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Introduction to Pandas resample

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Syntax of Pandas resample

Given below is the syntax :

Pandas. Resample(how=None, rule, fill_method=None, axis=0, label=None, closed=None, kind=None, convention='start', limit=None, loffset=None, on=None, base=0, level=None)

Where,

Rule represents the offset string or object representing target conversion.

Axis represents the pivot to use for up-or down-inspecting. For Series this will default to 0, for example along the lines. It must be DatetimeIndex, TimedeltaIndex or PeriodIndex.

Closed means which side of container span is shut. The default is ‘left’ for all recurrence balances with the exception of ‘M’, ‘A’, ‘Q’, ‘BM’, ‘BA’, ‘BQ’, and ‘W’ which all have a default of ‘right’.

Label represents the canister edge name to name pail with. The default is ‘left’ for all recurrence counterbalances which all have a default of ‘right’.

Convention represents only for PeriodIndex just, controls whether to utilize the beginning or end of rule.

Kind represents spending on ‘timestamp’ to change over the subsequent file to a DateTimeIndex or ‘period’ to change over it to a PeriodIndex. As a matter of course the info portrayal is held.

Loffset represents in reorganizing timestamp labels.

Base means the frequencies for which equitably partition 1 day, the “birthplace” of the totalled stretches.

On represents For a DataFrame, segment to use rather than record for resampling. Segment must be datetime-like.

Level means for a MultiIndex, level (name or number) to use for resampling. Level must be datetime-like.

How does resample() Function works in Pandas?

Given below shows how the resample() function works :

Example #1

Code:

import pandas as pd import numpy as np info = pd.date_range('1/1/2013', periods=6, freq='T') series = pd.Series(range(6), index=info) series.resample('2T').sum() print(series.resample('2T').sum())

Output:

In the above program we see that first we import pandas and NumPy libraries as np and pd, respectively. Then we create a series and this series we add the time frame, frequency and range. Now we use the resample() function to determine the sum of the range in the given time period and the program is executed.

Example #2 import pandas as pd import numpy as np info = pd.date_range('3/2/2013', periods=6, freq='T') series = pd.Series(range(6), index=info) series.resample('2T', label='right').sum() print(series.resample('2T', label='right').sum())

Output:

In the above program, we first as usual import pandas and numpy libraries as pd and np respectively. Then we create a series and this series we define the time index, period index and date index and frequency. Finally, we use the resample() function to resample the dataframe and finally produce the output.

Example #3

Code:

import pandas as pd import numpy as np info = pd.date_range('3/2/2013', periods=6, freq='T') series = pd.Series(range(6), index=info) series.resample('2T', label='right', closed='right').sum() print(series.resample('2T', label='right', closed='right').sum())

In the above program, we first import the pandas and numpy libraries as before and then create the series. After creating the series, we use the resample() function to down sample all the parameters in the series. Finally, we add label and closed parameters to define and execute and show the frequencies of each timestamp.

The resample technique in pandas is like its groupby strategy as you are basically gathering by a specific time length. You at that point determine a technique for how you might want to resample. df.speed.resample() will be utilized to resample the speed segment of our DataFrame. The ‘W’ demonstrates we need to resample by week. At the base of this post is a rundown of various time periods. The mean() is utilized to show we need the mean speed during this period. With separation, we need the aggregate of the separations throughout the week to perceive how far the vehicle went throughout the week, all things considered we use whole(). With aggregate separation we simply need to accept the last an incentive as it’s a running total aggregate, so all things considered we utilize last().

Conclusion

As an information researcher or AI engineer, we may experience such sort of datasets where we need to manage dates in our dataset. In this article, we will see pandas works that will help us in the treatment of date and time information. With the correct information on these capacities, we can without much of a stretch oversee datasets that comprise of datetime information and other related undertakings.

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How Crypt() Function Works In Php

Introduction to PHP crypt()

PHP crypt() function is a part of PHP string references whose main function is to return a hashed string using some special algorithms. PHP crypt() function is associated with the algorithms like DES, Blowfish or MD5 algorithms for its overall network and cryptographic encryption and decryption of string being passed from the crypt() function. Crypt() function vary from one function to another function in a way that behavior gets transformed accordingly to different operating system. It checks for all the available algorithms or if any need is there to install new algorithm for encryption.

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Syntax:

crypt(str,salt)

The syntax flows in a way that crypt function is a function which passes string and salt as a parameter.

str is a required string which specifies the string needs to be hashed in a one-way fashion.

salt is another optional parameter where a salt string to base the hashing on.

But PHP with versions of 5+ have salt as a parameter to pass carrying different algorithms like blowfish nodes, standard DES algorithm, extended DES and the blowfish algorithm.

How crypt() Function works in PHP?

Crypt is a one-way string hashing.

Salt as a parameter gets passed to crypt() function is optional. But if salt parameter is not passed then that key will be considered as weak hash.

To perform a good security, it is important to pass a very strong hashed key. A strong hash which is used to generate a strong salt and then applies a proper rounds of hash key rotation in a round robin fashion uses a password_hash.

Using a password_hash is a recommended method in a way it acts as a wrapper on top of the algorithm and makes the algorithm compatible with one-way hashing string.

As mentioned, these crypt() function works on an operating system which support many different operating systems which acts as a key.

The salt parameter passed with the string to the crypt function triggers to the salt algorithm. These functionalities work with the 4 version of PHP but the versions more than 5 .

PHP has a capability of creating an auto-generated key if no DES salt parameter is present. If in case it is related to the twelve-character key, then MD5 algorithm will create a one-way hashed key.

PHP crypt() Constants 1. CRYPT_STD_DES

First constant which has a two-character salt parameter passed from the alphabet. Also, supports for the values supporting the digits with numbers of uppercase 0-9 and alphabets with upper case A-Z and lower case alphabets like a-z. crypt function will get failed if some invalid characters will be used while passing the salt parameter.

Example: A program to illustrate CRYPT_STD_DES constant.

Code:

<?php if (CRYPT_STD_DES == 1) { echo "Standard DES: ".crypt('educba','string')."n"; } else { echo "Do not support standard DES.n"; }

Output:

2. CRYPT_EXT_DES

This constant is a type of extension to the DES based hashing function. If the salt parameter being passed has a nine character string followed by the parameter of 4 bytes, then only the algorithm will get satisfied.

Example: A program to illustrate CRYPT_EXT_DES constant.

Code:

<?php if (CRYPT_EXT_DES == 1) { echo "Extended DES: ".crypt('anu','_D8..dutta')."n"; } else { echo "It do not support for Extended DES.n"; }

Output:

3. CRYPT_MD5

This constant MD5 works with hashing function including crypt parallelly with a character of salt parameter having a length of twelve character.

Example: A program to illustrate CRYPT_MD5 constant.

<?php if (CRYPT_MD5 == 1) { echo "MD5: ".crypt('mansi','$1$trying$')."n"; } else { echo "Do not support for MD5.n"; }

Output:

4. CRYPT_BLOWFISH

This constant support for the function with salt parameter containing some cost parameter ranging from “$” to 22. If the parameter value does not lie within the specified range, then it will return a string of zero-length. The cost parameter is considered as twice if the base of logarithmic value for the illustrated blowfish-based hashing algorithm. PHP versions of 5 and above supports for the given constant.

Example: A program to illustrate CRYPT_BLOWFISH constant.

Code:

<?php if (CRYPT_BLOWFISH == 1) { echo "Blowfish: ".crypt('sunrise','$1b$08$mkstringexforsaltparam$')."n"; } else { echo "It do not support for Blowfish.n"; }

Output:

5. CRYPT_SHA256

SHA-256 is a constant which is part of the algorithm with a hash value of sixteen character. If in case the string gets started with the round of $N hen it indicates number of times hashed function gets called and executes with the optimization and cost factor like Blowfish algorithm. Also, if the selection of numbers does not lie outside the range then the next value of the range will get approximation to the closest value of the range.

Example: A program to illustrate CRYPT_SHA256 constant.

<?php if (CRYPT_SHA256 == 1) { echo "SHA-256: ".crypt('sunfeast','$8$rounds=8000$examplestringforsaltofsalt$')."n"; } else { echo "It do not support for CRYPT_SHA256.n"; }

Output:

6. CRYPT_SHA512

This is a constant which is prefixed with some value like 6$. If the round function gets started with the value of taken round of number of salts , then it points for the optimized value same as Blowfish function. Also, it can be said that behavior of the constant is same as SHA-256 constant with just some mere differences.

Example: A program to illustrate CRYPT_SHA512 constant.

Code:

<?php if (CRYPT_SHA512 == 1) { echo "SHA-512: ".crypt('things','$9$rounds=9000$xamplestringof90salt$'); } else { echo " It donot support for CRYPT_SHA512 ."; }

Output:

Note: The system with version of 5.3.0 contains implementation of its own type and will use that implementation if that system lacks the install then it will look for the constant and its related algorithm for self-installation and implementation.

Conclusion – PHP crypt()

PHP crypt() function can encrypt the hashed string and is a one directional cryptographic method supporting the mentioned algorithm and it specifically supports for encryption not for decryption that is why it is named as one-directional algorithm.

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How Map Function Works In Kotlin With Examples?

Introduction to Kotlin Map

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Syntax

The kotlin language used many features as similar to java like collection, util package and even other packages classes and its method behaviours are the same as java. A map is one of the interfaces that can hold the datas as key-value pairs like java.

{ —–some coding logics it depends upon the application requirement— }

The above codes are the basic syntax for utilising the map interface on the kotlin. The mapping interface uses any type like Integer, String, Characters as the parameter type.

How does Map Function work in Kotlin?

A map is an interface that is used for to store the datas as the key-value pairs. Like java, it can be of the same type and feature. It’s worked in the kotlin. The key is the unique one, and it holds only a single value for each key; it also different pairs and combined with each other. It is the immutable one, and it is the fixed size, so after declaring the mapping size, it cannot be changed both static and dynamic. The members from the map interface are readable ones, so we cant edit and changeable for that. If we use the mutablemap interface, it supports both read and write access.

The key type is the invariant one, and it is accepted as the parameter; it uses a method like containsKey() and also it returns the keys set. Like that map value also covariant and its value type it also be changed if it’s required. The classes used on the map interface will be of any type; this is because of the classes used internally on the kotlin package. The map is of any type in the kotlin language; the key and value elements will be stored as a separate index; it takes the predicate arguments, the filter conditions will be of the negative type, and the key will be unique and it has many values.

Examples of Kotlin Map

Given below are the examples of Kotlin Map:

Example #1

Code:

package one; { val map = mapOf(1 to "Siva", 2 to "raman" , 3 to "Welcome", 4 to "To", 5 to "My Domain", 12 to "Its the twelth index and key value", 13 to "Its the thirteen index and key value", 14 to "Its the fourteen index and key value", 15 to "Its the fifteen index and key value") println( map) println("Its the first example for reagrding the kotlin map interface we used different classes and methods that can be related to the interface") val map1 = mapOf(6 to "Have a Nice Day users", 7 to "Its the Seventh index and key value" , 8 to "Its the eigth index and its key value", 9 to "Its the ninth index and its key value", 10 to "Its the tenth index and its key value", 11 to "Its the eleventh index and its key value") println("Thank you users for to spenting the time with our application your entries are : "+map1) println("Its the keys entries and it is used to store the variable : "+map1.keys ) println("Its the values the entries are used to store as the separate variable "+map1.values ) }

Output:

In the above example, we used a map interface, and it will store the user inputs as key-value pairs. We can use mapOf() method for to set the key values and print them accordingly.

Example #2

Code:

package one; { val first = mapOf("siva" to 1, 1 to "raman", 'A' to "Welcome To My Domain", "Have a Nice Day Users" to 'A') for ((k,v) in first) { println("Your input key is: $k and your input value is $v") } println("Your input key is: $k and your input value is $v") } println("Your input map size is: ${third.size}") println("Your input entries are: ${third.entries}") println("Your input key is: ${third.keys}") println("Your input values are: ${third.values}") println("Your Employeed ID is: ${third.get("Employee ID")}") println("Your Serial No is: ${third["SNO"]}") println("Your proofs are: ${third.getValue("ProofID")}") println("Your Employeed ID contains: ${third.containsKey("Employee ID")}") println("Your Serial No contains: ${third.contains("SNO")}") println("Your ProofID contains: ${"Chemistry" in third}") println("If any of the columns or attributes missing please add it separately: ${third.containsValue(1234566)}") println("The Additional or Missing attribute inputs are: ${third.getOrDefault("pincode",600063)}") }

Output:

Example #3

Code:

package one; { val third = mutableMapOf("Employee ID" to 1, 2 to "Employee Name", 3 to "Address", 4 to "City", 5 to "pincode") println(third) println(four) five.put("zipcode", 27346) println(five) five["SNo"] = 1234 println(five) five.putIfAbsent("landline", 91) five.putIfAbsent("MobileNumber", 2436) println(five) five.replace("Employee ID", 1) println(five) five.replace("Employee Name", 2, 3) println(five) five.remove("Address") println(five) five.remove("City", 4) println(five) five.clear() println(five) }

Output:

In the final example, we used a mutable map interface for to store the user inputs on key-value pairs. We used additional methods like remove(), replace(), clear() etc for to perform the operations.

Conclusion

In kotlin, we used a lot of collection util packages for to store, extract and retrieve the datas. Based on the requirements, we used specific util packages like map, list in a map we used a different set of interfaces and its methods for to implement the application which depends on the user requirements.

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How Unwind Works In Mongodb?

Definition of Mongodb unwind

MongoDB unwind operator is used to deconstructing the array field from input to output documents, it will be used for each element from the document. The difference between input and output document in unwind operator is very simple, the output document value of a field of array is replaced by a single item of the input array of documents. MongoDB unwind operator is basically used for transfer complex documents into simple documents, it will improve the documents readability and understanding. Using unwind operator in MongoDB we can also perform operations like grouping and sorting on the data.

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Syntax:

Below is the syntax of unwind operator in MongoDB.

2)

}

1) Unwind operator –

This operator is used to deconstruct the documents in MongoDB. Every output and input documents depend on each other to deconstruct the value. We have passing the input parameter with unwind operator to display the result. Unwind operator is used with prefix as $ while using in MongoDB.

2) Path –

Type of this parameter in MongoDB unwind operator is a string. This is the path field of an array, path is used to specify the path of documents. This is a mandatory parameter while using unwind operator in MongoDB.

3) IncludeArrayIndex –

This is an optional parameter while using unwind operator in MongoDB. Type of this parameter in MongoDB unwind operator is a string. This states that the new name of a field is used to hold the index array for the element. This parameter name does not start with the $ sign.

4) PreserveNullEmptyArrays –

Type of this parameter in MongoDB unwind operator is Boolean. PreserveNullEmptyArrays is an optional parameter while using unwind operator in MongoDB. If the path of this parameter contains the true value unwind operator will show the output, if the path of this parameter contains the false value then unwind operator will not show the output.

How unwind work in Mongodb?

MongoDB unwind operator will deconstructs the documents for every document. Unwind operator is basically works on array elements. We can also use embedded documents with unwind operators.

I suppose our array contains the ABC student mark as {50, 55, 60, 70, 75}. Unwind operator will return the output as below.

{Name: “ABC”, mark: 75}

The above output shows that the array will be deconstructs into multiple documents. Our array contains the single documents value, but we can see the output will show the multiple documents in it.

We can pass includeArrayIndex and preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter while using unwind operator in MongoDB. Both parameters are optional while using unwind operator.

Unwind operator will duplicates each array element into different documents. This is used in an array that contains the data like a month, day of the week, and year.

Unwind operator is also working with the non-array path field. Before MongoDB version 3.2 if we have used a non-array path field it will show an error. After version 3.4 every non-array path field will not show any error it will return single elements of an array.

In the below example, we have used the non-array path field as a name. After using the non-array path field the array element will retrieve the single document.

Code:

db.MongoDB_Update.find ()

Figure – Unwind operator is work with non-array path field in MongoDB.

If we have missed any value in the path, unwind operator will not generate any output if we have entered an incorrect value.

Code:

Figure – unwind operator will not generate any output if we have entered any incorrect value.

In the above example, we have used id field in unwind operator, but id field is not present in MongoDB_Update collection. So unwind operator will return the empty result in output.

Example

The below example shows unwind operator in MongoDB.

1) Unwind operator with array field –

In the below example, we have used the array field name as lap_storage. After using the array field we can see that result will display each document with a different field.

Lap_storage contains the 6 array elements and MongoDB_Update collection contains the 2 documents, so we can see that unwind operator displays output as 12 documents.

db.MongoDB_Update.find ()

Figure – Example of unwind operator with array field.

2) Unwind operator with includeArrayIndex parameter –

In the below example, we have used includeArrayIndex parameter with unwind operator. We have used array field name as lap_storage and includeArrayIndex field as MongoDBIndex.

MongoIndex is a user-defined field that was used to capture the array index from lap_storage field.

Code:

db.MongoDB_Update.aggregate ([{$unwind: {path: “$lap_storage”, includeArrayIndex: “MongoDBIndex”}}])

Figure – Example of Unwind operator with includeArrayIndex parameter.

3) Unwind operator with preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter with true value –

In the below example, we have used preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter with unwind operator. We have used array field name as lap_storage and preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter value as true.

db.MongoDB_Update.find ()

Figure – Example of Unwind operator with preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter with true value

4) Unwind operator with preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter with false value –

In the below example, we have used preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter with unwind operator. We have used array field name as lap_storage and preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter value as false.

Code:

db.MongoDB_Update.find ()

Figure – Example of Unwind operator with preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter with false value.

5) Unwind operator using embedded documents –

The below example shows that unwind operator using embedded documents. We have embedded document field name as lap_spec.

Also, we have used preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter with unwind operator. We have set the value of preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter as true.

Code:

db.MongoDB_Update.find ()

Figure – Example of unwind operator using embedded documents in MongoDB.

Conclusion

Unwind operator is very useful and important in MongoDB to deconstruct the array field. We have using preserveNullEmptyArrays and includeArrayIndex optional parameter while using unwind operator. We can also use embedded documents with unwind operators. We can transfer complex documents into simple documents by using unwind operator in MongoDB.

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How Encryption Works In Mongodb?

Definition of MongoDB Encryption

Mongodb encryption process involves to generate a master key of an entire database, after generating master key we are creating the unique keys for every database. Then we are encrypting our data with the database which was we have created, we can also encrypt our whole database by using master key. Any of the database involves the two forms either data at rest or data in motion, data at rest is the forms where data is not moving anywhere its static data forms. Data in motions will moves the data in network its static data forms.

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Syntax:

Below is the syntax of encryption in MongoDB.

1) Connect MongoDB instance by using encryption –

2) Connect MongoDB instance by using client certificate and certificate authority file –

3) Rotate KMIP master encryption key –

Parameter description syntax of MongoDB encryption are as follows.

1) Mongo – This parameter is used to login into MongoDB instance. In MongoDB we can login database instance using mongo command.

2) SSL – This is defined as login into the MongoDB database instance by using SSL authentication.

3) Host – The host and hostname is defined as IP or hostname used to login specified database instance in MongoDB. While login into any MongoDB database instance we need to use hostname.

4) sslCAFile – This is certificate authority file used to verify that certificate is present or not on database server. This file is used while login into the database server by using encryption.

5) sslPEMKeyFile – This file contains the certificate of mongo shell and this key is present on mongos or mongod instance.

6) enableEncryption – This parameter is define as use of encryption at the time of rotating master key.

7) kmipRotateMasterKey – This parameter is used to rotate master key of KMIP server. Using this parameter we can rotate master key in MongoDB.

8) kmipServerName – This is nothing but the KMIP server hostname which was used at the time of rotating master key.

9) kmipServerCAFile – This is certificate authority file of KMIP server. This file is used while rotating the master key.

10) kmipClientCertificateFile – This is client certificate file of KMIP server. This file is used while rotating the master key.

How encryption works in MongoDB?

MongoDB involves two types of data encryption forms.

2) Data in motion encryption

To encrypt the data using data at rest encryption enterprise MongoDB will provides the storage based and native symmetric key.

We can say that data at rest encryption is the data not moving over the network, we can say that it’s in static forms. Data at rest database encryption is also called as transparent data encryption its abbreviation is TDE. MongoDB uses the AES 256-bit standard encryption algorithm to encrypt the database. MongoDB uses the same encryption cipher key to encrypt as well as decrypt the data.

4) Fourth step is encrypt whole database by using the master key which was we have generated in first step.

In MongoDB, data is transacted between server application and database in two ways.

TLS and SSL are most secure protocols of encryption to send and receive data from two systems. This protocols is used in MongoDB encryption is some PEM file which was issued by the certificate authority. There are multiple settings available in MongoDB to configure the TLS and SSL protocol for client certificates.

We can also use sslCAFile to create certificate. We can store this file in MongoDB instance to use the encryption while login into the MongoDB instance. We can also rotate our encryption key. We can rotate our key by using KMIP master rotation.

Example

Below example shows encryption in MongoDB. Below steps shows how to use encryption in MongoDB.

1) First step is to create locally managed key file to manage the key management service. We can create by using OpenSSL. We have created the file name as mongodb_client.key.

Code:

# cat /encryption/mongodb_client.key

Figure – Example to create locally managed key file to manage the key management service.

2) After creating the key file, open the mongo shell command and login by using the keyfile, –shell, and –nodb option.

Code:

LOCAL_KEY

3) Third step involves load the documents of encryption using client-side encryption configuration.

Code:

}

Figure – Example to load the documents of encryption using client-side encryption configuration.

4) After setting configuration connect to the local host database.

Code:

csfleDatabaseConnection = Mongo(ClientSideFieldLevelEncryptionOptions)

Figure – Example to connect the local host database.

5) Fifth stage is show the database, connect to the database and show the collections from connected database.

Code:

show collections

Figure – show the database, connect to the database and show the collections.

Conclusion

Data at rest encryption and data in motion encryption has two forms of MongoDB data encryption. Data encryption is very important in MongoDB to secure data. Encryption involves generate master key for the database. We can rotate our master key using KMIP master rotation algorithm.

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How Left Property Works In Css

Introduction to CSS left

CSS left property is defined to declare a left side or horizontal position of a positioned element and one of the offset properties. This is applied to the position property values like fixed, absolute, and sometimes relative. Here the left value has the preference from left to right for the container as the CSS position, in conjunction with the left value, helps to align elements concerning document viewports. If the positioned element is static, then there is no effect on this left property.

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# box { position:relative; }

length: It determines the position of an element on the left edge in px, pt, em. And negative values are not assigned here.

auto: The browser determines the position of the left edge as a default value.

percentage: The position element is specified in percentage.

How left Property works in CSS?

To have good CSS web Development, the CSS comes with aligning elements to make it easy. Elements positioned as either “fixed” or “absolute” have their distance calculated based on the left margin of the element and the left edge of the containing block. The positioned elements are the ones where their position changes anything except static. Depending upon the ancestor’s container, the working principle of the left property process differently.

1. Left on Relative Position

Here the left property adds an offset to the element’s left edge, and it moves automatically to its right to its original form. The positive value makes the box to its right.

2. Left On Absolute Position

For those having absolute positioning elements, this left property shifts the left edge of an element to its right side from the left edge having an ancestor container with the positioning. In simple terms, the element moves towards the right side from the starting position.

3. Static

This property doesn’t have any effect on this static position. We can still use this to check for an animation effect and take px or calc () values.

Code:

@keyframes anim { 40% { left: 100px; } Examples of CSS left

Below are examples of left property in CSS by looking at its effects on different positioned elements.

Example #1

An example showing the position ‘Relative’ and set a value to the ‘left’ property.

Code:

Demo On CSS left Property div{ position: relative; width: 120px; height: 100px; font-size: 25px; } #aa { left: 200px; border: 4px solid blue; } #bb { left: 70%; border: 4px solid green; } #cc { left: 80%; border: 4px solid yellow; } #exap { left: initial; border: 4px solid lightbrown; }

Output:

Example #2

Code:

Demo On CSS left Property With Image on left h1{ color: rose; } img { position :fixed; left : 40px; } And it takes a wide diverse population with skyscrapers and largest urban forests which is sometimes called as ‘city forest’. They are geographically positioned on the Main River and has important trading centres. Frankfurt is Germany’s Financial Capital city and considered to be a metropolitan city. And it takes a wide diverse population with skyscrapers and largest urban forests which is sometimes called as ‘city forest’. They are geographically positioned on the Main River  abnd has important trading centers.

Output:

Example #3

Showing two positioning in the box.

Code:

div{ float:left; width:350px; height:150px; margin:12px; text-align:center; border:6px solid maroon; background:rgba(46, 41, 112, 1); color:fuchsia; font-size:34px; line-height:3.5em; box-shadow:6px 6px 6px olive; } .container1{position:absolute;left:-40px;} .container2{position:absolute;right:600px;}

Output:

Example #4

Three positioned elements.

div.Base { position: relative; width: 310px; height: 150px; border: 4px solid teal; } div.Derived { position: absolute; left: -12px; width: 200px; height: 220px; border: 4px solid aqua; } div.Subclass{ position: fixed; left: -10px; width: 210px; height: 150px; border: 4px solid purple; }

The above code uses negative values on the left property with no positioned parents. The last class, ‘Subclass’, behaves independently despite having a fixed position. It causes the container to move towards the left margin. As a result, all three classes appear to be overlapped in the output.

Output:

Example #5

Code:

.dem-orange { position: absolute; background: orange; width: 200px; height: 200px; left: 4px; top: 4px; } .dem-blue { position : relative; background: red; width: 150px; height: 100px; left: 8px; }

Output:

Conclusion

The above article showed us how to use the left property with their work and examples. It allows nudging different elements in a different orientation with the left and right values, and the initial value always lies in the flow of the document part.

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