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About Yadagirigutta Temple

Yadagirigutta Temple is the most famous temple in Telangana. It is the temple of Lord Vishnu, also known as the Lakshmi Narasimha Temple. Around 5000 to 8000 devotees visit the temple every single day. These devotees of the great Lord Vishnu come here to seek his blessings, make promises to him, offer prayers, and perform poojas and abhishekas.

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What is Yadagirigutta Temple’s Significance?

This Temple is Highly well-liked devotees who visit this temple will have their wishes fulfilled.

The main temple’s twelve Alvar pillars are a favorite structure aspect.

The silver Lakshmi Narasimha idols inside the temple also attract visitors.

The temple’s location is close to the capital city because this temple receives a large number of visitors. A daily average of 5000 – 8000 visitors go to this temple.

The Indian Green Building Council has given the Yadagirigutta Temple a platinum rating for sustainable building.

History of Yadagirigutta Temple

Yadari worshipped Lord Narsimha, and one day he was impressed by her. As a result, he appeared on the cave walls in five different incarnations. Sri Gandabharunda, Sri Lakshminarasimha, Sri Yogananda, Sri Ugra, and Sri Jwalanarasimha.

The tribal people learned of the Lord’s presence and began to worship him after Yadari attained salvation. They had been practicing false worship without releasing it. The Lord had left to the hills.

Yadagirigutta Temple’s Architecture

The temple has maintained the Vaishnava Agama Shastras, primarily practiced in South India and known for their Thenkalai Heritage.

The famous Film set Designer Anand Sai was the temple’s primary architect and worked under the senior architect P Madhusudhan due to their knowledge of Agama Shastras and old designs.

They mainly imported 2.5 lakh tonnes of granite from Prakasam, Andhra Pradesh, for the temple’s reconstruction.

The carving of the pillars is from a single stone.

Originally, The YadagiriGutta Temple was constructed on two acres; it stands on 14 acres.

CM K Chandrasekhar Rao, his Cabinet, colleagues, and business people donated the 125 kg of gold that covers the temple’s Vimana Gopuram (The top structure of the temple)

What are The Timings For Sevas and Poojas at Yadadri Temple? Morning Timings

Suprabhatham 04 am to 04:40 am

Binde Teertam 04.30 am to 05 am

Bala Bogam 05 am to 05:30 am

Nijabhishekam 05:30 am to 06:30 am

Archana 06:30 am to 07:15 am

General Darshanam 07:15 am to 11:30 am

Maharaja Bogamu 11:30 am to 12:30 am

Darshanams 12:30 pm to 03 pm

Dawara Bandanamu 03 pm to 04 pm

Evening Timings

Special Darshan 04 pm to 05 pm

General Darshan 05 pm to 07 pm

Aaradhana 07 pm to 07:30 pm

Archana 07:30 pm to 08:15 pm

General Darshan 08:15 pm to 09 pm

Maha Nevidhana 09 pm to 09:30 pm

Shayanostavam 09:30 pm to 09:45 pm

Temple Close 09:45 pm

How to Reach Yadagirigutta Temple? By Road

The distance between the temple and the city of Hyderabad is 85 kilometers. The nearest bus station to the temple is Bhongiri Bus Station, 14 km away, and buses run there every 30 minutes.

By Train

The temple is 62 kilometers from Secunderabad Railway Station, and the nearest stations are Wangapalli (7 km) and Raigir (9 km). Private vehicles are frequently available.

By Air Best Time to Visit

October to March are the best times to visit the Yadagirigutta temple. You get relief from the heat at this time, allowing you to appreciate your journey more. You can enjoy seeing Yadagirigutta quite well that time of year.

Final Thoughts

The Yadagirigutta Temple is a highly well-known temple in Telangana. After more than five years of construction, the temple has developed from a small hill temple into a massive pilgrimage center and architectural wonder.

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Botnet: Architecture, Danger, And More

Botnets are cyber weapons used to attack computers and networks on the internet. They combine malicious software (malware) and hijacked computers (bots). Can utilize the core architecture to carry out some seriously damaging cyber-attacks, such as distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, spam campaigns, and data theft. This article will explore a botnet, its architecture, and how it works. We’ll also discuss the potential dangers associated with botnets, as well as some ways in which you can protect yourself from them. So let’s get started!

Botnet in a Nutshell

A botnet is a cluster of computers infected with malware and under the control of a malicious actor. The term “bot” comes from the word “robot.” It can use these networks of bots to carry out various nefarious activities, such as launching distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, stealing data, or spreading spam.

The architecture of a botnet varies depending on its purpose. For example, a botnet used for DDoS attacks typically consists of thousands of infected computers, known as “zombies.” These zombies will all receive commands from the attacker to bombard a target with traffic, overload its servers, and cause it to crash.

Other botnets may be smaller and more targeted in their approach. For instance, a botnet used for stealing sensitive data may only consist of a few hundred computers. These bots will quietly collect information such as login credentials and credit card numbers while their owners do their everyday business. The attackers can use this stolen data for financial gain or identity theft.

No matter what their purpose, all botnets share one common trait: they allow attackers to carry out their activities

How does a Botnet Work?

The computers in a botnet are usually infected with a Trojan horse or worm. The attacker then uses a command and control (C&C) server to issue commands to the botnet. The commands are sent through the internet using various protocols, such as IRC, HTTP, or DNS.

Once the botnet receives the commands, they are executed on the infected computers. The attackers can then use the botnet for malicious purposess.

The Different Types of Botnets

Botnets are classified according to their structure and the type of bot they use. The three most common types of botnets are peer-to-peer, distributed, and hierarchical.

Peer-to-peer botnets do not have a central server. Instead, each bot communicates with every other bot in the network. This type of botnet is more challenging to take down because there is no single point of failure.

Distributed botnets also do not have a central server. However, the bots in this type of network are not all connected. Instead, they are divided into smaller groups, or “botnets,” each controlled by a separate server. It makes taking down a distributed botnet easier because taking down one server will only affect the bots in that particular group.

Hierarchical botnets have a central server that controls all the bots in the network. This type of botnet is the easiest to take down because taking down the main server will disable all the bots in the network.

The Dangers of Botnets

Botnets are often used to launch attacks on websites or other online services. These attacks can cause significant disruption and may even take offline websites or services.

Botnets can also be used to send spam emails or distribute malware. It can have profound security implications for the victim, as their computer may be infected with a virus or spyware.

In some cases, botnets have been used to DDoS (denial of service) attack government websites, causing them to crash. This attack can have profound political implications and even be considered an act of war.

Botnets are a serious threat to both individuals and organizations. Anyone using the internet should be aware of the dangers posed by these malicious networks.

Protection against botnets

To protect yourself from botnets, do the followings −

Keep your Computer and Software up-to-date

Most botnets are created by malicious actors who exploit vulnerabilities in software to take control of devices. To protect against botnets, keeping your software up to date is essential. Install updates as soon as these are available in the market. It allows you to close the security holes botnet creators use to gain access to devices.

Install Antivirus Software

Install and use a reputable antivirus program. Antivirus software can detect and remove malicious software, including botnets, from your system and configure your firewall to block incoming connections from unknown sources.

Watch Out for any Spammy Links or Attachments Back up your important files regularly

Protecting your computer against botnets is backing up your important files regularly. If your computer is infected with a botnet, you can restore your files from a backup and avoid losing any critical data.

Conclusion

In conclusion, a botnet is an interconnected network of computers infected with malicious viruses by hackers to execute various cyberattacks. Botnets have become increasingly popular in recent years, allowing attackers to deploy large-scale attacks while remaining anonymous. Understanding the architecture of botnets is essential if we want to mitigate their potential threat, and there are several measures that organizations can take to protect themselves from these malicious networks.

Neural Architecture Search: The Process Of Automating Architecture

Neural Architecture Search (NAS) has become a popular subject in the area of machine-learning science

Handcrafting neural networks to find the best performing structure has always been a tedious and time-consuming task. Besides, as humans, we naturally tend towards structures that make sense in our point of view, although the most intuitive structures are not always the most performant ones.

Neural Architecture Search

is a subfield of

AutoML

that aims at replacing such manual designs with something more automatic. Having a way to make

neural networks

design themselves would provide a significant time gain, and would let us discover novel, good performing architectures that would be more adapted to their use-case than the ones we design as humans.

NAS is the process of automating architecture engineering i.e. finding the design of a

machine learning model

. Where it is needed to provide a NAS system with a dataset and a task (classification, regression, etc), it will come up with an architecture. And this architecture will perform best among all other architectures for that given task when trained by the dataset provided. NAS can be seen as a subfield of AutoML and has a significant overlap with hyperparameter optimization. 

Neural architecture search is an aspect of

AutoML

, along with feature engineering, transfer learning, and hyperparameter optimization. It’s probably the hardest

machine learning

problem currently under active research; even the evaluation of neural architecture search methods is hard. Neural architecture search research can also be expensive and time-consuming. The metric for the search and training time is often given in GPU-days, sometimes thousands of GPU-days. 

Modern deep neural networks sometimes contain several layers of numerous types. Skip connections and sub-modules are also being used to promote model convergence. There is no limit to the space of possible model architectures. Most of the deep neural network structures are currently created based on human experience, requiring a long and tedious trial and error process. NAS tries to detect effective architectures for a specific deep learning problem without human intervention.

Generally, NAS can be categorized into three dimensions- search space, a search strategy, and a performance estimation strategy.

Search Space:

The search space determines which neural architectures to be assessed. Better search space may reduce the complexity of searching for suitable neural architectures. In general, not only a constrained but also flexible search space is needed. Constraints eliminate non-intuitive neural architecture to create a finite space for searching. The search space contains every architecture design (often an infinite number) that can be originated from the NAS approaches.

Performance Estimation Strategy:

It will provide a number that reflects the efficiency of all architectures in the search space. It is usually the accuracy of a model architecture when a reference dataset is trained over a predefined number of epochs followed by testing. The performance estimation technique can also often consider some factors such as the computational difficulty of training or inference. In any case, it’s computationally expensive to assess the performance of architecture.

Search Strategy:

NAS relies on search strategies. It should identify promising architectures for estimating performance and avoid testing of bad architectures. Throughout the following article, we discuss numerous search strategies, including random and grid search, gradient-based strategies, evolutionary algorithms, and reinforcement learning strategies.

There is a need for a way to design controllers that could navigate the search space more intelligently.

Designing the Search Strategy

Most of the work that has gone into neural architecture search has been innovations for this part of the problem that is finding out which optimization methods work best, and how they can be changed or tweaked to make the search process churn out better results faster and with consistent stability. There have been several approaches attempted, including Bayesian optimization, reinforcement learning, neuroevolution, network morphing, and game theory. We will look at all of these approaches one by one.

Reinforcement Learning

History, Legacy, Labour And Economy

About Jamestown

The first permanent English establishment in America, Jamestown served as the base for the country’s administration, the opening of diplomatic ties of Native Americans, and the development of barter and commercial crops, which helped the colonies (and ultimately the country) prosper economically.

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Jamestown’s History

The establishment of Jamestown, the very first permanent English presence in North America, in Virginia in 1607—13 years before Pilgrims arrived in Massachusetts at Plymouth—sparked a sequence of cultural exchanges that influenced the country and the rest of the world. These ancient Virginians left behind a legacy that still exists today in the shape of their constitution, language, traditions, convictions, and goals.

The colony, whose leader John Smith, and the Native American Pocahontas—whom legend has it rescued Smith’s life—have all been the focus of innumerable books, plays, and movies, many of which are fantastical. It declined after surrounding Williamsburg took over as the seat of government for colonial Virginia in 1699. Due to erosion, the peninsula had become Jamestown Island by the middle of the nineteenth century. The location was added to the Colonial National Historical Park in 1936.

Commerce in Jamestown

Every colony created one system of governance. Jamestown, a constituent body consisting of seven members and a president, and the Pilgrims, who signed the Mayflower Contract, played a pivotal role in making future colonies and the entirety of America possible. Captain John Smith became the president in 1608 after the previous three governors had completed their terms. He established the law requiring people to labor for their bread and established food commerce with the Powhatan Nation.

Even though an explosive accident forced Smith to return to England in 1609, he supported North American colonization and provided historically significant chronicles of Jamestown.

Labor and the Economy

In Virginia, the very first known Africans came in 1619. During the Portuguese-African War, the Portuguese seized them, and they originated from Ndongo in Angola, Rural Western Africa. Every one of these early Africans was not free, but from the mid-century, the custom of enslavement of Africans for life became more common, taking the place of indentured slaves as the main source of labor. Every one of these early Africans was not free, but from the mid-century, the custom of enslavement of Africans for life became more common, taking the place of indentured slaves as the main source of labor.

Legacy of Jamestown

Jamestown saw the start of the initial representative democracy in British America. Colonists demanding a say in the laws that regulated them called for a general assembly to be convened in 1619. The monarch disbanded the Virginia Company in 1624; thus, Virginia became a British crown colony cause of some events, along with a battle with the Powhatan Indians in 1622 and misbehavior by certain Virginia Business executives in England.

Since Williamsburg became the state’s capital in 1699, Jamestown remained the hub of Virginia’s political and social life. Although Jamestown was no longer a town by the middle of the eighteenth century, its influences can still be seen in the modern United States.

Unesco World Heritage Site, Types And History

Introduction to Khajuraho Temples

Khajuraho temples are a group of medieval Hindu and Jain temples located in the Madhya Pradesh state of India. The temples are famous for their intricate carvings and sculptures, depicting various human and animal figures and spiritual and mythological scenes. The temples were ancient during the reign of the Chandela dynasty between the 10th and 12th centuries.

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The Khajuraho temples have a location in the Chhatarpur district of Madhya Pradesh, India. They are about 620 kilometers southeast of New Delhi and 175 kilometers southeast of Jhansi. The temples have a location in a remote rural area, surrounded by forests and farmlands.

The temples have great religious and cultural significance as they depict the Hindu and Jain ways of life and religious beliefs of ancient times. Their intricate carvings and sculptures make them architectural masterpieces that are widely known.

The Khajuraho temples are a famous tourist destination in India, drawing thousands of visitors each year. Considered masterpieces of Indian art and architecture, the temples are also seen as a symbol of the golden age of Indian culture.

A brief history of the Khajuraho Temples and the Chandela Dynasty

The Khajuraho temples were of ancient times during the reign of the Chandela dynasty, which ruled over the region in central India, now known as Madhya Pradesh, between the 10th and 12th centuries. The dynasty earned a reputation for its patronage of art and architecture, with the construction of the temples considered one of their most notable accomplishments. They built the temples over several decades, likely utilizing them for religious ceremonies and as places of worship for the Hindu and Jain communities.

The Chandela dynasty reached its peak of power and prosperity during the reign of King Dhanga, who ruled from 954 to 1003 CE. He was responsible for the construction of many of the temples at Khajuraho. However, by the 13th century, the dynasty began to decline, and the temples fell into disuse and neglect. In the 19th century, people repaired them, and since then, extensive restoration and preservation efforts have been undertaken on them.

Types of temples

#1 The Western Group of Temples is famous and most visited. It includes the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple, the Chausath Yogini Temple, the Chitragupta Temple, and the Lakshmana Temple, among others. The sculptures depicting various human and animal figures and spiritual and mythological scenes, along with intricate carvings, are widely known in these temples.

#2 The Eastern Group of temples is smaller and less visited than the Western Group, but still worth a visit. It includes the Parsvanath Temple, the Ghantai Temple, and the Adinath Temple. These temples are known for their Jain architecture and sculptures.

#3 The Southern Group of Temples is the least visited of the three groups but still contains some notable temples, such as the Duladeo and Chaturbhuj Temples.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Q1: What is Khajuraho?

Ans: Khajuraho is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in the Madhya Pradesh state of India. Its intricate carvings and sculptures in the collection of Hindu and Jain temples make them famous.

Q2: How many temples are there in Khajuraho?

Ans: There are 85 temples in Khajuraho, of which only 25 are still standing.

Q3: What is an excellent time to visit Khajuraho?

Ans: The best time to visit Khajuraho is between October and March when the weather is pleasant.

Q4: Is there an entrance fee for visiting Khajuraho temples?

Ans: There is an entrance fee for visiting the temples in Khajuraho. The price varies for Indian and foreign nationals and different age groups.

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Architecture Of Db2 With Brief Explanation

Introduction to DB2 Architecture

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Architecture of DB2

The architecture of DB2 are given below:

1. DB2 Client

The DB2 clients can be either remote application or local applications each of which is linked internally with the client library of DB2. The communication between client and server is made by using different techniques. If the client is local then semaphores and shared memory are used for communication. In the case of remote clients, the communication is carried out by using different protocols like TCP/ IP or named pipes which are also denoted as NPIPE.

2. DB2 Server

The DB2 server consists of different components in which all the activities are controlled by the units called Engine Dispatchable Units that is EDUs. We can observe different components of the DB2 server and the DB2 client-server communications by having a look at the below diagram –

3. Engine Dispatchable Units (EDUs) 4. Subagents

A different set of subagents is used for serving the requests from client application processes. There is a facility and possibility that we can assign multiple subagents provided if the machine which we are using for the DB2 server has multiple processors or the DB2 server internally uses a partitioned database environment. One of the examples, where we can use multiple subagents is symmetric multiprocessing(SMP) which is an environment and the multiple SMP are capable of exploiting multiple processors at the same time.

5. Pooling Algorithm

The pooling algorithm is responsible for managing the agents and subagents that are present inside the DB2 server. This algorithm helps us to minimize the destruction and construction of the EDUs inside DB2 server.

6. Buffer Pool

Buffer pools is the place where the actual data resides. These pools are the part of the memory of our database server which stores the data related to pages of a user, catalog data, and the index data temporarily. There after this data is moved to Hard disks. But initially and while manipulating the data is brought to these pools and modified and manipulated. The buffer pools are regarded as one of the key parameters for measuring the performance of the DB2 server. This is because of the fact that accessing the data from the memory of the buffer pools is much faster and simpler than accessing it from the hard disk.

How quickly can the data inside the DB2 servers can be accessed by the DB2 client side applications depends upon the configurations of the buffer pools as well as other components like page cleaners and the prefetchers.

7. Prefetchers 8. Working of Prefetchers

The client side requests are implemented by prefetchers by using the scatter-read and big-block input operations when the prefetchers become available they bring all the pages which are requested into the buffer pool from the disk. We can also strip the data across the disks provided if we have multiple disks for storing the data. The use of stripping the data helps us and enables the use of prefetchers to retrieve the data simultaneously from multiple disks.

9. Page Cleaners

The working of page cleaners is just the opposite of prefetchers. The responsibility of prefetchers is to move the data to the hard disk from the buffer pool. They work in the background of the EDUs because they are independent of the other agents of the application. The page cleaners are responsible for having the look at which pages are changed and the updated modified pages are written back to the disk. It is the responsibility of the page cleaners to make sure that the required space is available in the buffer pools for the working of the prefetchers. If there were no independent page cleaners and the prefetchers in the DB2 server then the other agents of the application would have to all the operations related to read and write between disk storage and the buffer pool.

Conclusion

The architecture of the DB2 consists of different components. The architecture of the DB2 is mainly divided into the DB2 client and DB2 server. The DB2 server consists of different agents and subagents. The two important components are the prefetchers and the page cleaners which maintain the data in buffer pools for fast and effective retrieval of data.

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