activities. Once the hacker has access to the system, he can steal sensitive information or even delete files. Hacking is illegal when done without permission. Hacking systems without adequate permission or indulging in any other activity associated with hacking is a serious cybercrime and can lead to extreme consequences.

However, hacking performed with the permission of the network owners falls under the wing of ethical hacking. It is done to determine the vulnerabilities and security risks in a computer system. 

Generally, renowned software companies hire ethical hackers to hack their systems and find weak points or vulnerabilities in their applications. This allows them to employ preventive measures to prevent malicious activities and reduce risk factors. Almost every top tech company practices this as a precautionary measure against legitimate hackers with nefarious intentions. 

Given the growing risk in the current digital age, the cybersecurity and information security markets are witnessing rapid growth worldwide. 

To cater to the sector’s requirements, there is a requirement for professionals like Ethical Hackers, Security Analysts, Security Officers, etc., to protect company information. Among all, it’s the job of an ethical hacker that receives the highest salary.

If you have been considering pursuing ethical hacking as a profession, here is everything you need to know. The article includes everything from eligibility to the highest ethical hacking salary, and the various ethical hackers can take up in India.  

Who is an Ethical Hacker?

An ethical hacker is a certified and skilled professional hired by top software companies for their excellent non-technical and technical skills and expertise, helping the company identify and deal with vulnerabilities on target systems and networks. They are network and computer experts who have proficient knowledge of various operating systems, hacking techniques, and processes to detect possible threats. This makes them an essential part of IT security. The government also hires ethical hackers to prevent the compromise of national security features.

There are both white hat and black hat hackers in the market. But what separates them is how they work. An ethical hacker will work with the permission of the network owners. They will comply with the rules of the network owners and take into account the country’s laws. A white hacker’s sole aim is to assess an organisation’s security standing. Black hat hackers, on the other hand, use illegal means to get access to a system. So, there is a considerable risk of facing legal charges.

White hackers in the formal security industry are generally referred to as cybersecurity specialists. Here are the roles and responsibilities or duties of an ethical hacker: 

1. An ethical hacker is responsible for meeting with network owners to discuss the security system.

2. Ethical hackers conduct thorough research of the company system to understand the possible penetration site and network structure.

3. An ethical hacker develops scripts suitable for testing the vulnerabilities of the network system.

4. They conduct various penetration tests on the network of the organisation.

5. Ethical hackers identify and record breaches and security flaws.

6. They identify the areas requiring high-level security.

7. They review the security network to find any possible issues.

8. Ethical hackers create suggestions for necessary security upgrades.

9. They formulate penetration test reports to present to the client.

10. The ethical hacker performs various penetration tests after the implementation of a new security.

Eligibility Criteria for Ethical Hackers

To land an ethical hacking position in a reputable firm, you must have a Bachelor’s degree in computer science or information technology. Candidates must obtain a

PG Diploma in Software Development – Specialisation in Cyber Security

to take up ethical hacking as a career. Further, if you have a

PG Certification in Cyber Security

from a reputed institute, it will help you attack lucrative opportunities from top companies in the IT sector.

An ethical hacker must have expertise and sound working knowledge of Linux servers, Microsoft, Virtualization, Cisco network switches, Citrix, and Microsoft Exchange. Adequate knowledge of the latest penetration software and tools is essential to succeed and stay ahead of the competition.

Why should you pursue Ethical Hacking as a career?

With the rise of online thefts, ethical hacking has become one of the most popular career options. An increasing number of breaches and cybercrimes have been reported in recent times. As per Gartner and Accenture’s surveys, the Information security market is expected to

reach $170.4 billion by 2023

, and nearly 68% of business leaders worldwide feel that

cybersecurity risks are growing.

Thus, there is a growing demand for ethical hackers in various industries like government organisations, IT sectors, law enforcement, departments in National intelligence, financial institutions, etc. In fact, business organisations need ethical hackers to keep their information protected. It is with this increasing demand that the ethical hacking salary in India is quite lucrative. But before taking up the profession, one must be aware that the position does not just require educational qualifications and technical skills but also honesty, strong ethics, and most importantly, a willingness to learn to combat challenges.

Ethical Hacking: Skills Required

An ethical hacker must be proficient in networking databases, system handling, and operating systems. They also require soft skills required to communicate to the clients’ the problems in the organisation’s security and suggest the most efficient upgrades. Apart from these, they must possess knowledge of:

1. Network traffic sniffing

2. SQL injection

3. Orchestrate various network attacks

4. DNS spoofing

5. Exploiting buffer overflow vulnerabilities

6. Password guessing and tracking

7. Session hijacking and spoofing

An ethical hacker must have a creative mind because black hat hackers continuously look for opportunities to exploit a system in ingenious ways. They should be able to think like a black hat hacker and work with software testing teams to protect and prevent such security breaches.

Ethical Hacker Career Path

With the increase in computer hacking, government organisations, financial institutions, and renowned companies recruit skilled, ethical hackers to keep their information safe and secured. There is no shortage of ethical hacking jobs in India. As per the

2023/2023 Official Annual Cybersecurity jobs report

, the demand for information security personnel will lead to an estimated 3.5 million unfilled jobs being created globally by 2023. The industry will witness a 350% growth by 2023. In India, the number is expected to rise by 77,000 in the next five years. Technical hackers can look for top companies like Dell, Google, Wipro, Reliance, Infosys, and IBM to land the highest-paid ethical hacking jobs in India.

Salary bands in ethical hacking vary greatly based on the companies you work for, experience levels, and educational qualifications, among other factors. Currently, the

A candidate who possesses the required skills and educational qualifications can pursue any of the following positions:

  1. Data Security Analyst Average Base Salary: ₹480k /year

Data security specialists or analysts are responsible for planning and executing the protection of the data present on the organisation’s computers and networks. They work closely with the employees of the organisation to educate them about security protocols.

  2. Network Security Engineer Average Base Salary: ₹517k /year

A network security engineer is responsible for maintaining the security of various networking systems of an organisation. He maintains the security system developing possible plans to bring the system back to normal even after problems created by hackers, attacks, natural disasters, or other means.

  3.Security Auditor Average Base Salary: ₹691k /year

As a security auditor is responsible for providing security audits of the systems. Once done, he needs to give a detailed information report of the organisation system to the owner. This helps the network owners to make necessary changes to improve their system. A security auditor has the choice of either work alone or as a part of a team.

  4. Cyber Security Analyst Average Base Salary: ₹525k /year

A cybersecurity analyst works together with IT professionals to check on the organisation’s security measures and controls. They are responsible for planning, implementing, and evaluating the network solutions by identifying the system’s vulnerability and infrastructures before any attack. Also, they perform various tests of security assessment and risk analysis to help keep the information secure. Companies hire security analysts to prevent breaches and cyber-attacks, which enables them to preserve their financial health and brand image. Since the professionals have adequate knowledge about the security procedures, they protect the company from future lapses and intrusions.

  5. Penetration Tester Average Base Salary: ₹595K/year

A penetration tester has to test various IT system procedures to identify possible system flaws. They perform a penetration test to identify the potential vulnerabilities and improper configuration by hacking into the network system and computers. These professionals are also responsible for keeping a record of their activities and discovered vulnerabilities. A penetration tester job requires competent testing skills and expertise since they employ cutting-edge testing tools to break into the systems. 

  6. Information Security Officer Average Base Salary: ₹1180k /year

An information security officer is the senior manager of an organisation responsible for maintaining the enterprise strategy. They implement strategies to ensure the safety of information and technology assets. He aids the organisation staff in developing, implementing, and maintaining procedures that help reduce information leaks.

Future Scope of Ethical Hacking

The job of an ethical hacker is challenging. They help companies find possible security leaks in their systems and protect them from potential threats.

They are expected to document all the steps undertaken carefully to determine the vulnerabilities in a system. Further, they might have to spend hours writing reports in clear and concise language for network owners. However, not all ethical hacking is confined to penetration testing. Many ethical hackers write examining computer codes to look for flaws.

However, with the growing need for ethical hackers in various industries, a talent gap is expected in the coming years. As per the

World Economic Forum (WEF),

“nowhere is the workforce-skills gap more pronounced than in cybersecurity.”

As more and more businesses are realising this,  almost every industry is looking to hire ethical hackers to keep their information safe and secure from possible breaches. Therefore, it is the need of the hour for aspirants in these fields to upskill themselves adequately to attract promising job opportunities. 

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Top 10 Chatbot Companies In India To Watch Out For In 2023

Here are the best chatbot companies in India.

Businesses who want to build a strong brand image and give the best possible customer service might benefit greatly from “ Pixelcrayons, which was founded in 2004, provides a high-quality chatbot development service to help you improve your business interactions. Expert chatbot developers at the organization have experience designing chatbots and voice bots using a variety of frameworks, including Amazon Lex, Microsoft Bot, IBM Watson, and others.  

BotsNext is swiftly establishing itself as a global leader in chatbot development, by achieving experience in developing more than 100 professional Chatbots & Virtual Assistant projects for eCommerce, Education, Hospitality, Travel, F&B, and other industries. BotsNext is facilitating digital transformation in the workplace by displacing outdated methods and delivering a better customer experience.  

Hiddenbrains has a wealth of experience in the industry, having been in business for over 17 years. The company provides chatbots that use diverse technologies such as machine learning, natural language processing, and artificial intelligence. Hiddenbrains employs a team of chatbot developers to create chatbots with the goal of improving the way businesses connect with customers, providing interactive experiences, and automated customer service with chatbots.  

Maruti Techlabs is a team of software experts with experience in big data, business intelligence, analytics, bot creation, mobile platforms, cloud systems, and application development. It has a history of exceeding customer expectations via hard work and commitment. Through considerable experience in software development, the company understands the client’s business goals and strives to bring ongoing innovation.  

Teplar provides unique chatbot development services for creating bots that are totally personalized and adapted to your company’s needs. They use the most up-to-date methods and technologies to create chatbots that actually engage customers and provide satisfaction.  

Squareboat is a prominent Chatbot Development company that provides professional services on time and at a reasonable cost. It creates chatbots of various levels of complexity that may communicate with your consumers on any platform. Google Assistant Actions Development, Alexa Skills Development, Voice-Based Chatbots, Customer Support Chatbots, NLP/AI Chatbots, and Virtual Assistant Chatbots are among the company’s chatbot services. is a platform built on top of WhatsApp Business API. Its AI-enabled chatbot, CRM tool, hybrid machine-human query handling interface, and other capabilities enable companies to conduct meaningful discussions with consumers. To get the most out of chúng tôi and get started with the WhatsApp Business API, you’ll need to sign up for a free trial account.  

Millions of customers rely on BotMyWork to help them achieve their business goals. It has developed a number of chatbot integrations for team collaboration and messaging platforms such as Slack, Hangouts Chat, and others. Additionally, the company’s Chatbot Builder for Facebook successfully automates customer care and promotes conversational marketing to improve sales. The team’s goal is to create bots that eliminate manual contact and enable automation in order to boost productivity across all business lines.  

Bots developed in Floatbot can be used in a variety of places, including the Web portal, mobile apps (iOS and Android), Facebook Messenger, Slack, Skype, Telegram, Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant, Google Home, and WhatsApp.  

Cedex Technologies is a software development company that specializes in producing high-quality software solutions. Chatbot Development, Voicebot Development, Web Application Development, Mobile Application Development, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Web Design, and Cloud Services are some of the services it offers.

Ethical Issues In Health Research And Therapy In Children

School-aged children spend most of their time away from home at educational institutions. The essential goal of any policy, institute, or organization is to provide the kid with a healthy classroom environment that promotes learning. Some students in our educational system are discovered to be suffering from numerous psycho-social challenges, which may result in negative student behavior or poor academic achievement. Children with special needs, learning disabilities, and different emotional and behavioral issues require special care; they deserve a supportive atmosphere to achieve the ultimate aim of becoming a good and constructive generation that will move society ahead.

Ethical Considerations in the Therapy of Children

Applying thee principles sounds easy but is complex in practice. Deciding what is in the stylish interests of the child is only sometimes straightforward. The chronological age of the child — her or his position of emotional maturity and capability to understand the consequences of certain conduct — may need to be considered. This is where the difference between youthful children, mature minors (who might be between the ages of 14 and 16), and youthful people (who progressed between the ages of 16 and 18) can also be important.

In utmost cases, parents have the stylish interests of their children at heart and can be reckoned upon to make wise opinions on their behalf. Ethical dilemmas are more likely to arise for health professionals when −

Parents differ with each other about the child’s stylish interests.

Parents differ with the child or youthful person about the best course of action.

The health professional believes one or both parent(s) to act in their own rather than in their child’s interests.

Ethical dilemmas also arise when the counselor or psychotherapist feels caught between their duty to the child’s sequestration and reporting material bared in the session, either to the child’s parents or authorities.

Ethical and Legal Issues in the Therapy of Children

Any psychotherapist’s primary job is to treat children and families in psychotherapy ethically and legally. Because of children’s specific vulnerabilities and the complexity involved with engaging with several family members, treatment with children and families necessitates the highest ethical behavior standard in various ways.

Because ethical rules are often established for adult instances, they may be difficult to apply to children and families. Specific considerations are required to comprehend the child’s capacity to form treatment opinions, the conflicting legal and ethical norms involved in the treatment of children, the varying needs of children and their family members, and the special vulnerabilities of children.

Ethical Issues in Play Therapy of Pre-adolescents

Play therapy is a multidisciplinary field composed of professional counselors, social workers, academy counselors, marriage and family therapists, and psychologists. Play therapists cleave to several ethical guidelines, including those set forth by the Association for Play Therapy, primary disciplines and professional associations, state licensing boards, and state and city laws. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, dedication, and justice should be espoused when working with children.

Clients have freedom of choice, and play therapists uphold their guests’ weal, cover their guests, keep pledges to guests, practice fairness, and tell the verity. Ethical decision-making involves considering legal, professional, and customer-centered variables. The following are the ethical issues that play therapist practice with preadolescents play therapist capability, confidentiality and its limitations, and self-care.

Confidentiality and participating information with parents become further nuanced as children enter manhood. Self-care in setting limits and seeking regular supervision must be a precedence to continue conducting effective therapy with preadolescent clients.

Ethical Considerations in Psychotherapy of Adolescents

These are −

Maintaining Boundaries

Adolescence is an impressionable age, and when adolescents come for therapy, they may begin to pester the therapist with personal questions and establish a personal connection with them either by connecting via social media or trying to make relations outside of the therapeutic alliance. Therapists must effectively deal with such situations, set clear boundaries with the clients, and maintain a strictly professional relationship.


It is not rare for adolescents to go for therapy by choice, but a majority choose to opt for therapy at the insistence of their parents. As a result, parents may ask the therapist what discussions took place in the sessions and what their child shared with the therapist that the child does not share with them. In such cases, the therapists have to ensure that strict confidentiality is maintained and only the necessary information is shared that does to spill the beans about the conversation between the client and the therapist.


Adolescents are primarily a group who do not like to be told what is to be done. Therefore, parents should encourage their children to go for therapy but not force them. Therapy will work only if the adolescents willingly opt for it. Therapists should be mindful that while setting therapy goals, they should take the adolescents’ opinions into account and let them choose what they feel is the best for them; this gives the adolescents a sense of worth and feels that they are a part of the alliance.


Counter-transference is the positive and negative feelings that therapists develop towards their clients. Ethically, therapists should identify the warning signs and effectively deal with the situation instead of letting their feeling affect the therapeutic alliance.

Encounters in Public Spaces

When therapists come across their adolescent clients in public spaces, they should not acknowledge the adolescent as their client and especially not begin to take updates about their situation; else, it might breach their privacy and make them uncomfortable.

Ethical Guidelines while Research with Children

It can be studied through the following headings −

Privacy and Confidentiality

Esteeming the sequestration and confidentiality of children and youthful people sharing in exploration involves close consideration of several aspects. Sequestration about how important information the child wants to reveal or partake, and with whom; how to bandy exploration confidentiality with children, including citation of the limits to this (e.g., safety enterprises similar as a detriment, neglect or abuse), in a way that does not introduce new, potentially worrisome, ideas; sequestration in the processes of information gathering/ data collection and storehouse that allows the exchange of information to be non-public to those involved. Children’s obscurity and recognition in the publication and dispersion of exploration findings and associated conditioning.

Pressures may arise when experimenters’ understandings and prospects regarding sequestration and confidentiality are at odds with the customary artistic, community, or family practices of exploration actors or conflict with other ethical considerations, similar to child protection. Experimenters have an ethical obligation to report safety enterprises, but always be prepared to do so sensitively, consulting with the child involved and following obligatory reporting guidelines if these live.

Informed Consent

Seeking informed consent from children and young people (as well as from their parent or guardian) is central to an ethical, children’s rights approach to exploration. Informed concurrence signals respect for children’s quality, their ability to express their views, and their right to hear these in matters that affect them.

Informed consent involves several important aspects; children must understand the exploration and their participation within it; consent should be an unequivocal agreement (generally involving the experimenters(s), the child, their parent’s caregivers, and occasionally their institution/ community leaders). Children’s consent must be given freely (and without compulsion), and the consent should be renegotiable so that children can withdraw at any stage of the exploration process.

Conducting research with children can help experimenters understand what they suppose about the issues that affect them. However, any exploration involving children must balance the exploration points with the safety and good of the actors. By furnishing the right support and knowing when to take applicable action, experimenters can ensure that children feel reputed and can share safely.

The most abecedarian consideration in undertaking exploration involving children is deciding whether the exploration needs to be done, if children need to be involved in it, and in what capacity. Consequently, at the veritable onset of the exploration process, experimenters need to engage with critical issues regarding the purpose of the exploration and the impact that sharing in the exploration may have on children in terms of implicit damages and possible benefits.

Ethical exploration is sustained by the principles of justice, beneficence, and non-maleficence, basically seeking to ensure that the exploration exertion brings about good and does no detriment. Assessing implicit damages and benefits is not straightforward as a range tells these factors across the multiple surroundings in which exploration occurs.

There can also be divergent opinions about what constitutes detriment and benefit and affiliated issues similar to respectable situations of threat. Ethical exploration requires reflecting on these and making opinions, minimizing pitfalls, and maximizing implicit benefits for the children sharing and others.


Working with children and adolescents can be challenging. Therapists should ensure that the children feel comfortable and that the therapist works in a way that serves the best interest of their clients. Young children are vulnerable, and this demands that therapists be extra careful with them and not violate their dignity in any way.

Top 13 Ways To Mitigate The Ethical Risks Of Rpa In 2023

These are all questions that warrant definitive answers. And that is what we aim to do in this article. Specifically, we will talk about what RPA ethics is, the values it should uphold, and the 13 different risks that RPA technology poses to society, the economy, and businesses alike.

This article primarily builds upon, and summarizes, arguments made by Dirk Beerbaum, a scholar, in a paper published in 2023, on the ethics of AI and RPA.  

What is RPA ethics?

RPA technology is dependent on human rationality for development and implementation. Therefore, RPA ethics refers to the dilemmas that programmers, users, and adopters of RPA face when dealing with the societal, operational, and economical consequences of the technology.

What are the operational risks of RPA? 

Operational failures are incidents, hiccups, barriers, or mistakes that prevent a business process from running smoothly. For instance, a production plant fire, caused by overheated wires, is an operational failure that interrupts the regular flow of the manufacturing process.

In terms of RPA technology, a sudden malfunctioning can have a negative downstream effect on workflows that depend on it. You can read our article on RPA failures to learn more about the negative effects and best practices towards such scenarios.

Therefore, to mitigate operational risks of RPA, the following conditions should be upheld:

1. Safety

The scripts for RPA and the underlying IA technologies should ideally be safely programmed and securely kept for the duration of the system’s operational lifetime. For instance, data leakage poses a safety issue.

If RPA technology results in operational, administrative, or societal harm, it should be possible to digitally track the process back and determine what caused it and how.

3. Easy-to-understand explanation

When something goes wrong, the programmer must explain it in a way that a human authority who isn’t familiar with the lingo may understand.

4. Human control

There should be human-led-controls applied to the technology, and to the underlying codes and algorithms, wherever there’s a possibility of a systematic breakdown. This makes human intervention possible.   

Risks of value misalignment 

In order to bridge the gap between ethical values and RPA’s alignment with it, the following principles should be upheld:

5. Principal-Agent problem

The responsibility for RPA’s moral implications, its use, and misuse should lie with the designers, programmers, and the stakeholders of the technology.

6. Social and moral values 

RPA and AI should be built from the ground up with respect to social and moral ideals of human dignity, rights, freedoms, cultural diversity, non-discrimination, and unbiasedness. 

AI bias is a common issue and developers should take it into consideration while implementing RPA.

7. Non-subversion

The RPA and AI technology should be built to uphold and strengthen the social and civic processes rather than trying to subvert them. 

One use case of RPA in healthcare, for example, is claims management. RPA should ideally be used as an impartial and rule-based system that evaluates each patient’s claim based on their documents, and the hospital’s policies.

In this way, the outcome is programmed to be as equitable as possible. It would be contrary to such a framework if the technology favored some patients/claims over others.

8. Common Good 

RPA and AI systems should stay true to the promise of democratizing automation for the masses. Therefore, any developments in those fields should be in the service of the common good rather than the benefit of specific individuals or organizations. 

9. Accessible to all

The AI technology has to be accessible to all users without discrimination or apprehension. Open-source RPA, for instance, is an instantiation of such premise, wherein the underlying code for an RPA tool is freely shared on the Internet in order to be leveraged and used by citizens and professional developers alike to create one of their own.  

Risks of negligence 

These risks refer to negligence over not applying proper controls over the development path of the RPA and an unrealistic expectation over the development stage of the technology. 

10. Recursive self-improvement 

RPA and AI systems that leverage ML and other similar technologies for evolution and self-improvement should constantly be watched and monitored to ensure their development are in line with safety, legal, ethical, and other control measures. 

11. Caution

On the end-user side, for instance, the business managers who wish to adopt RPA should be realistic about how expansive automation can get vis-a-vis their day-to-day activities. Overly optimistic automation promises to stakeholders should be avoided.

Market risks

Market risks are posed by agglomeration of, mainly, operational and supply chain risks, because of AI-enabled failures. These risks negatively affect a business’ market position in terms of pricing, competitiveness, outreach, and popularity.

12. Supply chain risk 

Users and the adopters of RPA should be aware of the risks they pose to supply chain continuity. For processes that depend on timely execution and scheduling, a malfunction could lead to distribution delays, manufacturing and/or assembling delays, and market shortages.

Taken to the extreme, these supply chain disruptions would have a downstream effect on sudden price changes and consumer panic. 

The dependency of supply chain management on RPA and other AI-enabled technology should always be mitigated through “exit plans” that would ensure continuity until the technological mishap is resolved. For instance, one exit plan could be the adoption of process mining. 

Process mining can enable logistics firms to detect deviations, delays, and errors occurring in their processes and discover the root causes behind these issues. As a result, the firms can identify the processes that they need to implement RPA or they can solve the problems by simply changing the order of tasks.

13. Operational risk

Operational risk is any plausible circumstance that might disrupt or endanger the operational continuity of a business.

For instance, if the RPA technology mistakenly sends company’s confidential information to a wrong email address, the operational continuity of a business, and reputation, might be at risk.  

By applying human-led controls through different stages of the automation processes, as well as having a transparent process map of the RPA technology’s functionality, businesses can mitigate the operational risks that autonomous technologies might pose.

For more on RPA

To learn more about RPA’s technology and use cases, read:

To gain a more comprehensive overview of RPA, download our whitepaper on the topic:

And if you believe your business would benefit from an RPA solution, we have a data-driven list of RPA software vendors prepared.

Go through them, and we will help you choose the correct tool for your business:

He primarily writes about RPA and process automation, MSPs, Ordinal Inscriptions, IoT, and to jazz it up a bit, sometimes FinTech.





Celebration Of Makar Sankranti Festival In India

Celebration of Makar Sankranti

Makar Sankranti is a significant Indian festival that the whole country celebrates. Every year it falls in mid-January, basically on the 14th or 15th. Many parts of the country celebrate it uniquely, which is the specialty of Indian culture. One festival celebrates differently: Punjabi celebrates Lohri, Maharashtra celebrates Sankranti, and Tamil Nadu celebrates Pongal. Makar Sankranti is an auspicious festival as per the Hindu calendar. People celebrate this day by flying kites, exchanging sweets, taking a dip in holy rivers, and preparing delicious food. This festival is seen as a festival of joy and prosperity and celebrates thanking the Sun God and seeking His blessings.

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Significance of Makar Sankranti Festival

Major cities of India celebrate this festival. Makar Sankranti signifies the transition of the Sun into the Northern Hemisphere, meaning the beginning of longer and warmer days. The festival is also an important agricultural festival and marks the end of the winter solstice, which marks the beginning of the harvest season. It is a reminder to live with joy and gratitude.


It is an ancient festival celebrated in India. it comes on a fixed date, 14 January, every year. It marks in various ways in different parts of India, but the core concept of celebrating the festival is the same. Hindu scriptures have mentioned Makar Sankranti in the Rigveda, Mahabharata, and Puranas. It marks the beginning of the harvest season and celebrates with great enthusiasm in almost all parts of India.

The festival also marks the end of the cold winter and the beginning of the longer, warmer summer days. People exchange sweets and hold kite-flying competitions. They also take dips in rivers and perform puja (worship). It is considered an auspicious day and seen as an opportunity to give and receive blessings from the gods. It believes that performing puja and other rituals during this time will bring good luck and prosperity. People think that taking a dip in the holy rivers on this day will wash away one’s sins.

Makar Sankranti has been celebrated for centuries and is an important festival in the Hindu calendar. The festival act as a reminder of the importance of nature in our lives.

Celebration of Makar Sankranti Festival in Various Parts of India

In Gujarat, it is marked as Uttarayan and considered one of the most important festivals of the year. People fly kites in the sky, wear bright new clothes, and enjoy delicious food such as undhiyu and chikkis.

Punjab celebrates Lohri, where people gather around a bonfire and offer prayers to the deities. Maharashtra celebrates this festival, where people exchange sweets and offer prayers at temples.

Tamil Nadu celebrates Pongalous dishes like Pongal, Sakkara Pongal, and Ven Pongal.

Karnataka celebrates as Sankranti, and people prepare sweets like holige, obbattu, and sugarcane juice; also, they exchange the same. Andhra Pradesh celebrates Bhogi, where people decorate their homes with colorful rangoli and light lamps and prepare traditional delicacies. No matter where in India it is celebrated, it is a festival that signifies the onset of a new season and brings joy and prosperity to the people.

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Computational Design Workshop By Ratedu In 4 Cities In India

rat[LAB]EDU – Winter School 2023-19

Organized By: Sushant Verma

// Winter School 2023-19 :: Parametric Skyscrapers

The 5 day intensive workshop (3 days of studio sessions + 2 day online sessions) for design students & professionals will delve into computational & parametric methods (using Rhino3D & Grasshopper3D) to create systemic design models for architectural design of skyscraper. Advanced Design Tools such as Environmental Analysis and Structural Analysis for skyscraper will also be integrated in the studio, along with presentation and documentation for competition submission.

WS18-19 will run across 4 cities and investigate the agenda of Parametric Skyscapers for participants to experience a hands-on experience of correctly using the digital tools through computation and parametric methods.

Studio is designed as a 3-day event in all cities (+2 Online Sessions for each batch)  comprising of technical tutorials, teaching sessions, design critics, design documentation methods, presentations, submission panel preparations and design exercises culminating in a critical discussion about computational design and its future potentials, pertaining to high-rise developments.

The 3-day studio / workshop shall focus on inculcating the following aspects as a part of syllabus:

Parametric & Computational Design Methods

Skyscraper Design Tool-set

Environmental Analysis

Façade and Building Skin Design

Structural Analysis (if required)

Documentation and Presentation (for competition submission)

Best 3 projects (cumulative from all cities) will work with rat[LAB] Studio (Delhi) to submit the finalized project for eVolo Skyscraper 2023 (and other similar international competitions, where the scheme fits appropriately).

The selection will be based on final works developed in guidance of Studio Head – Ar. Sushant Verma from rat[LAB] Studio.

Teaching Methodology

Studio is structured to teach participants the use of computational techniques through Grasshopper® (Generative modeling plug-in for Rhino®) and ways to integrate it with architectural & structural systems for skyscraper design leading to international competition submissions.

No previous knowledge of Grasshopper & Rhinoceros is required for these workshops as basic technical knowledge will be provided on Day 1.

Pre-designed customizable tools will be provided by rat[LAB]EDU on Day 2 for design explorations & experimentation, pertaining to applications for high-rise buildings.

The workshop is curated in the form of a design studio with collective learning than mere software sessions. Software form a part of the tool-set that is inculcated in the 3-day studio sessions.

 Technical Sessions

Technical sessions will be provided to give an insight to computation, algorithms and parametric design methodologies to students & professionals. The idea of designing parametrically and use of computational methodologies is new to Indian context and has great potentials across various design disciplines. Digital experimentation using computational techniques (primarily Rhino3D + Grasshopper) will initiate the discourse, followed by technical sessions, theoretical discussions and presentations.


*Mumbai workshop has been shifted and clubbed with Pune workshop.

PUNE:  7th, 8th, 9th Jan 2023 (Monday to Wednesday)

Dr D Y Patil College Of Architecture (Akurdi)

Dr. D. Y. Patil Educational Complex,

Ravet Village Road, Sector 29,

Nigadi Pradhikaran, Akurdi, Pune,

Maharashtra 411044

NEW DELHI: 18th, 19th, 20th Jan 2023 (Friday to Sunday)

Sushant School of Art & Architecture

Ansal University

Sector 55, Golf Course Road,

Gurugram, Haryana 122003

CHENNAI: 23rd, 24th, 25th Jan 2023 (Wednesday to Friday)

RVS School of Change

9th Floor, Sapna Trade Centre

135, Poonamallee High Road,

Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600084

BENGALURU: 1st, 2nd, 3rd Feb 2023 (Friday to Sunday)

KS School of Architecture

No. 15, Off Kanakapura Road,

Near Vajarahalli, Mallasandra,

Karnataka 560109

*Since multiple organizations form a part of Winter School programme (venue partners, media partners, collaborating studio, etc.), there is always a slight possibility in change of dates and venue.

Tutors & Speakers

Sushant Verma – Studio Director (rat[LAB]Studio) (

Each city may have an additional co-tutor

Eminent experts from architectural design with knowledge in high-rise buildings will be invited as guest speakers for studio or online sessions.

Software & skills 

Basic 3D modeling skills in any software are preferred (Previous knowledge of Rhino3D is not obligatory).

Participants should bring their own laptop with pre-installed software.

NOTE: Grasshopper does not fully function on Rhino for MAC. A windows-enabled laptop is necessary.

Rhino 5 (90-day evaluation) can be downloaded for free here.

Rhino 6 (90-day evaluation) can be downloaded for free here.

Grasshopper free-version can be downloaded here.

Additional software & plug-ins will be provided in the workshop.

Registration Dates

All Registrations end 4 days prior to workshop start date (Or till seats last)

There are limited seats available.

Participation Fee

Student and recent graduates *- INR 8250 + 18% GST

Professional – Jr. **- INR 9750 + 18% GST

Professional – Sr. ***- INR 13750 + 18% GST

*(Graduated from B.Arch. or similar programme in 2023 or later)

**( Graduated from B.Arch. or similar programme between 2013 to 2023)

***( Graduated from B.Arch. or similar programme in or before 2012)

Valid ID Proof (for grad year) required STRICTLY; Nominal Platform service charges applicable.

Early-bird registration (limited seats only) ending on 20th Nov 2023: 15% Flat Discount

Group Registrations (Groups of 4 – 7) ending on 20th Nov 2023 : 20% Flat Discount

Venue Partners’ students : 25% Discount (as per coupon codes provided to school)



Distribution of research and study material.

Talk/Presentation on high-rise and skyscraper design.

Case study on Computational Design for skyscrapers.

Brainstorming to prepare for 3-day Studio Workshop.


Presentations / Lectures on Parametric Design & Computational Thinking

Introduction to Rhinoceros 3D – GUI & Basic Use

Grasshopper GUI & Basic Functionality

Points, Lines, Surfaces.

Parameters, Inputs, Numbers.

Simple & Referenced Geometry, Locally Defined Geometry, Baking, etc.

Lists & Data Tree Management

Data Manipulation & Visualization

Surface Tessellations


Patterns & Geometric Explorations

Releasing of pre-designed tools (Grasshopper scripts) to all participants

Functionality of tools for Skyscraper Design

Agenda for competition

Design development (in teams or individual)

Discussions on submission panels & output



Group Discussions & Preparation of Panels

3D Visualizations, Diagrams, Drawing Preparations

Presentation Methods

Finalizing A1 Panels (for submissions)


Collaborating with rat[LAB] Studio to finalize entries

Visual Communications & Technical Checks

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