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F-Test in Excel How to do F-Test in Excel?

F-Test in Excel is very simple and easy. Let’s understand the working of F-Test in Excel with some examples.

You can download this F-Test Excel Template here – F-Test Excel Template

Excel F-Test – Example #1

Suppose we have 6-month data of Demand and Forecast of any product. Data is in A2:C7.

Now, if we want to test the variation and difference in the variability of data.

Go to Data in the Menu bar and select Data Analysis.

After that, another dialog box of F-Test will appear.

Here you need to select the variable range of Demand and Forecast from the data shown below.

After selecting the Variables 1 Range and Variable 2 Range, choose the desired value of Alpha in the same box. Here, we have taken 0.05 as Alpha, which means we consider 5% tolerance in calculation and analysis.

An F-Test in Excel will look like the below.

Now let’s analyze the above data;

The mean of Variables 1 and 2 are 15.66666667 and 16, respectively, the mid-point of Demand and Forecast.

A variance of Variables 1 and 2 are 18.66666667 and 9.2, respectively, showing the variation in the data set.

Observations of Variables 1 and 2 are 6, meaning only 6 data points or parameters are considered in doing F-Test.

df Degree of Freedom indicates that only 5 variables can be assigned to this statistical distribution.

P (F<=f) one-tail is the probability distribution of variation in both the data set, which is coming to 0.227989507 (22.7% appx).

As you can see, the value of F is 2.02898507, which is lesser than the value of F Critical one-tail, which means this Null Hypothesis can be accepted.

Excel F-Test – Example #2

Suppose we have Delivery data of some Part Numbers. For better understanding, we have sorted the data in ascending order with column name Date of Delivery, as shown below.

Follow the same process for this data for performing F-Test in Excel. The data set has only one column with statistical or numeric figures. Here, the analysis will be based on segmenting the dates into two sections.

As you can see in the below screenshot, for Variable 1, the Range data selected is from B2:B9, and for Variable 2 Range data selected is from B10:B16.

Alpha is kept at 0.05, which is 5% of tolerance (You can change the value of Alpha as per data size and requirement).

An F-Test in Excel for Delivery Data of shown Part Numbers will look like this:

Now let’s analyze the above data;

The mean of Variable 1 is 26.75, and the mean of Variable 2 is 26.85714286, representing the mid-point of Quantity Delivered. There is not much difference between these parameters.

A variance of Variables 1 and 2 are 72.21428571 and 235.1428571, respectively, showing the variation in the data set.

The observations of Variables 1 and 2 are 8 and 7, respectively, indicating 8 selected upper data points and 7 selected lower data points.

df is the Degree of freedom shown, and only 7 and 6 variables can assign to the upper and lower data set in this statistical distribution.

P (F<=f) one-tail is the probability distribution of variation in both the data set, which comes as 0.073953335 (7.3% appx).

As you can see, the value of F is 0.307108141, which is greater than the value of F Critical one-tail, which means that this Null Hypothesis cannot be accepted.

Pros of F-Test in Excel

It can use in any statistical data set where a comparison of Before/After, Latest/Previous can be performed to accept whether the statistical data can accept.

Mean gives the mid-value, the average of total values; Variance is the difference between the actual or predicted/future value. So, centricity can see easily.

Cons of F-Test in Excel

For un-statistical background people, it becomes difficult to understand and measure different observations.

If there is very little difference in F and F Critical one-tail values, then it becomes very difficult to accept or reject the test while performing in real-life scenarios.

Things to Remember

F-Test can perform on one or more than one set of data in Excel. It is not restricted to a data set which has two parameters.

Always sort the data before performing F-Test in Excel. And the sorting parameter should be the base which is correlated with data.

Do the basic formatting before performing the F-Test to get a good sanitized output.

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to F-Test in Excel. Here we discuss its pros and cons and how to do F-Test in Excel, along with Excel examples and a downloadable Excel template. You can also go through our other suggested articles –

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How To Find Discrepancies In Excel

Mistakes like a missing period or incorrect spelling may change the entire output. Fortunately, Microsoft Excel provides a set of built-in tools that can prove useful to detect inconsistencies. In this post, we will discuss how to find differences or discrepancies in Excel and get a clean data sheet.

What does discrepancy mean in Excel?

My brand name & Co. total sales = 587

My brand name & Co total sales = 587

As you can see the period is missing in the 2nd example (Co total sales) compared to the 1st one (Co. total sales). This may look normal to you since you already know what is correct, but the computer does not consider it similar.

Likewise, discrepancies in Excel may also arise due to input errors like space after a value, uppercase or lowercase letters, duplicate entries, or inconsistent data formatting. Therefore, we have this detailed guide to explain how to find discrepancies in Excel easily.

How to find discrepancies in Excel

If that doesn’t help, you can proceed with the below methods to find discrepancies in Excel.

Use Excel Filter to find differences

Find discrepancies in Excel using Conditional Formatting

Detect discrepancies using Excel Add-ins

1] Use Excel Filter to find differences

Using the Filter function is one of the easiest methods to find out discrepancies in data, especially for Excel sheets with large data and spelling errors. Here we will consider an example of Class 5 test results. Under the Results column, there are two categories Pass and Fail, and some are spelled incorrectly.

2] Find discrepancies in Excel using Conditional Formatting

Conditional Formatting helps you to identify and compare two or more rows or columns with each other to identify mismatched data. The quickest way to find the difference would be to highlight cells for Duplicate or Unique entries.

However, you can also use other rules like Top/Bottom rules, Data Bars, Color Scales, or Icon Sets to find discrepancies in Excel data.

You can use the IF and IS function to help you to compare cells and detect any differences. So, here, you can use the IF function to find out which cells are identical and correct (TRUE) and which cells are incorrect (FALSE).

Alternatively, you can combine IF and IS functions like ISNUMBER, ISERROR, ISBLANK, etc. to analyze the set value and return TRUE or FALSE based on the outcome.

You can also use the VLookUp function, HLookUp function, or Match function to find any discrepancies in Excel.

Read: Advanced Microsoft Excel Tips and Tricks

4] Detect discrepancies using Excel Add-ins

Or, you can use the Analysis ToolPak (Excel Add-ins) to analyze and detect discrepancies in Excel data.

Read: How to manage Add-ins in Microsoft Office

Alternatively, you can also use the Excel Compare tool to compare Excel sheets and find discrepancies in the data set.

How do I check data correction in Excel?

When you have an Excel sheet where other users can enter their data in a set format specified by you, that’s when you use Data Validation. This tool helps you to correct any anomalies in the data that do not follow the set guidelines or when entered in the wrong format. In this case, Excel prompts an error alert which means you need to find the differences and correct the data using the Data Validation tool.

To know more about how to apply Data Validation to Cells in Microsoft Excel, you can follow our detailed post.

How do I find a mismatch in a column in Excel?

While Conditional Formatting (as explained above) can help you find mismatched data easily, the VLookUp function allows you to compare individual cells.

If using the Unique Equals Operator to compare columns in Excel, create a new Result column. Now, in the Result column, add the formula to compare individual cells. For example, =I2=J2, and it will return the result as False if the data doesn’t match. For the ones that match, the result will be True.

I hope this helps.

How To Freeze Panes In Excel?

Introduction to Freeze Panes in Excel

Freeze Panes in Excel are used to fix any frame, row, or section of the table to access the data located below so that the user can also see the header’s name. There is 3 type of Freeze Panes option available in the View menu tab under the Window section, Freeze Panes, Freeze Top Row, and Freeze First Column. Freeze Panes are used to freeze the worksheet from where we keep our cursor. This freezes both the row and column both. Then to freeze a Row and a Column, we have a separate option to freeze each of them. Once we do that, we will see some portion of the worksheet will only move once we unfreeze it.

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A Frozen top row to know which parameters we are looking at during a review:

Before Freezing Top Row:

After Freezing Top Row:

This shows how the same dataset looks with a frozen row. This makes it easy to know which parameter we refer to when analyzing data beyond the first few records in the workbook.

A frozen first column to know which record we are evaluating for a particular parameter.

Before freezing the first column:

After freezing the first column:

Freezing Panes allows us to split the dataset into multiple parts to ease analysis: The worksheet gets split into different parts, which can be browsed independently. The figure above compares the dataset with and without the first column frozen. The Grey Lines in the middle of the worksheet indicate where the rows and columns have been frozen.

How to Freeze Panes in Excel?

The Freeze Panes feature is not very complicated if we know the database we are working with. In the next few paragraphs, we will learn how to use the features associated with freezing panes and using them for analysis.

Here are a few examples of Freeze Panes in Excel:

You can download this Freeze Panes Excel Template here – Freeze Panes Excel Template

Freeze Top Row – Example #1

To do this, we have to perform the following steps:

Select 

View 

from the Excel toolbar. Select 

Freeze Panes

 from the view options; this will open a dropdown menu with options to select the rows or columns we want to freeze. Select 

Freeze Top Row; this

 will keep the active worksheet’s top row in place and allow us to browse the rest of the data without disturbing the top row.

A Tiny grey straight line will appear just below the 1st row. This means the first row is locked or frozen.

Freeze First Column – Example #2

Next, we look at the next most commonly used function in the Freeze Pane feature, freezing the first column. This can be done using the following steps:

Select Freeze Panes from the view options. From the dropdown menu, select Freeze First Column, and this would freeze the first column in place, allowing us to browse the rest of the data without disturbing the first column.

A Tiny grey straight line will appear just below the 1st Column. This means the first column is locked or frozen.

These features can be used simultaneously, making it easier for us to analyze data. As we have seen in the examples, knowing the table’s basic structure helps us decide what we want to freeze.

Freeze First Row and First Column – Example #3

Freeze the first row and first column.

Here is an example of the practice table with the frozen first row and first column.

This brings us to the most useful function in the freeze panes feature, freezing multiple columns and rows.

I like to use this function the most because it enables the user to freeze rows and unfreeze rows and columns based on any number of parameters depending on the structure of the worksheet’s data.

To freeze the first row and first column, we need to perform the following steps:

Select Cell B2 from the worksheet.

Now, from the view options, select Freeze Panes. From the dropdown that appears, select the first option, Freeze Panes.

These actions freeze the first row and first column in place.

Freeze Multiple Columns – Example #4

We can use similar steps to freeze multiple rows and columns. The following steps illustrate this:

Select any cell above which the rows and columns have to stay in place:

Repeat steps 2 and 3 from the previous illustration to freeze all rows and columns above and left of the selected cell.

The solid grey lines indicate that the rows and columns on the top left of the sheet have been frozen. We can also choose a whole row above which we need data to stay in place or a column.

Freeze panes in Excel are an option that makes it very easy for us to compare data in large datasets. In fact, freezing panes in Excel are so useful that software providers provide additional features based entirely on freezing panes in Excel. One such example is the ability to freeze and unfreeze multiple worksheets and tables simultaneously, which many software vendors provide as a product.

Things to Remember

Freeze panes in Excel are a default configuration that can freeze data to the left of the boundary column or above the boundary row, depending on what we choose as a boundary. There are add on available from various software providers to enhance these.

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to Freeze Panes in Excel. Here we discussed how to freeze panes in Excel and different methods to freeze panes in Excel, along with practical examples and a downloadable Excel template. You can also go through our other suggested articles to learn more –

Pov: Why F*Ck It Won’t Cut It Is So Much More Than The F

POV: Why F*ck It Won’t Cut It Is So Much More Than the F-Word

Photo by Cydney Scott

Student Voices

POV: Why F*ck It Won’t Cut It Is So Much More Than the F-Word Public health campaign by students shows the world that Gen Z knows what’s up

Think back to spring break last March, when the news was flooded with stories about college students partying in Daytona and then spreading the rona on their hungover plane rides home. These stories painted a picture of Gen Z as irresponsible, selfish, and reckless. Compassionate young people? Impossible! 

In fact, zoomers are one of the most caring generations. We have grown up exposed to diverse issues that are fueled by social media. This hyper-awareness to news encourages many Gen Z youth to make a difference in this world: 26 percent of Gen Z members in the United States volunteer on a regular basis (vs 19 percent of all Americans) and 32 percent of Gen Z members in the United States donate their own money. Sometimes dubbed “philanthroteens,” we care about the community and the collective good. We see this current crisis as a kickoff point that exposes inequalities and could bring radical change. 

We are an innovative, mindful, and adaptable generation, though we may not have been able to fully show it yet. BU has decided to open campus, and for those of us who attend, the world’s eyes are on us. Let’s rewrite the narrative. Let’s give a sneak preview of how a Gen Z–led world will look. 

Another campus shutdown would be devastating for many. For some students, campus is the only place they feel at home and can be physically and mentally healthy. BU offers employment to hundreds of local residents, and the student population keeps local businesses running. World-changing research happens on campus. Being shipped back home before finishing the semester would be overwhelming and costly. 

While BU has a lot on its hands to make this work, the students also have to play a role in embracing safe lifestyles. Every action we take affects the whole BU community. Boston isn’t our personal playground: it’s a city filled with parents, kids, and grandparents. This semester, saying “f*ck it” to COVID-19 guidelines definitely won’t cut it.

This is the mindset of F*ck It Won’t Cut It: a campaign by students, for students, encouraging our peers to follow COVID-19 guidelines this semester. This slogan definitely stops people in their tracks. Since when does BU support students using the f-word all over campus?! This campaign is edgy. But we aren’t being edgy simply for shock value—but because we think it will work. 

Gen Z is constantly bombarded with news. COVID-19 (and BU’s protocols) can be confusing and scary. Why not speak candidly about something so prominent in our lives? By using plain, provocative language, we bring things to a personal level. This is a similar tactic to the successful Fuck Cancer campaign.  

Gen Z is mostly progressive and increasingly activist. We are fed up with the status quo. We authentically talk about taboo things. We hold people accountable. We aren’t afraid to speak our minds. 

This is why F*ck It Won’t Cut It is completely student-run. We are on the ground listening to our peers. The campaign utilizes the social atmosphere that cultivates a community of young people on Instagram, TikTok, and Twitter. Not only do we post reminders to follow protocols, but we give real tips and tricks on how to have a successful (and fun) semester while still being as safe as possible. 

Every member of the student team who works on the campaign brings different perspectives to the table. We are graduate students, undergraduate students, international students, and domestic students. Each of us has our own communities at BU where we feel at home. We have an opera singer, a sorority sister, a hockey fan, a sound mixer, an improviser, and more. 

This campaign is more than the word “f*ck”—it is a movement. This is a way to show the world that Gen Z knows what’s up. We are coming together to show that making conscious decisions to better the community can make a tangible difference. 

You can follow us @fckitwontcutit on Instagram, Twitter, and TikTok. We hope you take part in our message and encourage your friends to be safe this semester. 

Explore Related Topics:

How To Remove #Name? Error In Excel

In this post, we are going to show you a tutorial to fix #NAME? error in Microsoft Excel. Before talking about the tutorial to correct #NAME? error, let us understand why does this error occurs in Excel.

Why do I see #NAME? error in Excel?

Here are the possible reasons due to which you see a #NAME? error message in Excel:

When you have entered a wrong formula name or string or there is some typo in the formula, it returns #NAME? error message in the cells.

It indicates that something is wrong with the syntax you have used and that needs to be corrected.

If you have used a formula that refers to a name that is not defined, you will get this error message.

In case there is a colon missing in the range reference, it will return #NAME? error.

You will see a #NAME? error message if you are using some function that needs an add-in, and the add-in is disabled.

Now, how to resolve #NAME? error in Excel? Unlike some other errors in Excel, e.g., #DIV/0! error, this error can’t be fixed using any error handling function like IFERROR. Here, we are going to list some solutions to fix and correct #NAME? error.

How to remove #NAME? Error in Excel

Here are the methods to correct or fix the #NAME? error in your Excel workbooks:

Use formula suggestions or Function Wizard to avoid syntax errors.

Manually check for any typo in the function and correct it.

Check if the name used in the formula is defined in Name Manager.

Ensure that the text values have quotation marks around them.

Enable the add-in required by the used function.

Let have a detailed discussion on these methods now!

1] Use formula suggestions or Function Wizard to avoid syntax errors

Microsoft Excel displays a list of matching formulas as soon as you start typing the function in the function bar.

Make sure you use a formula from the suggestions rather than typing it all manually. If you type a formula manually, it increases the chances of typing errors and thus showing a #NAME? error.

You can also use the Function Wizard to avoid any syntactic errors. F

2] Manually check for the typo in the function and correct it

If there are some minor typos, you can correct them manually. Just have a look at the function you have used and inspect it to see if there is a spelling error in the formula string.

If so, simply correct it and it will eliminate #Name? error. In case there is some different cause for this error, use another method from this article to fix it up.

3] Check if the name used in the formula is defined in Name Manager

In case you haven’t defined a name that has a reference in your formula, it returns #Name? error. So, check and define a name using the Name Manager in Excel. You can follow the below steps to do so:

Reenter the formula with the name you just defined and you won’t see the #NAME? error now.

4] Ensure that the text values have quotation marks around them

If you are using text references in the formula, you must enclose them in quotation marks. Else, you will get a #NAME? error message in the cells.

The solution is that look closely at the formula string and check if the quotation marks are added properly. If not, simply put the quotation marks around the text references. This will fix the error.

5] Enable the add-in required by the used function

Some custom Excel functions need add-ins to work. For example, the EUROCONVERT function needs Euro Currency Tools add-in to work. Also, various statistical and engineering macro functions require Analysis ToolPak add-in to be enabled. So, simply enable the required add-in and it won’t return #Name? error.

Here are the steps to enable the add-in in Excel:

In the Add-ins dialog window, enable the relevant checkboxes to turn on the required add-in.

Tap on the OK button and see if the #Name? error is fixed.

That’s it! Hope this article helps you fix #NAME? error in Microsoft Excel.

Now read: How to Fix Runtime Error 1004 in Excel

How To Use If Function In Excel

Last Updated on September 5, 2023

The IF function is probably one of the most well-known formulas for Excel, as it allows for data points to be compared between a value and what you are expecting.

IF statements are powerful because you can have two results. The first result is going to inform you of whether your comparison is true. The second result will tell you whether your comparison is false.

Here are the basics of IF functions and how you can use them in Excel.

1

Example Of IF Function

In column 1 we have a list of Musical Artists, and in column 2 we have Total Album Sales. For reference, we would consider any album sales over 100,000 good, and any album sales over 200,000 excellent.

Step

1

If Function

If we begin to write “=if(“ into cell C5, you’ll see that it now says logical_test which would represent the Total Album Sales in the second column.

Step

2

Use Comparison Symbols

What this says is is the value of cell B5 greater than 100,000?

Step

3

Use A Reference Point

To make this process even easier, you can have cells that already have this value, and then simply use this cell as a reference point. For example, we already have the value 100,000 in cell C2, so we select this instead of writing 100,000.

Step

4

Use The F4 Key

You can also use the F4 key which will fix the column and row. So the formula will look like this:

If it is greater than 100,000, which in our example it is, then we need to follow up with our formula so that the cell will complete an action.

Step

5

Use Quotation Marks

We put a comma after the value of 1000,000 and then write “Good”. You must use quotation marks when working out of Microsoft Excel, otherwise use a predetermined cell instead.

Our example now looks like this, with the Good selection being used via cell D2:

To add to this, if you want the cell to do nothing if our Total Album Sales value is less than 100,000 we can simply put in a double quotation mark, whilst closing the bracket at the end of the formula.

This will look like this:

What will happen is that in our third column, if the value of an album sales exceeds 100,000 you will see the word Good appear in those columns, and for any albums that didn’t surpass the 100,000 mark, the cell will remain blank.

You can then use this formula to determine whatever data point you are looking to highlight.

Step

6

Add Different Labels

In our example, instead of looking for album sales over 100,000, we can look for album sales under 50,000 and make the IF function list them as Bad.

Or we could add different labels such as exceptional if an album went over 200,000 total sales.

Common Issues

There are a couple of common errors that will occur using the IF function. One example is that if you have a “0” value in the cell, this means that there was no argument or selection.

Or perhaps you see “#NAME?” in the cell. This represents that a formula has been misspelled, and as such you must make sure you not only use punctuation marks but also you spell your values correctly.

Final Thoughts

There are many more ways it can be used, but these are the basics. Which should hopefully guide you in the right direction.

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