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“Object Reference Not Set to An Instance of An Object” is most commonly known as a NullReferenceException code error, which occurs when you try to access an object that has a null reference. This error can also be generated in Visual Studio when projects that require administrative permission are not granted.
Other contributing factors for this error include issues with extensions, particularly those of the ASP.NET frameworks. The Visual Studio IDE also is reported to face issues in touch-enabled Windows devices.
We will address all these issues throughout this article and help you resolve the Object reference error in Visual Studio.
The first thing to do is to verify the codes. The “Object Reference Not Set to An Instance of An Object” error occurs when a variable is used but not initiated. If an object is set to null, then no function can be applied to it. Assign a value to the string or an object and then see if it works for you.
The next thing you can do is Restart Visual Studio and also your local machine. If this issue has been triggered by some glitches in the system or the IDE, this may fix the issue.
To open some of the projects on Visual Studio, you might need administrator permissions. The Visual Studio IDE does not launch on Windows with elevated permissions automatically. In such a case, you must do it manually.
Finally, check if you get the error now.
This error might also appear because of the IDE extensions that you use to add different features to Visual Studio. These extensions might have corrupted or become outdated; hence, updating these is reported to have fixed the issue for many users.
The extensions related to the ASP.NET seems to have caused the problem for most of the users. Here’s how to update this extension.
Open Microsoft Visual Studio.
Go to the Extensions tab.
Select Manage Extensions.
Go to the Updates Section from the left panel.
See if you have any pending updates. Generally, the updates for the Microsoft ASP.NET and web tools solve this issue.
If you are trying to create a project under ASP.NET, and getting the Visual Studio Object Reference Not Set to An Instance of An Object error, it must be possible that some packages related to this application framework are yet to be installed. If this has triggered the issue in your case, you can install these remaining packages and resolve the problem.
Select Get tools and features.
Select the ASP.NET and web development framework.
From the installation details panel, check all the Frameworks and tools under it.
It will start downloading the packages for the ASP.NET application framework.
If You are running Visual Studio on a Windows 10 machine that is touch-enabled, it is very likely that you will face an error such as this one. To overcome this, you can disable the Touch keyboard and handwriting service from the Windows Services.
Press Windows Key + R, type services.msc and hit enter.
Under the list of services, find the Touch keyboard and Handwriting Panel Service and open it.
It is seen that on Windows 10 version 1803, the multi-touch gesture doesn’t seem to be functioning well. This might also contribute to this issue with Visual Studio. If you are using version 1803 or below, it is recommended that you update the system to a newer stable release.
If you do not want to perform a system update, updating the drivers also could do the job.
Press Windows Key + X, and open the Device Manager.
Expand the list of devices under the Human Interface Devices.
Select Update Drivers.
Choose Search automatically for Drivers and follow the prompts to update the touch screen drivers.
Whenever you install any new extensions, there is a high chance for the component model cache to get corrupted. This can generate the issues as this one.
However, if you delete its directory completely, Visual studio will rebuild it and give a fresh start to the component cache, solving many issues of Visual Studio.
Open the Folder named with the Visual Studio version (For instance, 17.0_4b4bc243).
Locate the ComponentModelCache folder and delete it.
Rename the folder VSCommon to VSCommon.old
Finally, Restart Visual Studio.
Finally, Restart Visual Studio.
Updating Visual studio will give you better improvement in the IDE, new features and also bug fixes. For issues like this and others on the IDE, it’s always good to keep it updated. Users also can set up auto-updates for automatically downloading new update roll-outs.
To perform manual updates, follow these steps.
Open the Visual Studio.
Go to the Help tab.
Select Check for Updates.
The Visual Studio installer will then launch and then start searching for the available updates. The installer will show it under the currently installed version if it finds one.
You're reading Fix: Visual Studio Object Reference Not Set To An Instance Of An Object
This is extremely straightforward. You have to just place your key-value pairs separated by ‘:’ inside a set of curly braces(), and your object will be ready to serve (or consumed).
The rectangle object takes the input of length and breadth of a rectangle whose area is calculated when this object is passed as a parameter to the areaofRectangle() function.Example
The rectangle object is created using the literal notation object in this example. The rectangle’s length and breadth are passed into this object. We create the areaOfRectangle() function to calculate the area of the rectangle. This function is called, and the rectangle object is passed to it.
;Using this and prototype
This value is usually determined by how a function is called (runtime binding). It cannot be set during execution and may differ each time the function is called. The bind() method can change the value of a function’s this no matter how it’s called, and arrow functions don’t have their binding (it retains this value of the enclosing lexical context).
The function func() takes a parameter param, which is passed to the display function to display its value.Example
In the example, we have created an object in the variable res. This variable calls the function func() with a parameter of 11.98. To make an object, use the new keyword in conjunction with the Object() function Object(), and then add properties to this object. This function passes the parameter as an object and helps to display it using the display() function.
This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.Intro
Artificial neurons are utilized in deep neural networks for object detection. These artificial neurons are similar to humans composed of neurons. Thus, object detection refers to the detection and localization of objects in an image that belongs to a predefined set of classes. Pe ssibility of large amounts of data, High-Speed GPUs, and optimized algorithms, we can now simply train computers to identify, classify and detect the multiple categories of objects within an image with high precision and accuracy. Commonly, object detection can be classified into two categories,1. Two-stage detector
Where detection is complete in two steps, the first step uses regional design networks to create areas of interest with a high probability of being an object. The second step is object detection, which performs the final classification and regression of the bounding box of the objects. RCNN, Fast RCNN, SPPNET, Faster RCNN, etc., are some of the two-stage detectors.2. One-stage detector
where object detection is a simple regression problem that takes input and learns
Our analysis mainly aims to compare the operational performance and accuracy of the YOLO and MobileNet SSD object detection techniques in various aspects and highlight some of the notable features that make this study stand out.What exactly is YOLO?
The term YOLO is defined as You Only Look Once. The YOLO algorithm performs real-time object detection using a convolutional neural network (CNN). As the name suggests, the object detection algorithm only needs a single forward propagation through the neural network. This means that the prediction in the whole frame is made in a single algorithm run. CNN is used to predict different probability classes and boundary fields simultaneously.
The main features of YOLO are speed, high accuracy, and learning ability.
Speed – This algorithm has improved speed for real-time object detection.
High Accuracy – This technique gives accurate outcomes with minimal background errors.
Learning Ability – The excellent learning ability of this algorithm allows it to learn object representations and apply them in object detection.How does YOLO work?
The operation of the YOLO algorithm can be explained using three techniques as follows:
1. Residual blocks:
First, the image is divided into different grids. Each grid has dimension S x S. The process of converting the input image to grids is shown in the following figure. Each grid cell will detect objects that appear in it.
2. Bounding box regression:
A bounding box is an outline that highlights an object in an image with some attributes such as width (bw), height (bh), and class (such as person, car, traffic light, etc.), which is represented by the letter C. The center of the bounding box (bx, would). YOLO uses single bounding box regression to predict objects’ height, width, center, and class.
3. Intersection over Union (IOU):
Intersection over Union (IOU) is a tool in object detection that explains how boxes overlap. YOLO uses IOUs to surround perfect output boxes for objects perfectly. Each cell in the grid is responsible for predicting bounding boxes and their confidence scores. If the predicted bounding box is the same as the actual box, then the IOU equals 1. This technique can eliminate bounding boxes that do not equal the actual box.
In the image above, between the two bounding boxes, the blue box represents the predicted box, while the green box represents the actual box. YOLO algorithms ensure that two bounding boxes are equal.History of YOLO
YOLO was first introduced by Joseph Redmon, a graduate of the University of Washington, in 2024. It was a milestone in object detection research due to its ability to detect objects in real-time with higher accuracy. The main implementation of Redmons YOLO is based on Darknet, which is a very flexible research framework written in low-level languages and has developed a number of superior real-time object detectors in the field of computer vision: YOLO, YOLOv2, YOLOv3, and YOLOv4.
YOLOv2: YOLOv2 was released in 2023, and its architecture made several iterative improvements over YOLO, including BatchNorm, higher resolution, and anchor boxes.
YOLOv3: Released in 2023, YOLOv3 builds on previous models by adding objectivity scores to bounding box prediction, adding connectivity to backbone layers, and predicting at three separate levels to improve performance on smaller objects.
YOLOv4: YOLOv4 was released in April 2023 by Alexey Bochkovskiy, which introduced improvements such as improved feature aggregation, “free bag” (with augmentations), bug activation, and more.
YOLOv5: Released in June 2023 by Glenn Jocher, YOLOv5 differs from all previous versions as it is a PyTorch implementation rather than a fork from the original Darknet. Like the YOLO v4, the YOLO v5 has a CSP spine and a PA-NET neck. Major improvements include mosaic data expansion and auto-learning bounding box anchoring.
PP-YOLO: Released in August 2023 by Baidu based on YOLO v3. The main goal of PP-YOLO is to implement an object detector with relatively balanced efficiency and effectiveness that can be directly used in current application scenarios rather than designing a new detection model.
Scaled YOLOv4: Released November 2023 by Chien-Yao Wang, Alexey Bochkovsky, and Hong-Yuan Mark Liao. The model uses Cross Stage Partial networks to increase the network size while maintaining YOLOv4 accuracy and speed.
PP-YOLOv2: Again authored by the Baidu team and released in April 2023, it made minor modifications to PP-YOLO for better performance, including adding error activation features and a path aggregation network.What is MobilenetSSD? SSD
The term SSD stands for Single Shot Detector. The SSD technique is based on a forward convolutional network that generates a collection of fixed-size bounding boxes and a score for the presence of object class instances in those boxes, which come behind by a non-maximal suppression step to create the final detections. Fields contain offset values (cx,cy,w,h) from the default field. The score contains confidence values for the presence of each of the object categories, with a value of 0 reserved for the background.
SSD represents multi-reference and multi-resolution detection techniques. Multi-reference techniques define a set of anchor boxes of different sizes and aspect ratios at different locations in the image and then predict a detection box based on these references. Multi-resolution techniques enable object detection at multiple scales and at different network layers. The SSD network implements an algorithm for detecting multiple object classes in images by generating a confidence score related to the presence of any object category in each default field. It also makes adjustments in the boxes to better fit the shapes of the objects. This network is suitable for real-time applications because it does not resample functions for bounding box hypotheses.MobileNet
MobileNet is a class of well-organized models called for mobile and embedded vision applications. This class of models is based on a simplified architecture that uses depth-separable convolutions to build lightweight deep neural networks. It decomposes standard convolution into depth convolution and a 1×1 convolution known as point convolution. Deep convolution applies one filter to each input channel in the case of MobileNets. The point convolution then generates a 1×1 convolution to combine the outputs of the depth convolution. A standard convolution has one step for both filtering and combining the inputs into a new set of outputs. But the depth-separable convolution splits it into two layers, a separate layer for filtering and a separate layer for combining. This factorization drastically reduces the computation and model size.Comparative Analysis
Various metrics have been proposed to measure object localization accuracy. Intersection over Union (IoU), also called the Jaccard index, is commonly used to evaluate the accuracy of detections. It can be calculated as the overlap between the predicted detection and its corresponding ground truth divided by the connection area between the predicted detection and the ground truth. The mean IoU for an image is calculated by taking the IoU of each class and averaging it for binary or multi-class detection problems. This can be applied to all images of the test dataset to have an average IoU value. Another related detection metric is the F1-score (the Dice Coefficient), which is calculated as twice the overlap area divided by the total number of pixels in the detected and ground truth regions. This measure can be represented by the Precision and Recall metrics. It can also be applied to all the target objects present in the image, and we can calculate the average F1 score for all the images of the test dataset. This means that when comparing two models using IoU if the first model is better than the second using this metric, it will also be better to use the F1 score. Taking the average score from the set of detections in the images, the IoU metric tends to penalize quantitatively individual inaccurate detections more than the F1 score, even though both can predict that a given object instance is poorly detected.
Standard metrics commonly used to analyze object detection accuracy and speed include recall, precision, F1 score (F1), mean average accuracy (MAP), and frames per second (FPS). In the target detection process, precision is defined as the ratio of correctly predicted values to the number of all predicted values, and recall is the ratio of the number of accurately found desired results to all predicted values in the sample set. Average Accuracy (AP) is the accuracy across all elements of a pill category as defined in the formula below:
Numerically, MAP is the average value of the sum of APs across all categories, which is used to evaluate the model’s overall performance.
FPS is an indicator commonly used to evaluate the detection speed of a model. The number of frames that can be processed per second is called FPS.
Speed and accuracy are the determining factors for smooth operation for real-time purposes. Variants of YOLO (especially up to YOLOv3) provide excellent accuracy but require computationally intensive hardware. For such devices, this model,
the speed requirement would suffice. MobileNet-SSD V2 also provides a somewhat similar speed to YOLOv5, but lacks accuracy. An SSD might be a better choice when we tend to square measurable to run it on video, so the trade-off between the truth is extremely modest. YOLO is better when accuracy is a consideration rather than going fast. Thus, any of the models can be selected depending on the requirements of different applications.Conclusion
Real-time detection and tracking of objects on video streams is a key topic for tracking systems in many field applications. The aim of our article is to perform a comparative study of two object recognition systems using CNN to identify objects in images.
We studied and analyzed the YOLO object detection model and the MobileNet SSD model for performance evaluation in different scenarios. Each of the compared models has its unique features and is successful in its respective applications.
YOLO provides better accuracy compared to MobileNet SSD, which provides a faster detection speed.
MobileNet SSD or SSD, a multi-class one-time detector that is faster than previous progressive one-time detectors (YOLO) and significantly correct, indeed as correct as slower techniques that perform express region designs and pooling (including the faster R-CNNs)
MobileNet SSD can be used when the object size is small and the performance dips a touch.
YOLO is used when the object size is small.
The media shown in this article is not owned by Analytics Vidhya and is used at the Author’s discretion.
What is .NET?
Web development, programming languages, Software testing & othersPre-requisite to install Visual Studio for .Net
The following steps should be taken care of before installing Visual Studio
Disable any anti-virus or anti-spyware software which is present on the system.
All the software that is running should be closed.
Make sure your system has a minimum of 1 GB RAM.
Make sure your system has 3GB of hard disk space available.
Microsoft Visual Studio is an integrated development environment from Microsoft which helps in developing programs for Microsoft Windows. It is considered to be the best application for applications that are built chúng tôi platforms. The developer can develop, debug and run different applications using Visual Studio.Steps to Install Visual Studio for .Net
Below are the steps to install Visual Studio on your system.
To download Visual Studio, go to the below link.
Here you can download either the community version of Visual Studio, which can be used by students, open-source developers, or individual developers. The second option that you will see for download is the Visual Studio Professional 2023 version which can be used by professional developer tools, services, and subscription benefits of small teams. Let us look for the steps for installing Professional Edition.
Visual Studio will start downloading the initialization files. This downloading speed can vary as per your internet connection.
Visual Studio will now download all relevant files, which will be based on your selection on Step 6.
This will install all the packages, and then you will be asked to reboot the PC.
Once the reboot is complete, when the system restarts, then you will see Visual Studio IDE is available, and you can open it easily.
In Visual Studio, you can navigate to the File menu to create new .Net applications and start using them as per your needs and requirements.
Add the .net product feed.
2) After this, let’s install .Net Core SDK as below.
sudo dnf update
sudo dnf install libunwind libicu compat-openssl10
sudo dnf install .Net-sdk-2.0.0
3) Creating .Net Console app Once you install .Net, you can create your own console application before learning anything about .Net Core. A new console can be created by using the following commands:
The ‘.Net new console’ helps in creating the new console Hello World. The project name should match the directory name, and the code is built using a template. The ‘.Net run’ command builds the code, and whenever the developer invokes .net run then, you can check if the *.csproj file has been altered and run the .net restore command. It also checks the source code for any alterations and then runs the build command. The developer can now run the executable.
Go to the browser and download Visual Studio for MAC from this link
Once this is done, there may appear a screen asking about feature updates, and also it is recommended to have these updates on the system.
The installation on MAC OS can be customized. You can select the packages of your choice, like Android + Xamarin.Forms, .NET Core + chúng tôi Core, macOS, etc. The .NET Core + chúng tôi Core enables console app development and web application and service development with chúng tôi Core.Conclusion
.NET being one of the oldest frameworks, is still being used. It has many added features, and unlike before, we can now install .Net on all operating systems. Being open-source, it is still one of the most sought out technology. Developers can hence make use of it for creating various applications and web applications and use it on Windows, Linux, or MAC OS easily.Recommended Articles
This has been a guide on How To Install .Net. Here we have discussed the basic concept and various steps to Install .Net. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –
Have you ever wished you could simply press a button and call everyone in the house for dinner? What if you could wake up all your teenagers so they don’t miss the bus without pounding on every door? You can purchase actual intercom systems for hundreds of dollars, or you can set up an inexpensive home intercom system using only the equipment you have in your home. Here’s how.Use Your Smartphones
If you want to create an intercom system at home but don’t want to purchase any additional hardware, using your smartphones may be right for you. More than likely, everyone in your house already has their own phone.
Don’t expect these apps to work as an actual walkie-talkie does. Real walkie-talkies use radio waves to transmit their messages, while these apps use your data connection. They can’t send messages to actual walkie talkie devices, only to other phones.
Some of the most popular apps that you can get for either Android or iOS are Zello, Voxer, and VoicePing.
Once you download the app to the phones, create a group. Then add the contact information for all the owners of the phones. Start a voice conversation with the group by tapping the microphone and talking. Everyone who has the app will receive a notification that they have a new message.
This method of creating an intercom system does allow the recipients to send you a private message back, unlike many of the other systems discussed below.Use Bluetooth
Another way to reach everyone in your house with a message is to set up multiple Bluetooth speakers around the house and use a Bluetooth loudspeaker app to broadcast your voice from your phone.
Bluetooth speakers are so common today that the prices are dropping. You can purchase good quality speakers for as little as $25, and there are opportunities all the time to get them for even less than that.
A downside to this method of creating an intercom system is that it only works one way. So you can announce dinner is ready, but you can’t get a message back.
To send your voice to a Bluetooth device, you need to install one of these apps on your phone.
Bluetooth Loudspeaker for Android
Mic To Speaker
Microphone Live for iOS
Live Microphone & Announcement Mic for
To broadcast a message, open the app and connect your phone to the speaker you want to use. Then press the button on the app and speak into your phone. Your voice will be broadcast live over the speaker.Use your Smart Speakers
If you already have a Google Home or Alexa speaker, you can create announcements that will broadcast out to all the other smart speakers in your home. You don’t need any extra equipment or apps to do this. You use commands to give the speaker instructions.
For Google Home devices, you use the Google Assistant to activate the broadcast. Just say, “OK, Google. Broadcast, it’s time for supper.” Everything you say after the word “broadcast” will repeat through all the speakers.
Alexa has two different commands you can use to broadcast over the system. Both the words “announce that” and “broadcast” will send out your message containing all the words after the command.
Using smart speakers is also a one-way communication. You cannot receive replies. However, users can give Google or Alexa a command to announce, but the response sends to all the speakers, not just the one you used.
There is no one best option for creating an intercom system for your home. It depends on what devices you already own or what you are willing to buy. It’s also important to know if you want to receive private replies or not. Whichever way you choose to create this system, the convenience of getting a message out to everyone in the house without tracking everyone down first may be well worth the effort.
Tracey Rosenberger spent 26 years teaching elementary students, using technology to enhance learning. Now she’s excited to share helpful technology with teachers and everyone else who sees tech as intimidating.
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“Not The End of The Struggle, But An Opening” Paul Farmer draws record crowd to MLK Day remarks
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With a record-breaking crowd before him and President-elect Barack Obama’s inauguration ahead, Paul Farmer celebrated Martin Luther King, Jr. (GRS’55, Hon.’59) yesterday by describing King as “a work in progress.”
“If Martin Luther King were here with us today in the flesh, as he is in spirit, he would surely be pleased,” said Farmer, the founder of the international aid organization Partners in Health, at Boston University’s annual Martin Luther King, Jr., Day celebration. “But he would not regard this momentous event as the end of the struggle, but as an opening, a space, a chance in which the larger social justice agenda might be pursued.
“He was moving forward in his own moral, intellectual, and political path,” Farmer added. “He was changing, and growing, and learning all the time.”
Farmer was the keynote speaker at this year’s BU event, and he drew a crowd that filled the George Sherman Union’s Metcalf Hall to capacity. The theme of the 2009 celebration was The Drum Major Instinct, based on King’s sermon of the same name. In it, King called on his congregation to find the instinct that makes us “all want to be important, to surpass others, to achieve distinction, to lead the parade” and use it to be a leader in love, in moral excellence, and in generosity.
Farmer, a medical anthropologist and physician, discussed the conflicting ideals that King examined in his sermon and encouraged his audience to learn from King’s example by using leadership opportunities for growth and discovery instead of for personal gain.
“We can’t forget that he was a controversial figure in his time — even among his supporters, who couldn’t always see where he was going or how the parts of his program fit together,” Farmer said. “The drum major instinct, if not held in check, might have motivated King to accept positions more palatable to the mainstream media. Today we celebrate his courage and his paradoxical relationship to the drum major instinct. Let us all take inspiration from a man who years after winning the Nobel Prize would seek to learn and grow.”
Peter Fu (CAS’09), one of BU’s Martin Luther King, Jr., Scholars, a group of academically gifted students with leadership abilities, acommitment to social justice, and a record of community involvement whoare given full scholarships by the University, read an excerpt from King’s sermon during the program. The program also included a poem by the student slam-poetry group Speak for Yourself and performances by the Inner Strength Gospel Choir, led by choir director Herbert Jones, and the student group Xception Step Team, which performed both traditional and modern versions of African step dances.
At the end of the program, Dean of Students Kenneth Elmore encouraged audience members to leave flowers and notes at the base of the Free at Last sculpture honoring King on Marsh Plaza, as many students, faculty, and staff did on the day after Obama’s election.
“This statue keeps me strong to my values,” said Khadijah Britton (LAW’10, SPH’10), who said that Farmer’s work inspires her own plans for a career in international health. “It’s a lonely road, and each of us individually is not strong enough to do it without sharing in this type of community.”
Others wrote tributes to Obama, expressed their hopes for the future of the country, or left personal notes for King.
“Happy B-Day,” one note read. “Peace.”
Jessica Ullian can be reached at [email protected]. Photo by Kalman Zabarsky
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