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Exact match hasn’t meant ‘exact’ for quite some time but last week Google announced that they are further expanding the broadening of exact match keywords.

And as you know, I’m all about automation.

The analysis I’ll describe is trivial to do through a robust PPC management tool. Read on for a free Google Ads script that you can use to do the analysis quickly in one account or hundreds.

A Positive Impact (On Average)

While Google provides the usual reassurance that the typical account will see benefits from this change, we all know that no account is average.

So we need to make sure that the impact we’ll see for each of the unique accounts we manage will be a positive one.

What Is Changing About Exact Match?

In 2014, plurals and misspellings were added as ‘close variants’ to phrase and exact match keywords.

Examples provided by Google include scenarios where additional words are implied, where a term paraphrases the keyword, or where the words indicate the same intent.

Whereas plurals and misspellings were fairly straightforward to understand and to some degree predict, similar intent is broader and may warrant paying closer attention.

The other part worth paying attention to is that similar intent may not equate to similar value.

For reasons that can be hard to grasp, even minor differences between keywords can equate to big differences in conversion rates.

This is even true for plurals and singulars so it’s definitely a good idea to confirm with your data that using the word ‘campsites’ vs ‘camping’ performs similarly. If not, then they should be managed as separate keywords with different bids.

Query Management Is a Must

Specifically, you need to make sure that your process of periodically evaluating queries continues to be done.

This process will help you find new negative keywords as well as high-quality queries that should be added as managed keywords.

Should You Be Worried? Let’s Find Out!

This type of change is causing some buzz.

Hey, maybe you’re even a bit uneasy because you’d like to look beyond those hypothetical examples we got from Google about keywords for “camping in Yosemite”.

So let’s take a look at how this change is impacting your account.

1. Using the Ads Interface to Investigate

To get a sense of the impact this change will have on your account, and how misspellings and plurals are already impacting your account since the change in 2014, you can refer to the Search Terms report in Google Ads.

Be sure to add the Keyword column so you can see which keyword triggered a particular search term.

This Report Has a Few Shortcomings

The Match Type column refers to how the keyword matched the query, and not the match type of the keyword itself. This is one of those nuances in Google Ads; match type can refer to two very different things.

So the only way to see the match type of the keyword is to look at the special characters in the Keyword column. For example, square brackets around the keyword mean it’s an exact match keyword.

This limitation makes it a bit harder to do a quick analysis of how exact match keywords are getting matched to close variants. And if you try to filter the keywords that contain the text ‘[‘, Google says there are no matches since the brackets are not technically part of the keyword text.

The other limitation I see is that the report only contains the performance metrics of the queries. And while you can certainly use this data to weed out low performing queries, I like doing a slightly deeper analysis that also takes into account the relative performance of the query compared to that of the keyword.

The methodology is as follows:

Download a keyword performance report (including the keyword match type).

Download the search terms performance report.

Do a VLOOKUP to match every search term to the keyword that triggered it.

Get all the keyword and query data for each query into individual rows.

Filter the data to do the analysis.

So let’s go and automate this.

3. Analyze the Close Variant Impact on Your Ads with Google Ads Scripts

Thanks to Google Ads Scripts, you can automate the analysis so that you can easily replicate it for other accounts you manage.

Another nice benefit of scripts is that if you find the need to add negative keywords, you can automate that by adding a few more lines of code to the script.

The script also adds a match subtype column where I consider BMM (broad match modifier) to be a unique match type that is different from broad match. (Google doesn’t consider BMM to be its own match type).

Script Settings

Really the only things you should edit are the email addresses that need to get an email when a report is ready and the usernames of everyone who should be allowed to access the report that is generated in Google Sheets.

So update the variables ‘emailAddresses’ and ‘accountManagers’ and leave everything else as-is unless you’re familiar with scripts and you know what you’re doing.

var time = ‘LAST_30_DAYS’;

var reportVersion = ‘v202402’;

The Output of the Script

Here’s an example of the data you’ll get:

I’ve already used filters in Sheets to see only exact match keywords that were matched to a close variant. In this account the only variants are typos and plurals.

I’m going to continue monitoring this account with the script to find out what words Google considers as having the same intent.

Counting the Proximity Between the Query & Keyword

In the output, I wanted a way to more easily see how aggressive close variants are. In other words, how far they are from the keyword.

I figured one way to do this analysis is by counting the number of differences between the query and the keyword.

The Levenshtein distance seemed like a good measure to use as it counts the number of characters that need to be changed to transform one string (the keyword) into another string (the query).

In a pluralization, you would expect the difference to usually be one character (the addition or removal of the letter ‘s’ in English). Typos will usually consist of somewhere between 1 and 3 incorrectly typed characters.

So by looking at variants where the Levenshtein distance is in the range of 1 to 3, I can find the typical close match variants Google has now been doing for several years.

By looking for higher distances, I will be able to find where the words have been changed to ones with similar intent.


As Google is always updating its ad system, it’s critical for the humans overseeing the accounts to take on the role of the pilot who oversees that the automation is doing its job well.

Tools like Google Ads scripts are a great way to make that job easier by pointing out potential issues so that the account manager doesn’t need to merely trust the automation, nor check it manually.

I hope my script helps you do your job better and in less time.

More Paid Search Resources:

Image Credits

All screenshots taken by author, September 2023

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Your Guide To Google’s Exact Match Domain Algorithm Update

The EMD, or Exact Match Domain update, was a 2012 Google algorithm update that targeted exactly what it is named: exact match domain names.

The intent behind this update was not to target exact match domain names exclusively, but to target sites with the following combination of spammy tactics: exact match domains that were also poor quality sites with thin content.

There were really no other nicknames for this update. It went by the EMD update, or Exact Match Domain update.

The major weakness that these websites had was the fact that SEOs would buy domains with exact match keyword phrases, build a site out, but have extremely thin content with little to no value on them. It was extremely easy to do. So easy, in fact, that it was almost like taking candy from a baby in terms of easy SEO wins.

Before the update happened, Google’s Matt Cutts warned the industry that this was going to be a focus of a future update in a webmaster video published on March 7, 2011.

Dr. Pete Meyers at Moz published an article just prior to the release of the EMD update, asking whether EMDs were in decline. His accompanying data showed a sharp decrease in the influence that exact match domains had on actual rankings.

Cutts announced the EMD update on Twitter on September 28, 2012:

Industry Reactions & Discussions

Here are some industry reactions (for more, check out this thread on WebmasterWorld.

It makes me wonder what they mean by “Low Quality”.

-The second is not a quality site but not terrible. It is a two word keyword phrase .org without dashes. I could see it not being on page one based on it’s content, but there is no reason for it to be outside of the top 100. It is not that bad.

The EMD Update Was to be Run Periodically

Danny Sullivan at SearchEngineLand wrote that Google confirmed that the EMD algorithm is going to be run periodically, so that those that have been hit stay filtered or have a chance to escape the filter. This is also in place so that Google can catch what they may have missed during the last update.

Spammy Sites & Thin Content Were Big Hits

The goal of this update was to target spammy sites and sites with significant amounts of thin content providing little value beyond exact match words in the domain. Sites with stronger brand recognition and high quality content were less likely to be hit.

What If You Were Hit By the EMD Update?

If you were hit by the update, and you wanted to recover, the general consensus of the proper plan of attack was very similar to Panda:

You would want to get rid of and/or improve the poor quality content. Please note: Google has officially recommended that improving poor quality content is mostly the best solution, as opposed to removing low quality pages entirely.

A link profile audit would be beneficial to identify spammy inbound links that had low trust signals, and engage in a link remediation/removal campaign to remove them.

Then, revising your routine to add new custom, amazing content to your site every day.

And finally: engage in an SEO link acquisition campaign to increase your website’s trust and authority. After the removal of the bad links, continued acquisition would be necessary.

Was There a Pattern to Sites Hit By This Update?

Dr. Pete at Moz released a detailed study on this update. Based on his measurements of who got hit, approximately 41 EMDs fell out of the top 10, with a net change of about 36 domains after 5 new EMDs entered the top 10). One example site that fell out of the top 10 had an exact match domain. While it wasn’t exactly a spammy site, it was a fairly decent site whose only crime was choosing a keyword rich domain over the branded domain.

The majority of sites in the mix did seem to have more signals that communicated lower quality – things like low-authority, spammy link acquisition, aggressive keyword use, etc. – and they appeared to be ranking just because of the fact that they had an EMD.

There was no clear pattern discernible by Dr. Pete’s data, and thus most SEOs were forced to assume that multiple factors not identified publicly by Google were being weighed by them.

EMD Update Case Studies

In August 2024, Mark Preston published a case study that tracked the effectiveness of exact match domains and local SEO. The study was inconclusive, but results seemed to point towards at least some effectiveness of exact match domains remaining today.

This case study in late 2014 examined the effectiveness of exact match domains.

Result: It is the quality that matters. If you use an exact match domain, make sure to build out the site with quality content and quality link acquisition. Focus on the major sustainable quality factors that will help you build a successful site, and you should not incur a penalty or other negative action as a result of your efforts. These factors are: quality, uniqueness, authority, relevance, and trust.

Updates From Google Since 2012

Do Exact Match Domains Help or Hurt Google Rankings? John Mueller Weighs In.

Lingering Myths & Misconceptions About the EMD Update

Despite Google’s public stance about the EMD update closing the exact match domain name optimization loophole, some misconceptions remain that buying exact match domains actually works.

Well, it does, to a point.

When purchasing an exact match domain, most webmasters today have good intentions. They have higher quality standards when it comes to building websites. They’ve learned from their mistakes, and there won’t always be situations where these sites are built just for the sake of the EMD.

This author believes that the situation where you have a real gray hat SEO going after exact match domains with gusto is something that is extremely rare nowadays. The filter has been in place, (almost) everyone learned from their mistakes, and most (if not all) webmasters want to stay on Google’s good side. This author thinks that there is less of a misconception nowadays than there used to be.

The biggest misconception back then was that Google was going after all exact match domains. They had in fact stated they were going after low-quality exact match domains, so not all exact match domains were affected negatively by this update. It is important to define the distinction here, because this misconception still continues to linger.

How Did the EMD Update Change SEO?

Even back in 2012, using exact match domains was never a valid technique per Google’s webmaster guidelines. It was considered gray hat, because you were technically manipulating the search results even though it was never clearly black hat.

Because of the prevalence of the technique at that time, Google felt it was necessary to close this loophole.

There were many issues that Panda attempted to solve when it came to sites with low quality content. But, when it came to exact match domains, Panda was not doing much of a great job.

The arrival of the EMD update meant that SEOs could not just purchase a site with exact-match domains, build out some low quality content, and let it sit there and call it a day.

This update meant that SEO was about to get more complex, not quite as easy, and everyone knew that easy ranking wins for clients were over. Now, it would be necessary to plan out everything: on-page SEO, content marketing, link acquisition, everything. It would not be as simple as building out a site instantly and seeing almost immediate rankings benefits.

Resources & Further Reading on Google’s EMD Update

17 Ways To Help Small Businesses Impacted By Covid

Since COVID-19 has become a full-blown pandemic, unemployment rates have skyrocketed as businesses are forced to shutter their doors for the sake of public health.

It is certainly a stressful time, especially for small business owners who have much smaller coffers to sustain them.

If you’ve checked your email recently, you may have noticed all the businesses sending out notifications letting their consumers know how they are trying to help.

It is admirable to see individuals and organizations coming together to offer assistance to those in need.

If you would like to join the ranks of the helpful, here are 17 ways to help small businesses impacted by COVID-19.

1. Volunteer On Behalf of Your Company

If you are not a member of the at-risk community, consider getting out there and doing some hands-on volunteering on behalf of your company.

Meals on Wheels expects the number of individuals in need of their meal delivery service to increase and is actively looking for volunteers.

You can also do the out-and-about – like shopping or picking up prescriptions – for at-risk individuals in your neighborhood.

Post on a community Facebook group or, if you live in an apartment building, help your direct neighbors by putting a notice in the lobby.

If you’re not able to brave the outdoors, but you have a sewing machine, you can join the ranks of people making homemade non-medical masks.

They are easy to make, and a growing number of hospitals are requesting them to help extend the life of their N95 masks, which are in desperately limited supply.

2. Take to Social Media & Amplify Messages

Instead of spending your days listlessly scrolling, make an active effort to follow and share the posts of companies you want to support.

Make a Twitter list so that you can make this an ongoing effort.

If they’re running an awesome promotion to boost their sales, retweet it to your followers.

If you have a loyal following, your social media boosts can also add credibility to the company you’re vouching for.

3. Choose Credits Over Refunds

If COVID-19 prevents a company from providing the product or service you ordered, wherever possible, choose a credit rather than a refund.

With the economic hit of the pandemic on small business owners and entrepreneurs, this distinction might be the difference between them making rent this month – or not.

4. Order (More) Take Out & Delivery

You may finally have the time in quarantine to cook your own meals, but don’t forget to consider the dire situations of your favorite restaurants.

Usually, restaurants only make a small amount of money from take-out orders.

However, with dine-in temporarily restricted in most cities and towns, take-out and delivery have become most restaurants’ sole source of income.

Order online and you can keep a Grubhub or DoorDash driver employed as well.

Just make sure that you’re tipping well – these people are working on the front lines of dealing with a dangerous disease.

Toast is a popular Point-of-Sale (POS) system for the food industry that has created a website to facilitate take-out and delivery purchases.

Rally for Restaurants lets you add your favorite restaurants for consideration and will even make a donation to other organizations feeding the community.

5. Buy Credits or Gift Certificates to Use Later

If you can’t frequent a business right now, either because you are in quarantine, or the company is temporarily closed, consider purchasing credits or gift certificates that you can use later on.

This cash flow will mean a lot right now while incomes are lean, and you can make use of your purchases when it’s safe to do so.

In Asheville, a public relations and marketing and agency called Bright Planning started a website – Asheville Strong – where consumers can find a directory of local small businesses that are offering gift cards.

If you have the skills, consider making something similar for your local community.

6. Use Your Expertise to Help Struggling Businesses

If you have the time and ability, consider using your skills to build an ecommerce website for a brick-and-mortar business to move their sales online.

Or, if you’re an expert in enterprise and have strategies that can help small businesses bounce back from the economic upheaval of COVID-19, you’re in a unique position to offer tangibly useful information to the companies that need it.

For example, Ahrefs is currently offering premium content for free – their popular blogging for business course.

If you don’t have a course already built, put together a webinar filled with detailed, helpful content that you’re uniquely qualified to teach.

You can combine your audience with someone who works in an adjacent position to make a presentation that goes further.

And if hosting a complete webinar on a brand new topic is more than you can commit to right now, trying making things simpler.

Erin Flynn, of Successfully Simple, sent an email to her subscribers asking for any business questions they had and responded to all of them with personalized Loom videos.

7. Organize Your Expert Friends to Share Knowledge

If you’re especially well-connected in your industry, you can go beyond a webinar and organize a virtual summit.

Gather experts and offer free access to their presentations for 24 hours.

After that, you can host the content and charge a small fee that will not only add value, but also help recoup any costs.

Give your experts an affiliate link so that they are incentivized to share it with their followers.

Whether you decide to organize a virtual summit or stick to a simple webinar, remember that the goal here is to serve, rather than profit.

8. Offer Free Office Hours

If you’re a business that is geared toward helping other businesses, you can offer free consultations to small businesses that have been impacted by the COVID-19.

First, take the time to listen so that you understand the current state of affairs and problems they’re facing.

Note from the author: this is something that I’m doing – tweet me for my calendar scheduling link!

9. Advertise Free Offers From SaaS (Software as a Service) Companies

Many SaaS companies are offering incentives to counter the negative impacts of COVID-19.

Share their offers with the small business owners who can use these discounted services the most right now.

They might find something that is not only inexpensive in the short-term but indispensable to the growth and success of their company as we come out of the crisis.

By adopting one of these tools, you are supporting their efforts.

Then, if you discover something you truly love and can’t live without, you can support those businesses further by upgrading to a paid service after a month or two.

10. Provide Free Access to Your Service or Platform for Specific Groups

If your company has the financial capacity to support a certain number of unpaid users, you can follow the lead of other businesses that are offering free services right now.

To reduce risk, consider limiting this offer to specific groups (medical professionals, educators, etc.) to make it reasonable for you, while still making an impact where it counts.

Many large companies who have the means are already doing this.

Adobe is offering temporary at-home access to students and teachers for free.

Multiple internet providers have stepped up as well, offering free broadband, equipment, and installation to students who are now learning from home.

11. Research & Recommend Funding Options

There are resources available for small businesses that are being hit hard by the effects of COVID-19.

You can do the leg work of researching some of these options and sending whatever seems like a good fit to relevant small businesses that you care about.

Businesses focused on the arts have quite a few relief funds set-up, both nationally and locally.

The Federal Reserve has also lowered interest rates to 0%, so many small businesses can take out loans to stay afloat.

Then, there’s the CARES Act, which can provide some relief for paying salaries, rent, and other related expenses in the form of forgivable loans.

On a related note, if you have any experience in applying for loans, you can directly help a small business owner do just that.

12. Extend Payment Terms

If you’re in a position to offer loans or you have business customers set-up on payment plans, you can extend the payment terms to help with their current cash flow situation.

If you’re a company that normally bills at net-30, you can temporarily change it to net-60 or more.

13. Shorten Payment Terms

On the other side of the coin, if you owe money to a small business and they have given you longer payment terms in the past, see if you can speed up the payment process.

Having good cash flow is more important now than ever for small businesses.

14. Create a Coronavirus Resource Center

On the other side of the coin, small businesses should also do what they can to efficiently help communicate the current state of affairs with customers.

Put together a page on your website that updates users on the details of your business (adjusted hours or pricing) and how you are helping (don’t forget to note COVID-19 schedule changes on Google My Business, as well).

You can include articles and resources that may be useful, including any grants or funding opportunities you’ve found that are relevant to your audience.

Make sure the page is easy to find, and focused on being helpful.

You can also start a hashtag to direct users back to this page, like GoDaddy has done with Open We Stand.

15. Encourage Your Employees to Buy from Small Businesses

If you are still fully operational, find ways to encourage your employees to make purchases that support small businesses.

Set up a program that covers the cost of virtual classes for fitness or job training.

Mark Cuban (of Shark Tank) set up an employee rewards fund that reimburses his employees when they make coffee or lunch purchases from local, independent businesses.

The key here is to focus on getting dollars flowing to small businesses, rather than large corporations that are better positioned to absorb the impact of the pandemic economy.

16. Adjust Your Methods of Support

Prior to COVID-19, most of us could easily support small businesses by shopping local.

But when “local” has come to mean your apartment or house, you need to adjust.

Instead of walking into a store, get in contact online or by phone and see if you can arrange for delivery or curbside pick-up.

Rather than going straight to the convenience of Amazon, consider what local businesses you can contact for the same products.

With their doors shuttered, most are ready and willing to bring their products to you.

17. Set up a Cash Fund or Grant

More than 37 million jobs are vulnerable to layoffs as a direct result of the COVID0-19 economy, according to a study done by the US Private Sector Job Quality Index.

Even more troubling is the fact they involve low-wage positions held by the people who can least afford to be unemployed.

The food, retail, education, and events industries will be hit the hardest.

If your company has the ability, you can set up a fund to help companies and employees that have lost income.

Facebook is giving out $100 million in cash grants to small businesses and Salesforce set up a $1.5 million coronavirus fund for affected citizens in San Francisco.

Even comparatively smaller businesses, like Wordfence, took aim at the financial impact of WordCamp Asia’s cancellation by setting up a $10,000 fund to help businesses and individuals who had arranged to attend the event recoup travel expenses.

If you don’t have a chunk of money to throw down, you can donate a portion of proceeds from a particular product or for a set amount of time.

This can go to any organization you choose, be it a nonprofit, small business association, or relief effort.

Consider the global impact of the virus and check out Kiva, which connects entrepreneurs with microloans, and has been doubling down on their efforts to help those impacted by COVID-19.

Jenna Kobryn, Local Search Expert & SEO Strategist at Healthgrades, suggests businesses:

“Partner with local charitable organizations to support members of the community who are most vulnerable during this time. Building goodwill is long-lasting PR and many are in need.”

No matter what you do to help, consider the fact that this crisis presents an excellent opportunity to create a positive perception of your business while actively helping where it matters.

Final Thoughts: 17 Ways to Help Small Businesses Impacted by COVID-19

The reach of COVID-19 is vast, and its economic impact is dire.

Small businesses are hurting the most. It’s up to us as a community to do whatever we can to help our neighbors.

Whether it’s with monetary support, volunteering our talents, or even just ordering some Chinese food from a local establishment, every bit counts.

If we work together, we can keep our bodies and our businesses healthy.

More Resources:

Image Credits

Featured Image: cottonbro / Pexels

Twitter Rolls Out Big Changes To 140

One of the biggest complaints from Twitter users – especially marketers – has been that adding user names, photos, videos, and GIFs to your tweets takes a huge bite out of your precious 140-character limit.

Now those limits are history. Or, they will be once they’ve rolled out to your account.

Twitter yesterday announced it was beginning to officially roll out some big changes to loosen its 140-character limits. We knew these changes were coming because Twitter told us in May, just not when. But now they’re here.

What No Longer Counts Toward Twitter’s 140-Character Limit 1. Media Attachments

You know the pain of uploading a photo or video to your tweet. You’re crunched for space or over your limit. You have to resort to abbreviations and less than stellar copy in your quest for extreme pithiness.

Not anymore!

Any media files – images, GIFs, videos, and polls – will no longer cost you 22 characters. Twitter is giving you more characters. Use them wisely.

— David Berkowitz (@dberkowitz) September 19, 2024

2. Quote Tweets & Retweeting Yourself

Whether you want to quote another user’s tweet, or one of your own tweets, doing so will no longer take away from your 140-character count.

The new button that gives you the ability to quote and retweet yourself was one of the new features Twitter teased earlier this year.

What Is Expected To Change Soon

In May, we reported that including usernames in replies would not count against the character count. However, it appears that promised feature isn’t rolling out as part of this update. So usernames will continue to count against your total for the time being.

However, as AdWeek reported, Twitter is testing out a feature that would move the @names outside of the tweetbox:

What Isn’t Changing

In case you weren’t sure, here’s what will still count toward your tweet character limit:

Your text copy.

Links (these will continue to eat up 23 characters).



This Pill Could Help You Figure Out Why You’re Always Farting

Everyone gets gas. And (almost) everyone could stand to live without it. But figuring out what drives gas is a difficult endeavor—even for doctors. A multitude of foods can initiate gassiness, to varying degrees, depending on the individual. But a new gadget might someday help. In a paper in the journal Nature Electronics, a pair of researchers just introduced an electronic pill that can measure the different types of gas in a person’s intestines.

This information might not only help pinpoint the cause of excess gas, but could also help determine an optimal diet for avoiding bloat.

While gas is sometimes caused by swallowing air or chewing gum, food is a fairly common culprit. Food can produce gas when we aren’t able to break it down, either because we don’t have the right enzymes or the meal is extremely fibrous. Humans can’t digest fiber, so it travels down our guts and into our colons undigested.

All gas may feel like it’s created equal when it’s gurgling around your gut, but doctors generally have to know the exact cause of your flatulence in order to fix it. By analyzing what type of gas is inside a person’s gut, lead study author Kourosh Kalantar-zadeh says doctors can now distinguish whether gas is caused by malabsorption (not being able to break down certain foods), irritable bowel syndrome, bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine, or something else entirely. Once identified, people can try to avoid the source of gas entirely.

Inside the pill rests a temperature sensor, a tiny computer, and a radio-frequency transmitter with batteries. When swallowed, the sensors detect the presence and amount of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide at various points in the gut. Analysis can distinguish what types of foods and microbes contribute to that particular gas build-up.

A prototype pill can analyze the gas that builds up in your gut. Courtesy of Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh

Researchers had six healthy participants swallow the gas pills after spending several days on two different diets, one with high levels of fiber and one with low. The sensor results actually revealed which of the two meal plans a study subject had been on. Once researchers paired that data with complimentary food diaries kept by the participants, they could determine the exact source of their gas.

With more research, this device could theoretically be used to diagnose, treat, and monitor improvement in people with gut disorders. But the device could also be taken one step further, helping doctors to provide patients with tailored, individualized diets. Choosing foods based on your personal genetic and gut microbial makeup is all the rage in nutrition research lately. But Kalantar-zadeh says individualized diets could have a significant impact on our health. Nutritional facts on food packages still fail to capture the impact of food on each individual. For example, he says, one person may absorb twice as much sugar from the same can of soda as another individual. Someone with more diverse gut microbes might be better able to digest food in the colon, thereby gaining more energy and nutrition from the same meal.

Maybe one day we’ll all be able to minimize the discomfort and embarrassment we feel due to various internal gases. But all of this is still pretty far into the future. Scientists have only tried the pill out on six healthy individuals. We’ll need more studies—on healthy and gassy people alike—to show that it’s safe for everyone, and effective in diagnosing potentially dangerous problems.

In the meantime, keep in mind that some level of gas is okay. A few farts (that don’t cause you discomfort) generally just mean you’re getting a good amount of fruits and veggies. Nice work!

Program To Find Out The Special Nodes In A Tree In Python

Suppose we have a 2D list of values called ‘tree’ which represents an n-ary tree and another list of values called ‘color’. The tree is represented as an adjacency list and its root is tree[0].

The characteristics of an i-th node −

tree[i] is its children and parent.

color[i] is its color.

We call a node N “special” if every node in the subtree whose root is at N has a unique color. So we have this tree, we have to find out the number of special nodes.

So, if the input is like tree = [    [1,2],    [0],    [0,3],    [2] ]

colors = [1, 2, 1, 1], then the output will be 2.

To solve this, we will follow these steps −

result := 0

dfs(0, -1)

return result

Define a function check_intersection() . This will take colors, child_colors

if length of (colors) < length of (child_colors) , then

for each c in colors, do

if c in child_colors is non-zero, then

return True


for each c in child_colors, do

if c is present in child_colors, then

return True

Define a function dfs() . This will take node, prev

colors := {color[node]}

for each child in tree[node], do

if child is not same as prev, then

child_colors := dfs(child, node)

if colors and child_colors are not empty, then

if check_intersection(colors, child_colors) is non-zero, then

colors := null


if length of (colors) < length of (child_colors),then,

child_colors := child_colors OR colors

colors := child_colors


colors := colors OR child_colors


colors := null

if colors is not empty, then

result := result + 1

return colors


Let us see the following implementation to get better understanding −

import collections class Solution:    def solve(self, tree, color):       self.result = 0       def dfs(node, prev):          colors = {color[node]}          for child in tree[node]:             if child != prev:                child_colors = dfs(child, node)                if colors and child_colors:                   if self.check_intersection(colors, child_colors):                      colors = None                   else:                      if len(colors) < len(child_colors):                         colors = child_colors                      else:                   else:                      colors = None             if colors:                self.result += 1             return colors          dfs(0, -1)          return self.result       def check_intersection(self, colors, child_colors):          if len(colors) < len(child_colors):             for c in colors:                if c in child_colors:                   return True          else:             for c in child_colors:                if c in colors:                   return True ob = Solution() print(ob.solve( [    [1,2],    [0],    [0,3],    [2] ], [1, 2, 1, 1])) Input [    [1,2],    [0],    [0,3],    [2] ], [1, 2, 1, 1] Output 2

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