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What is a key fob?

A key fob is a physical device small enough to attach to a keychain that opens or unlocks doors electronically. A mainstay of keyless electronic door lock systems, the key fob has gone through many iterations since its inception in 1983. 

Early systems, used mainly in automobiles, relied on line-of-sight and infrared but were highly susceptible to copying. Systems developed over time to use challenge-response authentication over radio frequency. They now operate primarily over a passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tag, allowing the exchange of data through electromagnetic waves.

Editor’s note: Looking for the right access control system for your business? Fill out the below questionnaire to have our vendor partners contact you about your needs.

How do key fobs work?

Modern key fobs work through RFID, an intelligent barcode system that uses electromagnetic fields to identify and track data on “tags” containing stored information. The information then passes through radio waves.

The barcode system works similarly to the barcodes you see on the back of physical products. It requires a reader to gain the information.

To open a door using a key fob, hold or wave the fob in front of the reader. Each key fob contains a microchip with a unique frequency that communicates with the reader and indicates that the door should be opened. 

You can program fobs to allow access levels for various uses. For example, you could program your building manager’s fob to access all doors in a facility, while a help desk worker’s fob may allow access to only a few areas.

Did You Know?

RFID is also used in asset tracking. RFID-based asset tracking makes it easy to scan multiple items simultaneously and reach assets that aren’t easily accessible.

Do magnets affect key fobs?

No. A common magnet is not strong enough to interfere with, impair or otherwise compromise your employees’ key fobs. For example, you could hang your key fob near metal without worrying. 

Can a locksmith program a key fob?

This depends on the system that you use and the locksmith. Some larger locksmiths offer the service, but you should contact your access control system provider first to see what support options it provides.

Do you have to reprogram a key fob after replacing the battery?

Generally, no. If you have a professional replace your battery, they should be able to do it without having to reprogram the fobs.

How is a key fob used in multifactor authentication?

Just as a key fob is an excellent way to upgrade a building’s security, two-factor authentication is one of the best ways to upgrade your business’s digital security. 

In recent years, security keys have been created that operate similarly to key fobs. Employees must insert a physical USB-A or USB-C security key or enter an algorithm-based code from the key fob and then enter a strong password to access sensitive information, protected data or online accounts.

Tips for introducing a new key fob access system

Consider the following best practices when introducing a new key fob access system in your organization: 

Train your employees on using their key fobs. When you give employees their fobs, take a few minutes to review the system with them, answer their questions and provide a list of FAQs. Include any pertinent key fob information in your employee handbook.

Emphasize the key fob’s personalized nature. Let employees know their fob is unique to them and should not be shared with colleagues.

Create a key fob admin system. Set up a clear and easy process for employees to report missing or lost key fobs. If a fob is misplaced, you will want to deactivate it immediately.


Consider choosing a video surveillance system to enhance your facility’s physical security and help protect it from theft, intrusion, natural disasters and burglary.

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The Network Security Key Isn’t Correct In Windows 11

If you see The network security key isn’t correct error message while trying to connect to a wireless connection on Windows 11, then this post will help you.

The network security key isn’t correct. Please try again.

While the error message clearly indicates that the error is triggered due to an incorrect network security key/password, several users have reported that they keep getting this error even when they enter the right WiFi password. The error could be caused due to an out-of-date network driver. Or, if the network driver is corrupted or faulty, you are likely to face this error.

Now, if you are experiencing The network security key isn’t correct error, this post will interest you. Here, we will be discussing several proven fixes to this error. So, use these fixes and get rid of the error.

The network security key isn’t correct in Windows 11

If you keep getting the “The network security key isn’t correct” error message while setting up a wireless connection, make sure the password you have entered is correct. In case you still experience the same error message, you can use the following methods to fix it:

Update or reinstall the network adapter driver.

Generate a new password for your WiFi.

Disable and then enable your network device.

Use the Network Reset feature.

Set up a new network connection.

1] Update or reinstall the network adapter driver

One of the common reasons for this error message is an outdated or faulty network adapter driver. Hence, if the scenario is applicable, you can fix the error by updating your network drivers.

If the error is not fixed by updating the driver, you might be dealing with a corrupted installation of your network driver. In that case, you can uninstall and then reinstall the network driver using Device Manager. Here’s how:

First, press Win+X and then select Device Manager.

Now, locate the Network adapters category and expand it.

Once done, reboot your computer and check if the error is fixed or not.

If the error still appears, you can move on to the next solution to fix it.

Read: Fix Enter network credentials error on Windows.

2] Generate a new password for your WiFi

The next thing you can do to fix the issue is to create a new password for your WiFi. And then, enter the newly created password to set up your WiFi on Windows 11/10. Here’s how you can do that:

Firstly, start a web browser and open your router settings. You can enter one of the following IP addresses to access the router settings page:

After that, you need to sign in with your username and password for your router to access its main settings. So, do that and navigate to the Wireless Security section.

Next, enter a new password in the respective field and then press the Save button to save changes.

Now, try entering the newly generated password as the security key for your WiFi and see if the “The network security key isn’t correct” error is resolved or not.

See: Windows can’t get the Network Settings from the router.

3] Disable and then enable your network device

You can try disabling and then re-enabling your network device, and then see if the error is fixed. There might be some glitch with your networking device. In that case, this workaround has been proven to be effective. So, apply it and check if it helps. Here are the steps to do that:

First, open the Settings app using the Win+I hotkey.

Now, from the context menu, choose the Enable option.

You should now be able to set up your wireless connection.

Read: The Sign-in method you’re trying to use isn’t allowed.

4] Use Network Reset

Use the Network Reset feature and see if it helps.

5] Set up a new network connection

Why isn’t my network security key correct?

The password of a network connection is the network security key that is used to set up and connect to a WiFi network on a device. It is case-sensitive. So, make sure you have entered the exact password for your WiFi with uppercase, lowercase, numeric, and special characters. Else, the network security key will be incorrect and you won’t be able to connect to a wireless network connection.

How do I reset my network key?

To reset your network key, open the router settings in a web browser and sign in with your login credentials. After that, go to the Wireless Security settings section and you can then change the password to reset your network key.

Now read: Fix Network Security Key Mismatch error on Windows.

Quick Guide To Proofreading

Proofreading means carefully checking for errors in a text before it is published or shared. It is the very last stage of the writing process, when you fix minor spelling and punctuation mistakes, typos, formatting issues and inconsistencies.

Proofreading is essential for any text that will be shared with an audience, whether it’s an academic paper, a job application, an online article, or a print flyer. Depending on your skills and budget, you can choose to proofread the text yourself or to hire a professional.

Proofreading example

In the publishing industry, proofreaders usually check a printed “proof copy” of the text and mark corrections using specialized proofreading marks. In other fields, though, professional proofreaders often work with digital texts and make corrections directly using the track changes feature in Microsoft Word or Google Docs.

Proofreading vs editing

Editing and proofreading are different steps in the process of revising a text. Editing can involve major changes to content, structure and language, but proofreading focuses only on minor errors and inconsistencies.

Often a text will go through several stages of editing before it is proofread. The table below shows some common steps in the editing process.

The four stages of editing and proofreading

Type of editing What it involves

Step 1: Content editing Revising an early draft of a text, often making significant changes to the content and moving, adding or deleting entire sections (also known as developmental or substantive editing).

Step 2: Line editing Revising the use of language to communicate your story, ideas, or arguments as effectively as possible.

This might involve changing words, phrases and sentences and restructuring paragraphs to improve the flow of the text.

Step 3: Copy editing Polishing individual sentences to ensure correct grammar, a clear sentence structure, and stylistic consistency, often following the rules of a specific style guide (such as APA or MLA).

Copy editors don’t change the content of a text, but if a sentence or paragraph is ambiguous or awkward, they can work with the author to improve it.

Step 4: Proofreading Carefully checking for any remaining errors, such as misspelled words, misplaced punctuation, and stylistic inconsistencies.

In print publishing, proofreaders are also responsible for checking the formatting (e.g., page numbers and line spacing).

Do I need to go through every stage?

It depends on the type and length of text. You don’t need to strictly follow the division of tasks shown above, but a good piece of writing will nearly always go through a similar process of revising, editing and proofreading.

In the traditional publishing process, the stages are clearly divided, with different professionals responsible for each revision. A separate proofread of the final print version is necessary, especially because new typographical errors can be introduced during production.

However, in texts that don’t need to be formatted for mass printing, there is often more overlap between the steps. Some editorial services combine copy editing and proofreading into a single stage (sometimes called proof-editing), where grammar, syntax and style are addressed at the same time as minor spelling and punctuation errors (e.g., commas, quotation marks and parentheses).

Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting

Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:

Academic style

Vague sentences


Style consistency

See an example

Proofreading tips and tricks

Basic proofreading skills are important for anyone who writes. For everyday texts, such as business reports, blogs, or college papers, there are some techniques you can use to proofread efficiently and effectively before sharing your work.

Edit your writing first

Before you get to the final stage of proofreading, make sure you’ve thoroughly revised and edited your work. There’s no point spending time fixing minor errors if you might later remove whole sections or rewrite paragraphs. Only proofread once you’ve got a completed final draft that you’re happy with.

Take a break from the text

When you’ve been reading and rereading the same words for hours or days, it becomes much harder to notice common mistakes. Before proofreading, set your work aside for a while so that you can look at it with fresh eyes.

Ideally you should wait at least a day or two before final proofreading, but if you’re on a tight deadline, even a half hour break can help.

Proofread a printout

Seeing your words on a printed page is another useful strategy for noticing things that might have escaped your attention on the screen. If the final version will be printed, this is also a good chance to check your formatting is correct and consistent on the page.

Use digital shortcuts

While reading from print can help you spot errors, an online proofreader can help you fix them efficiently. Most obviously, run a spell check—but don’t rely on the computer to catch every mistake.

If you notice that you’ve repeatedly misspelled a particular word, inconsistently capitalized a term, or switched between UK and US English, you can use the Find and Replace function to fix the same mistake throughout the document.

Learn from your mistakes

Pay attention to the errors that keep recurring in the text. This can help you avoid them in future.

Knowing what to look out for is the most challenging part of proofreading. You’ll probably notice obvious typos, but subtle mistakes in grammar and punctuation can be harder to recognize. The table below shows some of the most common errors to look out for.

What to watch out for when proofreading Choosing a proofreading service

If you lack confidence in your written English, or if you just want to ensure you haven’t missed anything in an important document, you might want to consider using a professional proofreading service.

There are two main options: you can hire a freelance proofreader, or you can send your document to a proofreading and editing company. There are various things to consider when choosing a service.

Do you only need proofreading or also editing?

It’s important to have a clear idea of how much work your text requires. People often think they only need proofreading when, in reality, the text would benefit from some level of editing as well.

If you send a proofreader a document full of grammar mistakes, confusing sentences, and difficult-to-follow paragraphs, they might decline the job or recommend a different service.

Should the proofreader be specialized in your type of document?

Many different types of documents require proofreading: from literary novels to technical reports, from PhD dissertations to promotional flyers. The best choice of service is usually one that’s specialized in your type of document.

While proofreaders and copy editors generally don’t need expert knowledge of the text’s content, the process will be smoother if your proofreader is familiar with the rules and conventions of the genre you’re working in.

How much does proofreading cost?

The cost of proofreading varies widely. The price depends partly on the proofreader’s location and level of experience, the type and length of text, and the turnaround time. Rates are usually calculated per word or per hour. If the service also focuses on formatting, it may be priced per page.

How long does proofreading take?

You should try to leave plenty of time for editing and proofreading, but if you have a hard deadline, it’s important to find a service that can deliver on time.

Most companies offer various choices of deadline, but it’s best to plan a minimum of 24 hours for proofreading. The price will generally be lower if you can wait longer to have your document returned.

For very long documents, it might not be possible to complete the job in 24 hours, especially if you also need editing services. For combined proofreading and copy editing, you can expect an experienced editor to complete around 10,000–15,000 words in a single day.

How can you check the quality and reliability of the service?

Like everything on the internet, the quality of proofreading services varies widely. Do your research before you choose one. There are a few things you can check:

Online reviews: are they rated on independent review sites (e.g., Trustpilot) or freelancer platforms (e.g., Upwork)?

Qualifications: do they have professional training and experience? If you’re using a company, how do they select and train proofreaders?

Customer service: are they easily contactable and responsive to inquiries?

Complaints policy: what happens if you’re not happy with the job? Can you get a refund or a second edit?

Choosing a proofreading service

Type Advantages

Automated proofreaders

Free or relatively cheap

Instant proofreading

Unreliable for catching all mistakes

Risk of introducing new errors if not used carefully

Freelance proofreaders

You can choose exactly who you work with

You can discuss and negotiate the job directly

No quality control

Often longer turnaround times

Proofreading companies

Upfront pricing (usually by word count)

Fast turnaround and guaranteed deadlines

Standardized training and quality control

Services are usually fixed and non-negotiable

Often no direct contact with the proofreader

Recommended proofreading service

Scribbr offers proofreading services for students and academic editing services for all sorts of study-related documents, including essays, papers, theses, dissertations, reports, and proposals.

The basic service combines proofreading and copy editing at a rate of $0.017 per word. You can choose between a 24-hour, 3-day, or 7-day turnaround time.

Scribbr is rated 4.7 on Trustpilot, with 3,184 reviews so far.

Frequently asked questions about proofreading

What is the difference between proofreading and editing?

Editing and proofreading are different steps in the process of revising a text.

Editing comes first, and can involve major changes to content, structure and language. The first stages of editing are often done by authors themselves, while a professional editor makes the final improvements to grammar and style (for example, by improving sentence structure and word choice).

Proofreading is the final stage of checking a text before it is published or shared. It focuses on correcting minor errors and inconsistencies (for example, in punctuation and capitalization). Proofreaders often also check for formatting issues, especially in print publishing.

How can I get better at proofreading?

Whether you’re publishing a blog, submitting a research paper, or even just writing an important email, there are a few techniques you can use to make sure it’s error-free:

Take a break: Set your work aside for at least a few hours so that you can look at it with fresh eyes.

Proofread a printout: Staring at a screen for too long can cause fatigue – sit down with a pen and paper to check the final version.

Use digital shortcuts: Take note of any recurring mistakes (for example, misspelling a particular word, switching between US and UK English, or inconsistently capitalizing a term), and use Find and Replace to fix it throughout the document.

If you want to be confident that an important text is error-free, it might be worth choosing a professional proofreading service instead.

How much does professional proofreading cost?

The cost of proofreading depends on the type and length of text, the turnaround time, and the level of services required. Most proofreading companies charge per word or page, while freelancers sometimes charge an hourly rate.

For proofreading alone, which involves only basic corrections of typos and formatting mistakes, you might pay as little as $0.01 per word, but in many cases, your text will also require some level of editing, which costs slightly more.

What qualifications do you need to become a proofreader?

There are many different routes to becoming a professional proofreader or editor. The necessary qualifications depend on the field – to be an academic or scientific proofreader, for example, you will need at least a university degree in a relevant subject.

For most proofreading jobs, experience and demonstrated skills are more important than specific qualifications. Often your skills will be tested as part of the application process.

To learn practical proofreading skills, you can choose to take a course with a professional organization such as the Society for Editors and Proofreaders. Alternatively, you can apply to companies that offer specialized on-the-job training programmes, such as the Scribbr Academy.

Cite this Scribbr article

McCombes, S. Retrieved July 19, 2023,

Cite this article

10 Key Steps To Ranking Higher In Google Maps

You’re searching for a lunch spot in an unfamiliar neighborhood, or you need a mechanic to assist with an unexpected flat tire.

Where do you look?

If you answered Google Maps, you’re not alone.

These days, many of us are turning to Google Maps to discover local businesses and make more informed buying decisions.

So how can local businesses rank higher in the place consumers are increasingly looking to purchase local products and services?

Here are ten steps to take in order to rank well, drive more traffic and secure more customers via Google Maps.

1. Claim And Complete A Google Business Profile

The first, crucial step in establishing visibility in Google Maps is claiming and optimizing your Google Business Profile (GBP – formerly known as Google My Business or GMB).

You can do this by simply searching for your business name on Google or Google Maps and verifying your listing if you have not already done so.

Once you have a listing and are logged into your Google account, you can now edit it, even from directly within the search results.

Being a Google property, GBP provides a primary signal to Google of your business’ existence – and the information here is assumed to be accurate and up to date.

Google will cross-reference these details with those it finds on your website and in other local directories and resources; more on the importance of these in a moment.

2. Post Linked Content (Including Photos)

After you’ve claimed your GBP listing, your work is only partway done.

Google rewards active businesses with higher visibility in Google Maps, so it’s important to post regular updates to your GBP profile.

These updates may and should include special offers, hosted events, links to relevant blog posts, or general business updates.

You should also be including links in your posts, ideally to primary product or service pages on your website.

3. Optimize Your Web Presence For Local Organic Search

If you want to rank well on Google Maps, you should ensure your web presence, including your website and external content, is optimized for your local audience.

You can start by performing a local SEO audit to identify where you need to focus your attention from a keyword, content, and linking perspective – as these are the three primary components upon which a presence is built.

Your website needs to be properly structured to enable Google to easily crawl and index your content, and the content within your site needs to be rich with relevant, locally-oriented, intent-driven keywords and logical internal and external links to the answers your audience is searching for.

Websites must also load quickly and provide seamless navigation, regardless of device.

This is particularly important at a local level, as searchers increasingly begin their quests on their phones.

4. Use Local Business Schema

When it comes to structuring content, and especially business details, Google and other search engines prefer standardization – which has led to the development of schema.

Local Schema enables businesses to wrap code around their content to make it easier for Google to crawl and index.

Local business schema covers many of the same business details captured in a Google Business Profile, which Google will naturally cross-reference.

The easier it is for Google to validate your location, the more likely your business is to show up prominently in Google Maps.

5. Embed The Google Map On Your Contact Us Page

While it’s not explicitly stated that embedding a Google Map in your website will make a difference in terms of where you rank in Google Maps, it’s not far-fetched to assume this is Google’s preferred format.

Here again, Google is able to ensure a consistent user experience for its searchers, which should likewise be the aim of any business looking to please its customers.

6. Mine And Mind Your Reviews

Any business can create a GBP listing, ensure its basic business information is up to date, and post plenty of relevant, local content.

However, another critically important factor in determining if, and where, a local business shows up in Google Maps is customer reviews.

Google pays close attention to both how many reviews your business obtains, and how active it is in responding to those reviews, regardless of whether they’re positive or negative.

Any business naturally wants to limit the number of negative reviews it receives and all negative reviews should be dealt with swiftly.

This can actually become a valuable way of displaying your business’ commitment to customer service.

While there are many places customers can leave reviews online, including Facebook, Yelp, and other industry-specific review sites, reviews on GBP profiles will carry more weight when it comes to Google Map rankings.

Consider proactively asking your customers for reviews soon after you’ve successfully delivered a product or service when a presumably positive experience is top of mind for their customers.

There are services available to help automate review requests (via email or text) once certain on or offline customer actions have been completed (e.g. appointment completed, invoice paid, etc.) and review management across multiple sources through a central dashboard.

Automation can save busy local businesses a lot of time, and ensure positive reviews flow in on a regular basis.

7. Update Your Local Listings/Citations With Your NAP

The three most important pieces of directional information on your GBP, website, and across the web are your Name, Address and Phone Number or NAP.

It’s critical for both Google and your audience to have your NAP consistent and accurate across all of these sources.

These references to your business from third-party sites are also called citations.

To find and ensure your NAP is up to date, you can start by simply searching your business name and noting all of the places your business details can be found.

Check each instance and reach out to each directory or website owner to update this important contact information, as needed.

There are also free and paid automated local listings services, which will enable you to identify and update your NAP, along with other important business information like your website URL, services, or even relevant images, from one central location.

8. Build Local Backlinks

Backlinks or inbound links are effectively an extension of our NAP strategy, whereby you look to have relevant, local third-party websites link to your primary website pages.

Backlinks can validate your business from both local and product/service perspectives.

If you maintain listings with links in local directories, you will want to ensure those listings are in the proper categories, if category options are offered.

Ideally, these links to your website are “follow” links, which means Google will follow and recognize the source of the link to your content.

Most directories realize the value of “follow” links and therefore charge for inclusion, but you should also look for opportunities to secure links from other non-paid sources such as relevant partner, industry or service organization sites.

9. Engage With Your Community

Just as Google rewards GBP activity, it also pays attention to how active a business is within its community as a means to establish its local presence and authority.

Businesses noted to be engaging with local service organizations (e.g. Chambers of Commerce, charities, or sports groups), sponsoring local events, or partnering with other prominent local businesses are naturally deemed to be a thriving part of the community.

Engagement can include publishing and/or promoting linked content e.g. event announcements, partner pages tied to these partner organizations, and, of course, physically engaging and perhaps getting mentioned/linked in local news stories or other publications.

10. Pay Attention To The SERPs And The Long Tail

If you are going to optimize any aspect of your local web presence, you will want to monitor your progress in terms of whether or not and where you rank within Google Maps and the regular search engine results pages (SERPs) based on the keywords you are hoping to be found for.

You can perform your own manual Google searches (preferably in Incognito Mode and while not logged into a Google account), or you can choose from a number of rank monitoring tools, many of which enable you to specifically filter out Map rankings.

When considering which keywords to follow, be sure to consider and include local identifiers and qualifying keywords such as “near me,” “best,” and “affordable” – e.g “auto body shops near me,” “best auto body shop in Barrie,” or “affordable auto body work.”

In time, if you’ve truly established your business’ local authority, the short tail top rankings will follow.

Put Your Business On The Google Map

So now, with your laundry list in hand, go ahead and put your local business on the map.

Establishing your authority and expertise online is not really all that different from how it’s always been in the real world, but it can take time, as any real relationship should.

Google rewards those businesses that provide the best answers to their customers’ questions, deliver solid products and services, take an active role in their local community, have their customers say nice things about them, and provide a high level of customer service at all times.

If this describes your business, get out there and do it.

More resources:

Featured Image: BestForBest/Shutterstock

How To Reattach A Keyboard Key That Fell Off

A keyboard works when you press the keycap, which then presses the rubber nub or switch beneath it. So, if a key falls off, it’s not just because of the keycap, but there could be issues with the internal parts of your keyboard.

Yet, keys falling off are a fairly common issue, and there are different fixes for different types of keyboards. So, in this article, we will check out the step-by-step methods on fixing a fallen key from a laptop, mechanical, or membrane keyboard.

For Laptop Keyboard

If you recently dropped your laptop, chances are one, or many keys might have fallen off the keyboard. So, go through the following guide to learn how you need to fix them:

Then, check whether the rubber nub is fine or broken. If it doesn’t seem to be in its place, you can glue it, so it sticks well to the PCB.

Next, open any text editor and see if the key that fell off is now working fine. 

If your laptop keyboard doesn’t work as it used to, there’s a probability that the keycap, retainer clip, or rubber knob has issues. Interestingly, you can buy a Key Replacement Kit that comes with all these three components.

For Mechanical Keyboard

If you do not place the keycap correctly after cleaning your mechanical keyboard, you’ll notice that the keys come off automatically. Such a situation might also happen if the switch has a fault. So, here’s what you need to do to fix it:

If you encounter any problem, use a switch puller to remove the switch gently. Alternatively, you can use your keycap puller by placing it on the two ends of the switch and pulling off, applying a little pressure.

Next, replace the switch with a new one if your keyboard is hot-swappable. To place the switch, check for the right edges and push it down with a little pressure.

Now, place the keycap back on the keyboard surface. Make sure you press the key multiple times to ensure it has been correctly inserted.

Finally, open a text editor and see if your key works. If it doesn’t work, try these keyboard fixes for Windows 11.

For Membrane Keyboard

Membrane keyboards are comparatively cheaper and silent than mechanical ones. Thus, many use it for general purposes. 

Unfortunately, these keyboards have a shorter lifetime as the rubber dome can get damaged easily. Moreover, you may have to replace the entire sheet if even a single rubber knob is damaged.

So, let’s look into the possible fixes if your membrane keyboard key has fallen off:

Usually, membrane keyboards have a keycap with an elongated plastic injection that helps you connect with the rubber nub. So, check for any cracks or faults in it.

Next, check whether the rubber nub is broken or not. Well, you’ll need to get a new rubber-dome sheet if it’s broken.

Slowly remove the bottom section of the membrane keyboard.

Next, unplug the connector for safety purposes.

Then, plug in the connector again.

Close the bottom section and tighten all the screws.

Now, place the fallen keycap just above the rubber knob. While doing so, make sure you’ve aligned it the right way.

Then, press the key continuously, ensuring the keycap has been adjusted correctly.

Finally, open a text editor and check if the key is working again.

Sap Bw Characteristics & Key Figures

In this tutorial you will learn about

Characteristics Settings – Display Name:

By default, when a characteristic is added to the query, it displays the description specified in SAP BW. It is possible to replace this with customized text as follows.

Select the General tab

Enter Description

Characteristics Settings – Display Properties:

Select the Display tab of the properties window of the selected characteristic.

The “Display as” option is used to display either only the Key or only Text or both Key & Text.

If a characteristic has 2 or more of Short / Medium / Long Text populated, “Text View” is used to display corresponding text.

It is possible to sort data ascending / descending either by the characteristic or any of its attributes.

The “Result Rows” option is used to show or hide sub-total for underlying characteristic.

Characteristics Settings – Display Records:

The display option is used to define what data is viewed by user during data selection (in filters) and after report execution.

Select the Advanced tab of the properties window of the selected characteristic.

Access Type for Result Values. Choose one of these values.

“Posted values” is used to show only records that have got some transactions associated with them

“Master Data” displays all master data records irrespective of whether a transaction exists for them or not. It is ineffective if used with zero suppression.

Filter Value Selection. Choose one of these values.

Only Values in InfoProvider: The system displays only values contained in the InfoProvider.

Values in Master Data Table: It is faster, but may result in zero records matching selection criteria.

Key Figure Settings – Display Name:

By default, when a Key Figure is added to the query, it displays the description specified in SAP BW. It is possible to replace this with customized text as follows.

Select the General tab

Enter Description

Key Figure Settings – Display Properties:

Select the Display tab of the properties window of the selected Key Figure.


The options “Always Show” and “Always Hide” are self explanatory.

Hide (Can be Shown) option is used to keep a key figure hidden in default output of the report. However, the user can later display this field by using filters.

Number of Decimals places can be used to restrict the decimal places displayed in report.

Scaling factor is used to show data in thousands / hundreds / etc.

The sign of key figures can be reversed if required. e.g. Sales Quantity is negative movement from Inventory perspective, but positive from sales perspective and we can reverse sign based on user.

Key Figure Settings – Currency Or Unit Conversion:

BW does not allow cumulating amount in different units e.g. one rupee to one dollar or one kilogram to one yard. When data exists in multiple currencies / unit, all records must be converted to single currency / unit using Currency Translation / Unit Conversion. The translation can be dynamic (by using selection screen variable) or static (with target currency / unit hardcoded in adjacent screens). Advantage of doing this in SAP BW is that it directly imports the conversion factors available in SAP ERP to SAP BW.

Select the Conversions tab.

For currency translation, this option can be used.

For unit conversion, this option can be used.

Key Figure Settings – Aggregation:

Query Designer gives the flexibility of calculating aggregates as average, summation, minimum,

etc. Similar calculations can also be performed on row-level data.

Select the Calculations tab.

Select from the Different options available under the drop-down of “Calculate Results As”.

Key Figures – Local Formula:

BW, allows use of formulae, on data coming from InfoProvider, to provide calculated values to user.

e.g. Subtracting Cost from Revenue to calculate Profit

Steps to create Formula:

Step 1)

Step 2)

Step 3)

Some of the common operators used in BW include:

Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division

NODIM is used to display key figures without their corresponding unit

NOERR is used to display zero instead of error message (e.g. zero instead of mentioning that division by zero error)

%GT is used to show the value of key figure as a percentage of total value

In the “Detail View” box, enter the formula

Use the operators from the “Operators” box.

Key Figures – Calculated Key Figure:

If same calculation is required for multiple reports, it can be mapped to the InfoProvider instead of creating it individually in each query. Such key figure is called “Calculated Key Figure” or CKF.

Steps to create a Calculated Key Figure:

Navigate to the Infoprovider section

Choose the option “New Calculated Key Figure”.

Key Figures – Restricted Key Figure:

Restricted Key Figures (RKF) can be used to selectively apply filters only to a specific KPI in the report, but not to the entire report e.g. split sales into columns like YTD (Year To Date) Sales, PYTD (Previous Year To Date) Sales, etc.

Step 1)

Navigate to the Infoprovider section

Choose the option “New Restricted Key Figure”.

Step 2)

Step 3)

In the subsequent screen, at least one key figure and one characteristic must be entered to make a meaningful RKF.

Key Figure which is to be restricted.

The characteristic may be restricted by a selection screen variable to make it “Dynamic” RKF.

It may also be restricted by a constant e.g. year = 2008. In the below screen shot, version is restricted with constant value “1”.

Like CKF, RKFs are also global to the InfoProvider and can be reused in multiple queries using the same InfoProvider.

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