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Apple Keychain does a terrific job of keeping the login info for websites, applications, and wireless networks secure on your Mac. It even allows for a seamless password auto-filling experience across Apple devices by syncing data over iCloud.

But as you keep using your Mac, you may run into instances that require you to delete passwords from your default login keychain. You may even have to reset the keychain and start all over in some cases.

Table of Contents

When You Would Want to Delete Your Keychain Passwords in macOS

Before you start, it’s a good idea to go through specific scenarios that require you to delete individual or all passwords in your login keychain on the Mac.

You Have Trouble Saving or Auto-Filling Passwords

You keep encountering issues with Keychain while saving or auto-filling passwords. Searching for and deleting the offending login entries can help. But if the problem occurs all the time, you should probably reset the default keychain.

You Want to Hand Over Your Mac to Someone Else

You want to hand over your Mac to someone else for an extended period. If creating a separate user account is out of the question, deleting your passwords helps preserve privacy and prevents access to websites and apps.

Note: Are you looking to sell your Mac? You must reset your macOS device to factory defaults instead.

You’ve Forgotten the Password to the Login Keychain

By default, your login keychain uses your Mac’s admin password to encrypt its contents. So if you forget and reset your Mac account with a new password, you won’t be able to access or use your current login keychain unless you remember your old password. A complete keychain reset is the only way to start saving passwords again.

You’ve Switched to a Different Password Manager

Despite the convenience of having Keychain integrated into your Mac, you may prefer an alternative cross-platform password management utility such as 1Password, LastPass, or Dashlane. After making the switch, reset your login keychain if you don’t like keeping passwords in multiple locations.

Optional: Disable iCloud Keychain

If you’ve set up Keychain to sync passwords over iCloud, you may want to disable iCloud Keychain before you begin. If not, deleting your passwords in macOS will also result in their automatic removal from other Apple devices you own.

1. Open the System Preferences app. If you can’t find it on the Dock, open the Apple menu and select System Preferences.

2. Select Apple ID.

3. Select iCloud on the sidebar. Then, uncheck the box next to Keychain.

Delete Website Passwords Using Safari Passwords Manager

If you only want to delete website passwords, the most convenient way to do that is to use Safari’s integrated Passwords manager. You can also use it to export passwords to a CSV file (ideal if you want to back up your passwords or import them to a different password manager).

2. Switch to the Passwords tab.

Tip: Another way to access the Passwords manager in Safari is to select the Passwords category inside the System Preferences app.

3. Enter your Mac user account password into the password field or authenticate yourself using Touch ID.

4. Select the More icon (three dots) at the lower-left corner of the window and choose Export Passwords. 

5. Pick a location on your Mac to export your passwords to a CSV file and select Save.

6. You can now delete your passwords:

Delete Individual Passwords: Highlight the password you want to remove and select the Delete (–) icon. If you have lots of passwords, use the search bar at the top of the sidebar to search for login entries by username or website.

Delete Multiple Passwords: Hold down the Command key to select multiple login entries on the sidebar. Then, select Delete to remove them simultaneously.

Delete All Passwords: If you want to delete all saved website passwords, press Command + A to highlight the entire sidebar. Then, press the Delete key and select Delete Passwords as confirmation.

Delete Any Saved Password Using Keychain Access

If you want to delete passwords of websites, apps, Wi-Fi networks, and encrypted disk images from your login keychain, you must use the built-in Keychain Access app in macOS. If you’ve yet to set up Time Machine on your Mac, we recommend backing up your keychain manually before proceeding.

Note: If you want to delete all passwords on your Mac, your best option is to reset the login keychain. Skip ahead to the next section for instructions.

Back-Up Your Login Keychain

2. Type in the following folder path and press Enter:


3. Create a copy of the login.keychain-db file to a different location on your Mac.

Delete Passwords in Login Keychain

2. Select your login keychain under the Default Keychains section of the sidebar. It consists of two categories—Login and Local Items.

Login: Contains entries that you can’t sync over iCloud.

Local Items: Contains entries that you can sync via iCloud. If the keychain is actively syncing via iCloud, you’ll see the category listed as iCloud on the Keychain Access sidebar.

3. You can now start deleting your passwords:

4. Select Delete to confirm.

Reset My Default Keychain Using Keychain Access

If you want to delete all passwords for websites, apps, and Wi-Fi networks, the Mac’s Keychain Access app provides you the option to reset the default login keychain. That’s ideal if you forget its password (e.g., after an admin password reset) or want to resolve issues with a corrupt keychain.

Resetting your login keychain will automatically generate a backup copy of the existing data that you can add to Keychain later (e.g., if you remember its password) if you want.

Note: The Keychain First Aid option is no longer present in Mac OS X 10.11 and later.

2. Select Reset Default Keychains.

3. Select Use Password on the Keychain Access pop-up to authenticate the action with your Mac’s admin password. Or, use Touch ID.

4. Enter your Mac admin password again to encrypt the new login keychain and select OK.

5. Select OK to complete the reset process.

Delete Custom Keychain From Keychain Access

If you use a custom keychain on your Mac, you can delete any item inside similar to the login keychain. You also have the option of completely removing the keychain itself.

1. Select the keychain from the Custom Keychains section of the Keychain Access app.

3. Select the Remove Reference or the Delete Keychain File option. 

Delete Keychain File: Deletes the keychain database file. If you don’t have Time Machine set up on your Mac, you may want to back up the file to a different location before selecting this option. You can find it under the ~/Library/Keychains directory.

Wrapping Up

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How To Locate And Delete Duplicate Files On Macos

If you like to make multiple backups of various files, you may tend to be confused sometimes by different versions of a file at different locations on your Mac. If you don’t clean these up regularly, you may find a bunch of duplicate files on your system that can take up a lot of your Mac’s disk space.

The issue is that it’s not that easy to find and delete duplicate files on your Mac. In this guide we’ll first show you how to find and delete duplicate files on your Mac using Finder. However, if you find the method a bit tiresome, you can choose to download a dedicated free or paid software to automatically do this job for you. We’ve also detailed one such app below.

Using Finder to Locate and Delete Duplicate Files

The great thing about duplicate files is that they usually have either a common name, a common date of creation and/or a common file type. We’ll use this exact function to locate duplicate files on the Mac. This method involves creating a smart folder in Finder and sorting files according to name, date and/or type. The exact method is detailed below:

1. Open Finder on your Mac. Open a location of your choice to create the temporary smart folder (example: Desktop, Documents, etc.).

4. From the drop-down menu, select a particular category to use to sort you files. For example, if you know the file name of the duplicate files, you can enter in the name, and Finder will instantly show you all files with the exact same name.

In the screenshot below I’ve entered the file name “General Navigation,” and all files with the exact same name have appeared. I can now choose to delete any previous versions or duplicates I would like.

As you may have guessed from the guide above, manually locating and deleting files can be a long and tiresome process. A simpler method is to use a dedicated app to locate duplicates and delete them. We’ve listed a few apps for you below that do this exact function.

Using a Dedicated App to Delete Duplicate Files

There are many apps available on the App Store to automatically locate and delete duplicate files on your Mac. We’ll be covering one such app, known as Duplicate Cleaner.

Once you open the app, you’ll be presented with an option to select a folder to scan for duplicates. Once the app completes its scan, it’ll show a list of all the duplicate files retrieved.

The list will include the name of the duplicate file, number of duplicates and their locations on your Mac. You can view them and choose to delete a duplicate(s) accordingly. It’s quite simple and works well.

Some other apps that also provide the same function are Duplicate File Finder Remover (free), Duplicate Detective Cleaner ($4.99), and Duplicate Cleaner ($9.99). The apps mainly differ in some specific features (such as custom scanning, easy drag-and-drop features, etc.). If the free version we mentioned above works for you, you shouldn’t feel the need to purchase any paid app for this purpose.

Shujaa Imran

Shujaa Imran is MakeTechEasier’s resident Mac tutorial writer. He’s currently training to follow his other passion become a commercial pilot. You can check his content out on Youtube

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How To Reset Group Policy Settings In Windows

Good to know: learn how to back up your registry in Windows.

1. Reset Individual Group Policy Settings

If you’ve only made a couple of changes, then you can reset the Group Policy settings individually. This can be done via the Local Group Policy Editor.

From the “Local Computer Policy” section on the left, expand “Computer Configuration,” open “Administrative Templates,” and select “All Settings.”

Reboot your computer for the changes to take effect.

You can repeat the same steps for another Group Policy and reset everything one by one.

Tip: need to access BIOS on your PC? Learn several ways to do it.

2. Bulk Reset Group Policy Settings

If you are not sure which policies you’ve changed or when there are too many changes and it is not feasible to find and change them one at a time, you can just delete the folders where the policy settings are stored. This will bulk reset the group policy settings to their default values. You can use Windows Terminal to do this. By the way, if Windows Terminal is not opening for you, you can take these steps to fix it.

Paste the following command line into PowerShell and press Enter:







Execute one more command in PowerShell:







End with this and press Enter:




Reboot your computer to apply the changes.

3. Reset Local Security Policy Settings with Windows Terminal

Resetting the Local Security Policy settings can be a good idea to ensure no misconfigurations remain in this part of the system.

These settings are in a separate console, and you can reset them using Windows Terminal with administrative rights.

Type the following command line into PowerShell and press Enter:











db chúng tôi



Reboot your computer so that the changes will take effect.

Tip: getting a “This installation is forbidden by system policy” error on your Windows PC? Learn what to do about it.

Frequently Asked Questions How can I manually refresh Group Policies?

You must refresh Group Policies after you’ve edited a Group Policy Object (GPO) to save the new configurations. To do so, enter gpupdate.exe /force into a Command Prompt and press Enter, then reboot your computer for the changes to take effect.

Why do I get “gpedit.msc not found” in a Windows error message?

If you or someone else reconfigured the Local Group Policy incorrectly, there’s a good chance it’s the main reason you are seeing this error message when trying to open the Group Policy Editor in Windows. Try using the methods described in this guide to reset your policy.

Malicious software is another possible reason behind the “gpedit.msc not found” error. Make sure that you have an antivirus active on your PC, even if it’s just Windows’s built-in Defender.

Note that third-party programs are not always safe to use. Sometimes they can cause conflicts with the Local Group Policy and result in data corruption. Therefore, if you’ve installed a program recently, uninstall it.

If you’ve recently installed your Windows operating system and are getting this error, you may have had an incorrect Windows installation.

Image credit: Pexels. All screenshots by Farhad Pashaei.

Farhad Pashaei

As a technophile, Farhad has spent the last decade getting hands-on experience with a variety of electronic devices, including smartphones, laptops, accessories, wearables, printers, and so on. When he isn’t writing, you can bet he’s devouring information on products making their market foray, demonstrating his unquenchable thirst for technology.

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Do You Trust Your Browser To Manage Your Passwords?

We all know we’re supposed to change our passwords frequently, make them complicated, and use different ones for each site/service, but it can get really difficult to remember them all. Browsers can help you remember them, but do you have faith in that? We asked our writers, “Do you trust your browser to manage your passwords?”

Our Opinion

Damien answers a curt “absolutely not.” He doesn’t trust browsers. He uses a password manager app to manage his passwords.

Phil just keeps all his passwords in a book by his desk. “That way someone can’t just tap in and steal them; they have to actually come to my house to get them manually.” Plus, he figures it’s much easier to deal with them one at a time.

Ada also keeps her passwords written down on a pad. She only trusts her browsers with passwords for unimportant sites. She does note, “I do consider the book a single point of failure, meaning if it’s gone/destroyed/stolen, etc., it will be a pain to restore all the passwords.” She’s been considering making a copy of it and storing it in a separate location, but it makes it difficult since she’s always adding, changing, removing, and has it all in “super cryptic handwriting.” She jokes that she feels sorry for any thief for having to deal with it but considers it a safer option than a browser.

Alex, like Damien, also answers “no way.” He considers browser storage to be the weakest form of password storage and uses a dedicated password manager (Dashlane) to keep track of his passwords, admitting “I don’t even know the passwords to most of my accounts,” as they’re just randomly generated strings.

Fabio uses Dashlane to handle his passwords as well. “Saving your password on your browser is the worst thing you can do.”

Ryan admits he doesn’t trust his browser and doesn’t use a password manager either, even though he uses different passwords for mostly everything. He assumes it’s because he’s “a bit paranoid.” He points out that he’s read that “passwords are essentially useless since anyone determined enough can crack them,” so he thinks maybe he should be a little more trusting.

I take the same path as Ryan, but for me it’s because I am trusting. I use my browser and don’t use a password manager. The sites where I shouldn’t use the browser won’t allow me to save my password anyway, such as PayPal or my bank. That said, I also started keeping a list of my passwords, as I switch browsers frequently. Instead of paper, I keep them in an Evernote file and keep the app locked on my iPad and iPhone. That way I can always access them wherever I am. And like Ada, I make the list cryptic.

Your Opinion

Laura Tucker

Laura has spent nearly 20 years writing news, reviews, and op-eds, with more than 10 of those years as an editor as well. She has exclusively used Apple products for the past three decades. In addition to writing and editing at MTE, she also runs the site’s sponsored review program.

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How To Delete All Email From Mail Inbox On Iphone & Ipad

The latest versions of iOS Mail app include a “Trash All” function that allows you to quickly delete all emails in an inbox on any iPhone, IPad, or iPod touch. This is the fastest way to delete all emails in an inbox from an iOS device, and can be helpful if you want to clear out all locally stored mail messages from iOS, whether for spring cleaning purposes, because you don’t need the emails anymore, or perhaps to free up space taken up from a hoard of emails on an iOS device.

Do note that this method will not remove the email account from the iOS device, but that deleting all email messages this way sends them to the Trash folder, and once deleted from there this can not be undone unless you were to restore from a backup made prior to trashing the emails. Whether or not these deletes the emails from the mail server as well depends on if the email account is SMTP or IMAP. If you have any doubts about whether you want the emails in the future or not, backup your iPhone before beginning. If you simply want to get rid of the red alert icon on Mail app, marking all as read is likely a better option in that it doesn’t remove the emails from the iOS device or Mail inbox.

How to Delete All Email from Inbox in Mail for iOS

To have the Delete All feature, you’ll need to be running iOS 9 or later on the iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch. Earlier versions do not have the Trash All Mail feature and would need to go with a different approach.

Open the iOS Mail app as usual and go to the Inbox you wish to delete all email messages for (select from the Mailbox list if you’re not currently in the inbox you want to delete all emails from)

Tap on the “Edit” button in the corner

At the bottom of the Mail app window, tap on the “Trash All” button

Confirm you wish to delete all emails by tapping on “Trash All”

This sends all of the messages into the Trash box of the Mail app, these will remove themselves eventually but if you want to manually intervene and delete every email message you just sent there right now you can do that too.

Deleting All Trashed Emails in Mail for iOS Instantly

After the emails are sent to the Trash folder, you can instantly delete them all with these steps:

Tap on the “Mailboxes” button in the upper left corner of the Mail app

Select “All Trash” (if it’s not visible, tap on the Edit button and enable the All Trash inbox by selecting it from the list so that a blue checkbox appears alongside the name)

Enter the All Trash inbox, tap on “Edit” and tap on “Delete All” – this can not be undone so do not do this if you are not absolutely positive you never want these emails again

Once you Delete All, every email in the Trash folder is gone for good, removed from the iOS Mail app entirely.

As mentioned before, this is only available in modern versions of iOS. Earlier Mail app versions allow for deleting multiple emails at once by manually selecting them and sending to Trash which can then be deleted overtime or manually the same as instructed above.

You can also delete individual emails in iOS Mail with a swipe gesture, which is much more targeted than trashing everything in an inbox.


Forgot Apple Watch Passcode? Here’s How To Reset Your Apple Watch

If you forgot your Apple Watch passcode, the only way to regain access to your Apple Watch is by factory resetting the device before pairing it to your iPhone again. You can reset your Apple Watch with or without your iPhone on hand. However, you will need your iPhone to initiate the pairing process and to retrieve a backup of the data from your Apple Watch, once you have reactivated it. Here is everything you need to know the next time you get locked out of your Apple Watch. 

How to Reset Apple Watch Without iPhone

If you are out of range of your iPhone, you can reset your Apple Watch with a few simple taps. It is required that you place your Apple Watch on its charger while you complete the following steps:

Press and hold the side button (highlighted below on your Apple Watch) until you see the power button icon in the upper right corner of the display, then let go of the side button. If you have an Apple Watch Ultra, be sure not to press the Action Button by accident since doing so will override this workflow.

Tap the button labeled “Reset” twice to confirm that you would like to reset your Apple Watch. After your Apple Watch restarts, you can attempt to pair it to your iPhone again. 

Good to know: When you erase your Apple Watch a backup of its data is automatically created and stored on your iPhone. If your Apple Watch is not connecting or pairing to your iPhone, we have a number of ways to help you troubleshoot the problem.

How to Reset Apple Watch With iPhone

You can use your iPhone to remotely reset your Apple Watch to factory settings and unpair it from your iPhone as long as both devices are within range of each other. This is the method that you should use if you plan to pass your Apple Watch on to a different owner. Here is how to do it:

Note: If you have a GPS + Cellular Apple Watch, you will need to follow an extra step to retain your data plan once you set up your Apple Watch again. After you agree to erase all content and settings, select the button labeled “Remove Cellular Plan”.

With your Apple Watch placed close to or alongside your iPhone, open the Watch app on your iPhone.

Tap the “My Watch” tab highlighted below. 

Tap on the menu item labeled “General”. 

Scroll all of the way down to the bottom of the list of menu items and tap on the option titled “Reset”. 

Tap on the “Erase Apple Watch Content and Settings” button. 

Confirm this action by selecting “Erase All Content and Settings” from the bottom of the screen. You may be asked to enter your Apple ID password to confirm this action.

Tip: Looking to level-up your workflow by establishing seamless continuity among your Apple products? Discover how to easily unlock iPhone and Mac with an Apple Watch.

How to Restore From a Backup on Apple Watch

After you erase and unpair your Apple Watch, you need to pair it to your iPhone again. Here is how to get paired up again without losing the data that you had on your Apple Watch before you erased it.

To pair, hold your iPhone close to your Apple Watch and then press “Continue” on your iPhone. 

Image source: Apple

After you have finished pairing your Apple Watch to your iPhone, you will reach a screen that gives you the option to set up your Apple Watch as new, or restore all of your data from a previous backup. Select “Restore from Backup”  to restore your data. On newer versions of iOS and watchOS, your Apple Watch will automatically restore from a backup.

Tip: Heading out into the unknown with your newly-restored Apple Watch? Discover 10 ways to maximize your Apple Watch Battery on long journeys including how to enable Low Power Mode.

Frequently Asked Questions Are there any extra steps to take if I plan to sell, give away, or trade in my Apple Watch?

No. However, be sure to reset your Apple Watch to factory settings using your iPhone, since erasing your Apple Watch using watchOS will not unpair your Apple Watch from your iPhone. Erasing and unpairing your Apple Watch from your iPhone removes Activation Lock, a feature that prevents lost or stolen Apple devices from being paired to a new owner without the original owner’s Apple ID password.

How do I backup my Apple Watch?

Your Apple Watch automatically backs up to your iPhone when both devices are near each other. If you choose to erase and unpair your Apple Watch, your data is automatically backed up to your iPhone before the actual restore process begins, in order to ensure that your backup includes the latest information.

If I restore my Apple Watch from a backup, will I lose any data?

Yes. For security reasons credit or debit cards stored in the Wallet app, bluetooth pairing data, and of course your passcode, are not included in Apple Watch backups. Conversations from the Messages app are also unretrievable unless you use iCloud and have Messages in the Cloud enabled on your iPhone. All other data, including watch faces will be available after you restore from backup.

Image credit: Unsplash. All screenshots taken by Brahm Shank.

Brahm Shank

Self-proclaimed coffee connoisseur and tech enthusiast Brahm Shank is captivated by the impact of consumer tech: “It’s profoundly moving when people discover that the phone in their pocket or the tiny computer on their wrist has the power to enrich their lives in ways they never imagined.” Apple, Inc. and its unique position at the intersection of technology and the creative arts, resonates deeply with Brahm and his passion for helping people unleash their potential using technology. Over the years, Brahm has held various podcasts – including famed technologist David Pogue of The New York Times on topics such as Big Tech and digital wellness.

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