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A while back Vernon asked me how he could search one cell and compare it to a list of words. If any of the words in the list existed then return the matching word.

Ugh, I’ve written that 3 times and I’m not sure it’s any clearer…let’s look at an example.

I’ve highlighted the matching words in column A red.

What we want Excel to do is to check the text string in column A to see if any of the words in our list in H1:H3 are present, if they are then return the matching word. Note: I’ve given cells H1:H3 the named range ‘list’.

There are a few ways we can tackle this so let’s take a look at our options.

Update: It’s easier and more robust to use Power Query to search for text strings, including case and non-case sensitive searches.

Non-Case Sensitive Matching

If you aren’t worried about case sensitive matches then you can use the SEARCH function with INDEX, SUMPRODUCT and ISNUMBER like this:

SEARCH cell A2 to see if it contains any words listed in cells H1:H3 (i.e. the named range ‘list’) and return the number of the character in cell A2 where the word starts. Our formula becomes:






i.e. in cell A2 the ‘F’ in the word ‘Finance’ starts in position 20.

Now using ISNUMBER test to see if the SEARCH formula returns any numbers (if it does it means there is a match). ISNUMBER will return TRUE if there is a number and FALSE if not (this gives us a list of Boolean TRUE or FALSE values). Our formula becomes:






Use the ROW function to return an array of numbers {1;2;3} (see notes below on why I’ve used ROW in this formula). Our formula becomes:






When you multiply Boolean TRUE/FALSE values they become their numeric equivalents i.e. TRUE = 1 and FALSE = 0. So our formula evaluates this ({TRUE;FALSE;FALSE}*{1;2;3}) like so: {1*1, 0*2, 0*3} and our formula becomes:




SUMPRODUCT simply sums the values {1+0+0} which gives us 1. Note: by using SUMPRODUCT we are avoiding the need for an array formula that requires CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. Our formula becomes:





Index can now go ahead and return the 1st value in the range of cells H1:H3 which is ‘Finance’.

Note: the above formula will not work if a match isn’t found. If you want to return an error if a match isn’t found then you can use this variation:

Not as elegant, is it? In which case you might prefer one of the array formulas below.

Notes about the ROW Function:

The ROW function simply returns the row number of a reference. e.g. ROW(A2) would return 2. When used in an array formula it will return an array of numbers. e.g. ROW(A2:A4) will return {2;3;4}. We can also give just the row reference(s) to the ROW function like so ROW(2:4).

In this formula we have used ROW to simply return an array of values {1;2;3} that represent the items in our ‘list’ i.e. Finance is 1, Construction is 2 and Safety is 3. Alternatively we could have typed {1;2;3} direct in our formula, or even referenced the named range like this ROW(list).

So you see using the ROW function is just a quick and clever way to generate an array of numbers.

What you must bear in mind when using the ROW function for this purpose is that we need a list of numbers from 1 to 3 because there are 3 words in our list and we’re trying to find the position of the matching word.

In this example the formula; ROW(list) will also work because our list happens to start on row 1 but if we were to start ‘list’ on row 2 we would come unstuck because ROW(list) would return {2;3;4} i.e. ‘list’ would actually reference cells H2:H4.

So, don’t get confused into thinking the ROW part of the formula is simply referencing the list or range of cells where the list is, the important point is that the ROW formula returns an array of numbers and we’re using those numbers to represent the number of rows in the ‘list’ which must always start with 1.

Functions Used





ROW – Explained above.

Case Sensitive Matching

[updated Dec 5, 2013]

If your search is case sensitive then you not only need to replace SEARCH with FIND, but you also need to introduce an IF formula like so:

Unfortunately it’s not as simple or elegant as the first non-case sensitive search. Instead the array formulas below are nicer

Array Formula Options

Below are some array formula options to achieve the same result. They use LARGE instead of SUMPRODUCT, and as a result you need to enter these by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.

Non-case Sensitive:

[updated Dec 5, 2013]


Case sensitive:

[updated Dec 5, 2013]



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Special thanks to Roberto for suggesting the ‘updated’ formulas above.

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Microsoft Excel: How To Insert An Image Into A Cell

Microsoft Excel: How to Insert an Image Into a Cell Follow this quick guide to insert images in Excel






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Microsoft Excel is an excellent tool for storing and calculating data. It allows you to insert text, numbers, dates, and error values into the cells. However, a recently added feature now lets you insert images into cells in Excel.

Nonetheless, users report that they can’t insert new cells in Excel when working on the program.

Can I drag and drop images into an Excel cell?

The straightforward answer is Yes. You can drag and drop images into an Excel cell. It allows you to select images directly from a file, and drag and drop it into the desired cell.

However, Microsoft Excel doesn’t support using the drag-and-drop option to copy items from Windows Explorer and insert them in the cells. There’s no definite reason for the restriction, but there is a way around it.

Furthermore, the drag-and-drop option is not a registered feature in Microsoft Excel, so it doesn’t support inserting images directly from open files. Hence, the image must be embedded in a file to be viewed in Excel.

How do I insert a picture into a selection cell?

Go through the following before proceeding with the guide below:

Move the necessary images to an identifiable file.

Ensure Word is running on your PC.

Back up your current work on Excel before trying to insert any image.

The above checks will help prepare the necessary items to insert images in the Excel cell. Follow the steps below to start inserting.

1. Via the Insert tab 1.1 Allow the Insert options in Excel

The steps above allow you to access and use the Insert Options to cut, copy, and paste images, charts, etc., into the Excel cells.

1.2 Use the Insert feature to add an Image into a cell in Excel

The Insert Option allows you to access pictures and other items to add to the Excel cells you’re currently working on. Check our article on what to do if the toolbar is missing in Microsoft Excel.

2. Insert an image into an Excel cell by dragging and dropping

Since Microsoft Excel doesn’t support dragging and dropping from Windows Explorer, using Microsoft Word is the best alternative. It allows you to drag images and drop them into your desired cells easily.

Read how to fix Microsoft Word not working on Windows 11.

Our readers can also check our guide on fixing corrupt Excel cells that may cause problems with their activities on Excel. Even more, you can read about what to do if you run into too many different cell formats error in Excel.

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Excel Formula – List Missing Numbers In A Sequence

A little while ago I received an email from Deborah asking what formula she can use to list missing numbers from a range.

Here is Deborah’s list of numbers:

You’ll notice they’re not sorted and there is a blank cell in the middle of the range. So, our formula needs to be able to handle blanks and an unsorted list.

And here she is:








It’s an array formula so you need to enter it with CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.

Below you can see the results of the formula copied down column C. When there are no more missing numbers it returns a #NUM! error.

Tip: You can easily avoid the #NUM! errors by wrapping it in an IFERROR function if you prefer.

Count the numbers in the range A1:A7, that match the numbers generated by ROW($1:$12) i.e. {1;2;3;4;5;6;7;8;9;10;11;12}, if they = 0 (i.e. if they’re missing), give me a list of them, if they’re not = 0 (i.e. not missing), give me “” (i.e. nothing), and in this cell just return the 1st smallest missing value.

The cell reference in the ROW(A1) part of the formula is relative, so as you copy the formula down column C, ROW(A1) becomes ROW(A2) which =2 and returns the second smallest missing number, ROW(A3) which is 3, returns the third smallest missing number and so on.

Functions Used in this Formula


The SMALL function returns the smallest kth value in an array. e.g the first smallest, second smallest, third smallest and so on.

The syntax is SMALL(array,k)


This ROW formula: ROW(A1) returns the row number of a reference. In this case it would return 1.

This ROW formula: ROW($1:$12) returns an array of values from 1 to 12 like this {1;2;3;4;5;6;7;8;9;10;11;12}. It works this way because this is an array formula entered with CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.


The COUNTIF function is counting the numbers in the range A1:A7 that match the array of values returned by the ROW function {1;2;3;4;5;6;7;8;9;10;11;12}.

The syntax is: COUNTIF(range, criteria)


The IF function tests for counts of 0, and if TRUE i.e. zero (remember if the count is zero it means the number is missing), it then returns the corresponding value from the resultant array generated by ROW($1:$12) i.e. {1;2;3;4;5;6;7;8;9;10;11;12}, otherwise it returns nothing.

The syntax is: IF(logical_test, value_if_true, value_if_false)

Let’s Step Through How It Evaluates:

The key here is that array formulas evaluate on an array of items i.e. more than one item, within the one formula. Below you will see evidence of this as the formula evaluates.








Step 1 – The values in the range A1:A7 and ROW(1:12) are returned:







Step 2 – The COUNTIF then returns (a resultant array of) the counts of values in the array returned by the ROW(1:12) formula that are present in the range A1:A7:





)=0, ROW($1:$12),"")


i.e. in the range A1:A7 there is 1 number 1 in the range, there are 0 number 2’s, 0 number 3’s etc.

Step 3 – The IF function’s logical test evaluates returning a TRUE where the number in the resultant array =0, and a FALSE where it doesn’t:





, {1;2;3;4;5;6;7;8;9;10;11;12},"")


Step 4 – the IF function’s value_if_true and value_if_false evaluate:



{"";2;3;4; "";6;"";"";9; "";11;""}


We now have a resultant array of the missing numbers.

Step 5 – The final ROW function evaluates to 1:



{"";2;3;4; "";6;"";"";9; "";11;""}


Step 6 – the SMALL function finds the 1st smallest value in the array:



Tip: the ROW function is used as a short cut to avoid having to type in an array constant. i.e. it’s quicker to type ROW($1:$12) than it is to type {1;2;3;4;5;6;7;8;9;10;11;12}

Note: This formula will ignore duplicate values in the list since it’s only looking for numbers in the range that have a count of 0, i.e. are missing.

Limitations of This Formula:

It uses the ROW function to generate a list of values that should be in Deborah’s range. It is therefore limited to the number of rows in your workbook. If you’re using Excel 2003 you’re limited to numbers in the range 1 to 65,536, and if you’re using Excel 2007 onwards you’re limited to number between 1 and 1,048,576.

It only works with whole numbers/integers.

Here is a clever VBA solution to find missing numbers that gets around some of the limitations above, plus the added bonus of allowing you to choose whether you want your list of missing values returned in a vertical or horizontal list.

Formula Challenge

What if your sequence of numbers were all negative. What formula would you use to find the missing negative numbers?


I’d like to thank Deborah for asking this question. It reminded me that I should write about this formula.

I’d also like to thank Oscar Cronquist of Get Digital Help for sharing his formula.

Javascript Program For Pairwise Swapping Elements Of A Given Linked List

In this tutorial, we are going to learn about a JavaScript Program for Pairwise Swapping Elements of a Given Linked List. One common operation on linked lists is swapping adjacent elements in pairs. This operation can be useful in various scenarios, such as reorganizing data, rearranging elements in a specific order, or optimizing certain algorithms. Also, we will focus on solving the problem of pairwise swapping elements in a given linked list using JavaScript. We will provide a step-by-step approach to implementing the algorithm, explaining the logic and code behind it. By the end of this tutorial, you will have a clear understanding of how to implement a JavaScript program to pairwise swap elements in a linked list, along with sample code and explanations for each step.

Let’s dive in and explore the solution to this problem in JavaScript!

Problem Statement

Given a linked list, the task is to implement a JavaScript program that swaps elements pairwise. In other words, the elements at consecutive positions in the linked list are to be swapped with each other. If the number of elements in the linked list is odd, then the last element remains unchanged. The program should return the head of the modified linked list.

Sample Examples

Example 1 −

Example 2 −

Now, let’s understand the algorithm for implementing this problem statement.


Create a function named pairwiseSwap(head) that takes the head of the linked list as input.

Initialize a temporary variable temp to store the current node, and set it to the head of the linked list.

Loop through the linked list with a step of 2, i.e., move two nodes at a time.

For each pair of nodes, swap their values.

Move to the next pair of nodes.

Continue this process until the end of the linked list is reached or there are no more pairs to swap.

Return the head of the modified linked list.

So, after understanding the algorithm let’s implement this algorithm with the help of an example where we implement this algorithm with the help of JavaScript.

Example: Implementation Using JavaScript

The program above implements pairwise swapping of elements in a given linked list. It uses a Node class to represent the nodes of the linked list, and a pairwiseSwap() function to swap the values of adjacent nodes in pairs. The program first creates a linked list with a given set of elements, displays the original linked list, performs pairwise swapping using the pairwiseSwap() function, and then displays the updated linked list with swapped elements.

class Node { constructor(value) { this.value = value; chúng tôi = null; } } function pairwiseSwap(head) { let temp = head; while (temp !== null && chúng tôi !== null) { let tempVal = temp.value; temp.value =; = tempVal; temp =; } return head; } let head = new Node(1); let node2 = new Node(2); let node3 = new Node(3); let node4 = new Node(4); let node5 = new Node(5); = node2; = node3; = node4; = node5; console.log("Original Linked List:"); let temp = head; while (temp !== null) { temp =; } console.log("null"); head = pairwiseSwap(head); console.log("Linked List after Pairwise Swapping:"); temp = head; while (temp !== null) { temp =; } console.log("null"); Conclusion

To sum up, the JavaScript program provided in this tutorial demonstrates an efficient solution for the pairwise swapping of elements in a given linked list. The algorithm iterates through the linked list, swapping adjacent elements in pairs, resulting in an updated linked list with swapped elements. This solution can be useful in various scenarios where element swapping is required in linked list operations. By implementing this program, one can easily perform pairwise swapping of elements in a linked list using JavaScript.

How To Print A List Of Files In A Windows Directory

In this article I’m going to mention the two main ways to generate a directory listing: using the command line or using a third-party program. If your needs are very simple, the command line method is the easiest and doesn’t require any additional tools. If you need a more fancy report, then check out the freeware utilities.

Table of Contents

Command Line

So let’s start with the command line method first since it’s easy and will probably be enough for 90% of the people reading this article. To get started, open Explorer and browse to the folder directory above the folder that you want to get the directory listing for.

At the command prompt, you have to type a very simple command:

The dir command generates a list of files and folders in the current directory and the right angle bracket says that the output should be sent to a file rather than onto the screen. The file will be created in the current folder and if you open it using Notepad, it’ll look like this:

By default, the command will give you the last modified date/time, the size of the files, the list of directories and the actual file names. If you want different information, you can add parameters to the command.

For example, if you don’t want all that extra information, you can print just the names of the files and folders using the following command:

In the above examples, you’ll notice there is a folder called Word Stuff, but the output doesn’t list any of the files inside that directory. If you want to get a listing of all files and folders including subdirectories of the current directory, then you would use this command:

The dir command has a bunch of other command line parameters which I won’t mention here, but you can check out a full list of them on Microsoft’s website. Using the extra parameters, you can also show file attributes (hidden, compressed, etc), show file ownership and more. You can then import the data into Excel and choose tab-delimited so that the data will be separated into individual columns rather than being bunched into one.

Third-Party Freeware Directory List & Print

One of the best utilities for printing directory listings is Directory List & Print. When you download it, you’ll notice that some of the features are disabled. That’s because the free version doesn’t include all the options that are included in the Pro version. To unlock everything, you’ll have to pay $20.

However, unless you really need to print out directory listings on a daily basis, the free version will be more than enough for just about anybody. Once you install it, you have to first choose the directory that you want to print out. You can also choose from a list of favorites on the right hand side.

By default, Provide subdirectories and Provide files are checked. This means it’ll print out the list of files in the current directory and will include any folders also in the current directory. It will not list out the files that are in subdirectories. If you want to do that, you have to check the Run through subdirectories box at the bottom.

As you can see, you can include the creation date, modified date, file size, path, etc in the free version, but if you want file owner, file attributes, etc, you’ll need to unlock the software. In the example below, I checked Show file size and Run through subdirectories to get this output:

You can print it, copy to clipboard, or export out to Word and Excel. To be annoying, they disabled copy to Notepad and export to file in the free version. The Action tab is also completely disabled so won’t go into it here. Overall, the free version of the program does a great job and more than enough to get a complete and thorough listing of a directory.

Karen’s Directory Printer

Karen’s Directory Printer is pretty old (2009), but still does a great job of exporting out directory listings. It doesn’t have as many options as Directory List & Print Pro, but compared to the free version, it’s quite close.

You have to pick from the Print tab or the Save to Disk tab first. Both are exactly the same, one just prints to a printer and the other saves the output to disk. Probably didn’t need two separate tabs for that, but it’s an old program.

Pick your folder and choose whether you want to print file names only, folder names only, or both. You can also tell it to search sub folders and print them out also. In addition, you can include or exclude system, hidden and read-only files.

You can also sort by file name, file extension, file size, date created, date modified and more. You can also put a file filter so that only certain types of files are printed, such as images only, sound files, executables, documents, etc.

There really isn’t much else to the software than what I have shown above. It runs fine on Windows 7 and Windows 8, so that’s great.

Javascript Program For Sorting A Linked List Of 0S, 1S, And 2S

In this tutorial, we will learn the JavaScript program for sorting a linked list of 0s, 1s, and 2s. Sorting algorithms are essential for any programming language, and JavaScript is no exception. Sorting a linked list of 0s, 1s, and 2s is a common problem that developers encounter in coding interviews and real-world applications.

So, let’s dive in and explore how to sort a linked list of 0s, 1s, and 2s using JavaScript programming.

What is sorting?

Sorting is the process of arranging elements in a specific order, either ascending or descending. It is a fundamental operation in computer science and has numerous applications in real-world scenarios. Sorting algorithms are used to organize data for efficient search, reduce redundancy, and optimize space and time complexity.

Here are some examples of sorting in JavaScript:

Example 1 − Sorting an array of numbers in ascending order:

Input: ar[]= [5, 3, 8, 1, 2, 9] Output: [1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 9]

Example 2 − Sorting an array of strings in alphabetical order:

Input: ['apple', 'banana', 'orange', 'grape'] Output: ['apple', 'banana', 'grape', 'orange'] What is a linked list?

A linked list is a linear data structure consisting of nodes that are linked together by pointers. Each node contains a data element and a reference to the next node in the list. Linked lists are commonly used for dynamic data structures, where the size of the data changes frequently.

Problem Statement

The objective is to arrange and display a linked list comprising 0s, 1s, and 2s in an ordered sequence. Let’s understand it with examples:

Examples Algorithm for Sorting a Linked List of 0s, 1s, and 2s

The steps for sorting a linked list of 0s, 1s, and 2s using the counting sort algorithm −

STEP 1 − Define a function sortList(head) which takes the head of the linked list as input.

STEP2 − Initialize a count array count[] of size 3 with all elements as 0.

STEP 3 − Traverse the linked list and increment the count of the node data at the corresponding index in the count array.

STEP 4 − Traverse the linked list again and replace the node data with the lowest index value for which the count is greater than 0.

STEP 5 − Decrement the count of the node data for each replacement.

STEP 6 − Print the linked list before and after sorting.

Now let’s try to understand the above algorithm with an example where we implement this algorithm using JavaScript.


The below JavaScript program uses a counting sort algorithm to sort a linked list containing 0s, 1s, and 2s. The algorithm first counts the frequency of 0s, 1s, and 2s in the list, then updates the values of nodes in the list based on the count of each value.

/* Link list node */ class Node { constructor(data) { chúng tôi = data; chúng tôi = null; } } class LinkedList { constructor() { chúng tôi = null; } push(new_data) { const new_node = new Node(new_data); = this.head; chúng tôi = new_node; } printList() { let currentNode = this.head; let value = ""; while (currentNode !== null) { currentNode =; } console.log(value + "null"); } sortList() { const count = [0, 0, 0]; let ptr = this.head; while (ptr !== null) { count[] += 1; ptr =; } ptr = this.head; let i = 0; while (ptr !== null) { if (count[i] === 0) { ++i; } else { chúng tôi = i; --count[i]; ptr =; } } } } const linkedList = new LinkedList(); linkedList.push(0); linkedList.push(1); linkedList.push(0); linkedList.push(2); linkedList.push(1); linkedList.push(1); linkedList.push(2); linkedList.push(1); linkedList.push(2); console.log("Before sorting:"); linkedList.printList(); linkedList.sortList(); console.log("After sorting:"); linkedList.printList(); Conclusion

Overall, the above Javascript program demonstrates an efficient method for sorting a linked list that contains only 0s, 1s, and 2s, using the counting technique. The algorithm has a time complexity of O(n) and a space complexity of O(1), making it an optimal solution for this particular sorting problem.

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