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Executive Linked to Livedoor Scandal Commits Suicide

Adding to Japan’s Livedoor stock scandal was the suicide of Hideaki Noguchi, vice president of H.S. Securities Co., which was raided along with Livedoor by Japanese Securities & Exchange authorities this week. Noguchi reportedly slit his wrists in a capsule hotel located on the Japanese tropical island of Okinawa.

The Associated Press reports “Noguchi is a former employee of On the Edge, the predecessor of Livedoor, which is at the center of a widening investigation that triggered massive selloffs on the Tokyo Stock Exchange on Tuesday and Wednesday. The market recovered some by midday Thursday.”

“We believe there wasn’t anything wrong,” H.S. Securities President Hideo Sawada said in a news conference. “We find (Noguchi’s suicide) regrettable and feel a heartbreaking grief.”

Offices of Livedoor, one of Japan’s largest web & search portals, which operates both online and in ‘brick & mortar’ establishments, were raided earlier this week in Tokyo’s Roponngi Hills.

Here’s a rundown of what Livedoor, which is in danger of being delisted from The Tokyo Stock Exchange, is in trouble for (provided by the AP) :

* Livedoor allegedly concealed the fact that it already owned Money Life through an investment fund subsidiary of the Livedoor group, according to the reports.

(Livedoor later denied those claims Thursday, saying the investment fund was not part of Livedoor.)

“(Livedoor and the fund) have different operating officers. So we deemed it inappropriate to include the fund in our consolidated earnings report,” the company said in a statement submitted to the Tokyo Stock Exchange Thursday.

* Media reports have also said Livedoor is suspected of concealing a 1 billion yen (US$8.7 million; euro7.1 million) loss for full-year results ending September 2004, among other allegations.

Again, to add a foundation to the importance of this news on the search community, here is my simplified explanation of Livedoor.

How can one explain Livedoor to the US market? Imagine Yahoo or Google. But instead of Yahoo sending its Yahoo Auto users to a company like Carmax or users looking to purchase concert tickets to Ticket Master, Livedoor would acquire Carmax and rename it Livedoor Autos, and then perform a hostile takeover of Ticket Master.

Hence, if you walk down the street of major cities in Japan you may see brick and mortar businesses like Livedoor Insurance or Livedoor Auto, all connected via the uber-popular Livedoor portal.

Therefore, a US equivalent to the raiding of Livedoor by Japanese Securities and Exchange officers may be (and this is just a fictional example) Google, Yahoo, or Microsoft being raided and Bill Gates or Larry Page’s homes being ransacked. And then multiply the effect on the economy, businesses, and media by 1000%

The scandal has led to a downward slide of major Japanese stocks (although the Nikkei is up a bit today) and the slight weakening of the yen in trading against the US Dollar & the Euro. Given the global market’s reaction to the Livedoor scandal, I’m still going out on my limb as an amateur economic analyst and do believe that the recent falls in Yahoo & Apple do have some non-linear connection to the Japanese Tech Stock scare & Livedoor trading.

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Psychologists Once Linked Autism To Schizophrenia—And Blamed Moms For Both

A new industry of psychoanalytic parent blaming grew up in the 1960s and ’70s, alongside the new biochemistry work that was supposed to put it out of business. It was focused on a kind of schizophrenia that allegedly affected only young children. So-called “childhood schizophrenia” did not look much like adult schizophrenia; it rarely involved hallucinations, strange delusions, or paranoia. It was instead characterized by cognitive decline and withdrawal into a world of fantasy. In 1943 the child psychiatrist Leo Kanner had suggested that childhood schizophrenia was a distinct syndrome of its own and proposed calling it “infantile autism.”

Originally, Kanner had suggested that children with this disorder were victims of some kind of inherited, biologically based defect. But he had at the same time been intrigued that most of them also had quite odd parents: “psychometrically superior” but “literal-minded and obsessive.” In 1949 he had elaborated: “One is struck again and again by what I should like to call a mechanization of human relationships. . . .  They [the parents] were anxious to do a good job, and this meant mechanized service of the kind which is rendered by an over-conscientious gasoline station attendant.” The parents, he concluded in a passage he would come to regret, were basically human refrigerators, and they kept “their children neatly in a refrigerator that did not defrost.” In 1954 he seemed to suggest that “emotional refrigeration” was probably far more important in the etiology of autism than any inherited predisposition.

It was the psychoanalyst Bruno Bettelheim who helped to translate these ideas into a form that would ultimately cast a terrible shadow over the lives of untold numbers of families with autistic children. In his 1967 book The Empty Fortress, Kanner’s “refrigerator mother” became more than a cool but conscientious robotic parent; she became a hateful one. “Throughout this book,” Bettelheim wrote, “I state my belief that the precipitating factor in infantile autism is the parent’s wish that his child should not exist.” He and others encouraged children to undergo intensive treatment in special residential centers—such as Bettelheim’s school in Chicago— designed to undo the damage caused by such unloving parents.

Many of these allegedly unloving parents turned their children over to the care of the various institutions and treatments because they believed the doctors knew best, and they felt they had no alternatives. “Doctors were gods,” one mother recalled much later. “I wanted my child better, so I’d do anything. Parting with my child was the worst thing I did.” Most were acutely aware that many of these doctors believed that the parents, particularly the mothers, were responsible for the child’s problems. Here is a typical story, recounted many decades later by a mother of an autistic child:

And in ’51, Wendy came. And she was quiet. But when she did cry, she didn’t want to be comforted. She much preferred to be by herself. Well, I was confused. . . .  Naturally we want to hold our babies, and make them happy and I just couldn’t do that. . . .  I took her to a child psychiatrist. And he called us into his office and he addressed most of his remarks to me. “Hi, Mrs. Roberts, umm . . .  We have noticed that with these children . . .  They seem to reject the mother, they don’t want the mother’s comforting arms. Now why do you think that is, Mrs. Roberts?” And I thought, “Well, if I knew, I wouldn’t be here.” . . .  I met another mother, sitting in the hallway . . .  and of course, two mothers always start to talk in the hallway, and she said, “Uh . . .  are you one of the Refrigerator Moms?” And I said, “What do you mean?” She said, “Well, don’t you know, that’s what we are?”

In the mid-1960s, a number of the parents of these children began to push back. Many found the courage to do so from a rallying cry issued by the psychologist Bernard Rimland, whose son had been diagnosed with childhood schizophrenia or autism. In 1964 Rimland’s Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and Its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior challenged the psychoanalytic perspective on autism, argued in support of a neurodevelopmental alternative, and called for new paths in the care and recovery of afflicted children. In this book, Rimland also included a seventeen-page questionnaire—a kind of diagnostic checklist for parents to fill out—and an address where parents could write to him with their answers. The response was overwhelming. Rimland later learned that some parents were stealing the book from their local libraries and ripping out the final pages to mail to Rimland. In 1965, realizing he had a movement on his hands, Rimland and others went on to establish the Autism Society of America, which soon established chapters across the United States.

Equally significant, during the writing of his book, Rimland began corresponding with Leo Kanner, who gave the book an enormous boost by writing a cordial, complimentary foreword to it. Then in 1969 the original father of the “refrigerator mother” concept stood up at a meeting of the Autism Society of America and apologized. He attacked Bettelheim’s The Empty Fortress as an “empty book” and explained that he himself had been frequently misunderstood and had never meant to suggest that autism was “all the parents’ fault.” Then he finished with seven electrifying words: “Herewith I acquit you people as parents.” Parents jumped to their feet, and the room burst into applause.

Excerpted from Mind Fixers: Psychiatry’s Troubled Search for the Biology of Mental Illness. Copyright © 2023 by Anne Harrington. Used with permission of the publisher, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. All rights reserved.

Golang Program To Add Elements At First And Last Position Of Linked List

In golang, a linked list is a unique data structure in which there is a value in the node and the next pointer which points to the next node. The list’s initial node is referred to as the head, while the list’s last node which points to nil depicts the end of list. We will add elements at the first and last position of the linked list using two examples. In the first example node struct will be used and in the second example ListNode struct will be used.

Method 1: Using Node Struct

In this method, we will use node struct to add elements at given position in linked list. Here, we will create two methods addfirst and addlast method where the program will be written to add the elements.

Algorithm

Step 1 − Create a package main and declare fmt(format package) package in the program where main produces executable codes and fmt helps in formatting input and output.

Step 2 − Make a Node structure with two fields − data, which will hold the node’s value, and next, which will hold a pointer to the node after it in the list.

Step 3 − Make an addFirst function. A node should be added to the linked list’s front first. The list’s head and the data to be added are the two inputs for this function. With the supplied data, the function generates a new node and sets its next field to the top of the list as it is at the moment.

Step 4 − The function returns a pointer to the new node, which takes over as the list’s new head.

Step 5 − To add a node to the end of the linked list, create the function addLast.

Step 6 − The list’s head and the data to be added are the two inputs for this function. The function iterates through the list beginning at the top and continues until it reaches the bottom.

Step 7 − Then, the next field of the current node is then set to point to the new node after creating a new node with the supplied data. The function returns the list’s head, which is left alone.

Step 8 − To print the linked list’s elements, create the function printList. This method iterates through the list while printing the value of each node’s data field. It takes the list’s head as a parameter.

Step 9 − Then create the list’s head node in the main function, and call the addFirst and addLast functions to add elements to the list’s first and last nodes, respectively.

Step 10 − Finally, use the printList method to show the connected list’s elements.

Example

In this example, we used node struct to add elements at first and last position of linked list.

package main import "fmt" type Node struct { data_val int next *Node } func addFirst(head *Node, data_val int) *Node { newNode := &Node{data_val: data_val} chúng tôi = head return newNode } func addLast(head *Node, data_val int) *Node { newNode := &Node{data_val: data_val} current := head for chúng tôi != nil { current = current.next } chúng tôi = newNode return head } func printList(head *Node) { current := head for current != nil { current = current.next } fmt.Println("nil") } func main() { head := &Node{data_val: 20} fmt.Println("The first and last elements are added as follows:") head = addFirst(head, 10) head = addLast(head, 30) printList(head) } Output The first and last elements are added as follows: Method 2: Using ListNode Struct

In this method, we will use ListNode struct to add elements at given position in linked list. Here, we will create two methods addfirst and addlast method where the program will be written to add the elements.

Algorithm

Step 1 − Create a package main and declare fmt(format package) package in the program where main produces executable codes and fmt helps in formatting input and output.

Step 2 − Build a structure and the ListNode contains two fields − next to store a pointer to the next node in the list and data_val to hold the node’s value.

Step 3 − Create an addFirst function. A node should be added to the linked list’s front first. The list’s head and the value to be added are the two inputs for this function.

Step 4 − In the next step the function takes a value and produces a new node, setting the next field to the head of the list as it is at that moment. The function returns a pointer to the new node, which takes over as the list’s new head.

Step 5 − To add a node to the end of the linked list, create the function addLast. The list’s head and the value to be added are the two inputs for this function.

Step 6 − The function iterates through the list beginning at the top and continues until it reaches the bottom.

Step 7 − The next field of the current node is then set to point to the new node after creating a new node with the specified value. The function returns the list’s head, which is left alone.

Step 8 − To print the linked list’s elements, create the function printList. This function prints the value of each node’s val field after iterating through the list using the list’s head as an argument.

Step 9 − Create the list’s head node in the main function, then call the addFirst and addLast functions to add elements to the list’s first and last nodes, respectively.

Step 10 − Finally, use the printList method to show the connected list’s elements.

Example

In this example, we will use ListNode struct to add elements at first and last position of linked list.

package main import "fmt" type ListNode struct { data_val int next *ListNode } func addFirst(head *ListNode, data_val int) *ListNode { newNode := &ListNode{data_val: data_val} chúng tôi = head return newNode } func addLast(head *ListNode, data_val int) *ListNode { newNode := &ListNode{data_val: data_val} current := head for chúng tôi != nil { current = current.next } chúng tôi = newNode return head } func printList(head *ListNode) { current := head for current != nil { current = current.next } fmt.Println("nil") } func main() { head := &ListNode{data_val: 1} head = addFirst(head, 0) head = addLast(head, 2) fmt.Println("The first and last elements are added as follows:") printList(head) } Output The first and last elements are added as follows: Conclusion

We execute the program of adding the elements at the first and last position of the linked list using two examples. In the first example, we used node struct and in the second example, we used Listnode struct.

Javascript Program For Pairwise Swapping Elements Of A Given Linked List

In this tutorial, we are going to learn about a JavaScript Program for Pairwise Swapping Elements of a Given Linked List. One common operation on linked lists is swapping adjacent elements in pairs. This operation can be useful in various scenarios, such as reorganizing data, rearranging elements in a specific order, or optimizing certain algorithms. Also, we will focus on solving the problem of pairwise swapping elements in a given linked list using JavaScript. We will provide a step-by-step approach to implementing the algorithm, explaining the logic and code behind it. By the end of this tutorial, you will have a clear understanding of how to implement a JavaScript program to pairwise swap elements in a linked list, along with sample code and explanations for each step.

Let’s dive in and explore the solution to this problem in JavaScript!

Problem Statement

Given a linked list, the task is to implement a JavaScript program that swaps elements pairwise. In other words, the elements at consecutive positions in the linked list are to be swapped with each other. If the number of elements in the linked list is odd, then the last element remains unchanged. The program should return the head of the modified linked list.

Sample Examples

Example 1 −

Example 2 −

Now, let’s understand the algorithm for implementing this problem statement.

Algorithm

Create a function named pairwiseSwap(head) that takes the head of the linked list as input.

Initialize a temporary variable temp to store the current node, and set it to the head of the linked list.

Loop through the linked list with a step of 2, i.e., move two nodes at a time.

For each pair of nodes, swap their values.

Move to the next pair of nodes.

Continue this process until the end of the linked list is reached or there are no more pairs to swap.

Return the head of the modified linked list.

So, after understanding the algorithm let’s implement this algorithm with the help of an example where we implement this algorithm with the help of JavaScript.

Example: Implementation Using JavaScript

The program above implements pairwise swapping of elements in a given linked list. It uses a Node class to represent the nodes of the linked list, and a pairwiseSwap() function to swap the values of adjacent nodes in pairs. The program first creates a linked list with a given set of elements, displays the original linked list, performs pairwise swapping using the pairwiseSwap() function, and then displays the updated linked list with swapped elements.

class Node { constructor(value) { this.value = value; chúng tôi = null; } } function pairwiseSwap(head) { let temp = head; while (temp !== null && chúng tôi !== null) { let tempVal = temp.value; temp.value = temp.next.value; temp.next.value = tempVal; temp = temp.next.next; } return head; } let head = new Node(1); let node2 = new Node(2); let node3 = new Node(3); let node4 = new Node(4); let node5 = new Node(5); head.next = node2; node2.next = node3; node3.next = node4; node4.next = node5; console.log("Original Linked List:"); let temp = head; while (temp !== null) { temp = temp.next; } console.log("null"); head = pairwiseSwap(head); console.log("Linked List after Pairwise Swapping:"); temp = head; while (temp !== null) { temp = temp.next; } console.log("null"); Conclusion

To sum up, the JavaScript program provided in this tutorial demonstrates an efficient solution for the pairwise swapping of elements in a given linked list. The algorithm iterates through the linked list, swapping adjacent elements in pairs, resulting in an updated linked list with swapped elements. This solution can be useful in various scenarios where element swapping is required in linked list operations. By implementing this program, one can easily perform pairwise swapping of elements in a linked list using JavaScript.

Javascript Program For Swapping Nodes In A Linked List Without Swapping Data

JavaScript program for Swapping Nodes in A Linked List Without Swapping Data is a familiar problem in web development that involves rearranging the order of nodes in a linked list. A linked list is a data structure that consists of nodes, each containing a piece of data and a reference to the next node in the list.

In this article, we will learn a complete tutorial about swapping nodes in a linked list without swapping data using JavaScript. So let’s get started by defining swapping nodes first and then we move ahead in this tutorial. So, Keep learning!

Swapping Nodes

Swapping nodes in a linked list means that we are exchanging the positions of two nodes. There are different approaches to swapping nodes in a linked list. One way is to swap the data in the nodes, but this can be inefficient when dealing with large amounts of data. Another way is to swap the pointers of the nodes. This is more efficient because we do not need to copy any data.

Let’s understand swapping nodes with an example

Example

Suppose we have a linked list that looks like this −

We want to swap the second and fourth nodes to get:

To do this without swapping the data in the nodes, we need to modify the links between the nodes. The resulting linked list should have the same data as the original, but with the order of the nodes changed.

So, we start by identifying the two nodes we want to swap: node 2 and node 4. We also need to keep track of the nodes that come before and after these nodes in the list.

In this case, the nodes before and after node 2 are 1 and 3, respectively. The nodes before and after node 4 are 3 and 5, respectively.

Next, we need to update the links between the nodes. We start by setting the next pointer of the node before node 2 to node 4. Then, we set the next pointer of node 2 to node 5 (since node 4 now comes after node 2). Finally, we set the next pointer of node 4 to node 3 (since node 2 now comes after node 4).

The resulting linked list looks like this −

Note − The data in each node has not changed, only the order of the nodes.

Now let’s see the algorithm we are going to use for Swapping Nodes in A Linked List Without Swapping Data.

Algorithm

STEP1: Identify the two nodes that need to be swapped

The first step is to identify the two nodes that need to be swapped. Let’s say we want to swap node A and node B.

STEP 2: Find the previous nodes of both the nodes to be swapped

We need to find the nodes that come before nodes A and B in the linked list. Let’s call these nodes PrevA and PrevB, respectively.

STEP 3: Update the next pointers of the previous nodes to point to the other node

Now, we need to update the next pointers of PrevA and PrevB to point to the correct nodes. This involves updating PrevA’s next pointer to point to node B, and PrevB’s next pointer to point to node A.

STEP 4: Update the next pointers of the nodes to be swapped to point to the correct nodes

Next, we need to update the next pointers of nodes A and B to point to the correct nodes. This involves updating node A’s next pointer to point to node B’s next node, and node B’s next pointer to point to node A’s next node.

STEP 5: Repeat the above steps for any additional nodes that need to be swapped

If we need to swap more than two nodes, we can repeat the above steps for each pair of nodes that needs to be swapped.

After completing these steps, the nodes will be swapped in the linked list without swapping their data. Now Let’s understand the above algorithm with an example where we implement this algorithm using Javascript.

Example

In this program, we first define a ‘Node’ class to create nodes of the linked list, and a ‘LinkedList’ class to create and manipulate the linked list. The ‘swapNodes’ function in the ‘LinkedList’ class implements the swapping algorithm described earlier.

class Node { constructor(data) { chúng tôi = data; chúng tôi = null; } } class LinkedList { constructor() { chúng tôi = null; } swapNodes(node1, node2) { if (node1 === node2) { return; } let prevNode1 = null; let currentNode1 = this.head; while (currentNode1 && currentNode1 !== node1) { prevNode1 = currentNode1; currentNode1 = currentNode1.next; } let prevNode2 = null; let currentNode2 = this.head; while (currentNode2 && currentNode2 !== node2) { prevNode2 = currentNode2; currentNode2 = currentNode2.next; } return; } if (prevNode1) { chúng tôi = currentNode2; } else { chúng tôi = currentNode2; } if (prevNode2) { chúng tôi = currentNode1; } else { chúng tôi = currentNode1; } let temp = currentNode1.next; chúng tôi = currentNode2.next; chúng tôi = temp; console.log("Swapped linked list:"); let current = this.head; while (current) { current = current.next; } console.log("null"); } addNode(data) { let node = new Node(data); if (!this.head) { chúng tôi = node; } else { let current = this.head; while (current.next) { current = current.next; } chúng tôi = node; } } } let linkedList = new LinkedList(); linkedList.addNode(1); linkedList.addNode(2); linkedList.addNode(3); linkedList.addNode(4); console.log("Original linked list:"); let current = linkedList.head; while (current) { current = current.next; } console.log("null"); let node2 = linkedList.head.next; let node4 = linkedList.head.next.next.next; linkedList.swapNodes(node2, node4); Conclusion

In this tutorial, we have presented a JavaScript program that implements this algorithm, and it successfully swaps nodes in the linked list without swapping their data. Hope it helps our readers. Happy Learning!

Javascript Program For Sorting A Linked List Of 0S, 1S, And 2S

In this tutorial, we will learn the JavaScript program for sorting a linked list of 0s, 1s, and 2s. Sorting algorithms are essential for any programming language, and JavaScript is no exception. Sorting a linked list of 0s, 1s, and 2s is a common problem that developers encounter in coding interviews and real-world applications.

So, let’s dive in and explore how to sort a linked list of 0s, 1s, and 2s using JavaScript programming.

What is sorting?

Sorting is the process of arranging elements in a specific order, either ascending or descending. It is a fundamental operation in computer science and has numerous applications in real-world scenarios. Sorting algorithms are used to organize data for efficient search, reduce redundancy, and optimize space and time complexity.

Here are some examples of sorting in JavaScript:

Example 1 − Sorting an array of numbers in ascending order:

Input: ar[]= [5, 3, 8, 1, 2, 9] Output: [1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 9]

Example 2 − Sorting an array of strings in alphabetical order:

Input: ['apple', 'banana', 'orange', 'grape'] Output: ['apple', 'banana', 'grape', 'orange'] What is a linked list?

A linked list is a linear data structure consisting of nodes that are linked together by pointers. Each node contains a data element and a reference to the next node in the list. Linked lists are commonly used for dynamic data structures, where the size of the data changes frequently.

Problem Statement

The objective is to arrange and display a linked list comprising 0s, 1s, and 2s in an ordered sequence. Let’s understand it with examples:

Examples Algorithm for Sorting a Linked List of 0s, 1s, and 2s

The steps for sorting a linked list of 0s, 1s, and 2s using the counting sort algorithm −

STEP 1 − Define a function sortList(head) which takes the head of the linked list as input.

STEP2 − Initialize a count array count[] of size 3 with all elements as 0.

STEP 3 − Traverse the linked list and increment the count of the node data at the corresponding index in the count array.

STEP 4 − Traverse the linked list again and replace the node data with the lowest index value for which the count is greater than 0.

STEP 5 − Decrement the count of the node data for each replacement.

STEP 6 − Print the linked list before and after sorting.

Now let’s try to understand the above algorithm with an example where we implement this algorithm using JavaScript.

Example

The below JavaScript program uses a counting sort algorithm to sort a linked list containing 0s, 1s, and 2s. The algorithm first counts the frequency of 0s, 1s, and 2s in the list, then updates the values of nodes in the list based on the count of each value.

/* Link list node */ class Node { constructor(data) { chúng tôi = data; chúng tôi = null; } } class LinkedList { constructor() { chúng tôi = null; } push(new_data) { const new_node = new Node(new_data); new_node.next = this.head; chúng tôi = new_node; } printList() { let currentNode = this.head; let value = ""; while (currentNode !== null) { currentNode = currentNode.next; } console.log(value + "null"); } sortList() { const count = [0, 0, 0]; let ptr = this.head; while (ptr !== null) { count[ptr.data] += 1; ptr = ptr.next; } ptr = this.head; let i = 0; while (ptr !== null) { if (count[i] === 0) { ++i; } else { chúng tôi = i; --count[i]; ptr = ptr.next; } } } } const linkedList = new LinkedList(); linkedList.push(0); linkedList.push(1); linkedList.push(0); linkedList.push(2); linkedList.push(1); linkedList.push(1); linkedList.push(2); linkedList.push(1); linkedList.push(2); console.log("Before sorting:"); linkedList.printList(); linkedList.sortList(); console.log("After sorting:"); linkedList.printList(); Conclusion

Overall, the above Javascript program demonstrates an efficient method for sorting a linked list that contains only 0s, 1s, and 2s, using the counting technique. The algorithm has a time complexity of O(n) and a space complexity of O(1), making it an optimal solution for this particular sorting problem.

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