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Although not apparently obvious, Apple’s Reminders app on iPhone, iPod touch, iPad, Mac and chúng tôi lets you share to-dos and checklists with friends and family.

Sharing a reminder list with, say, your girlfriend (or wife) is particularly convenient as you’ll both be able to add, delete and check off items as completed, and all changes will instantly appearing on everyone’s devices thanks to seamless iCloud syncing.

This isn’t just great for grocery lists, shared to-dos and interactive lists among family members, but for business, too. For example, you could share a to-do list with team members to keep everyone apprised of what needs to be done on any particular day.

In this post, we’re going to show how easy it is to create a list in Reminders and invite others to participate across iOS, macOS, and the web.

How to create a reminder list

You first need to created a reminder list before sharing. Fire up Apple’s Reminders app on your iOS device and pull down with your finger to reveal the search field at the top.

Now tap the plus sign and choose the List option in the pop-up menu to create a new reminder list. Name it, select the list color and tap Done when finished.

Things you can do with shared reminder lists

You can only share reminder lists with the people who are also iCloud users. iCloud works only with devices with iOS 5 or later.

The person who shares a list owns it, and can:

View, edit and delete the list: mark items as complete, add and delete items

See, add and delete list participants

Stop sharing the list

Delete the list

Participants in the shared reminder list can:

View and edit the list: mark items as complete, add and delete items

See who else is sharing the list

You can share any reminder list with others using the steps outlined further below.

How to share reminder lists on iPhone, iPod touch and iPad

Step 1: Launch Apple’s Reminders app on your iOS device.

Step 2: Tap the list you want to share with others, and then the Edit button in the top right corner.

Step 3: Now select the Sharing option.

Step 4: Tap Add Person and type an email address or contact name of the person you want to share this list with. I’m going to share this list with my Mom for the purposes of this tutorial.

Tip: You can share with multiple people: just tap the plus sign on this screen to add another person to the shared list.

Step 5: Tap Add to start sharing your list with the selected emails. You will return to the previous screen.

Step 6: Tap Done in the top right corner to finish.

How to share reminder lists on Mac

Step 1: Launch Reminders on your Mac from the Dock, or use Spotlight to find and open Apple’s stock Reminders app.

Step 2: Place the pointer over the name of a list you want to share, just below iCloud in the sidebar. If iCloud doesn’t appear in the sidebar, set up your Mac with iCloud in System Preferences → iCloud.

Step 4: Enter one or more email addresses, or contact names, then press Return.

How to share reminder lists on iCloud

Step 1: Log in to iCloud Reminders on your Mac or Windows PC.

Step 3: Type the email addresses or names of all the people you want to share with.

How to stop sharing reminder lists

To stop sharing a list, do the following:

iOS: Open your shared list and tap Edit in the upper-right corner. Now tap Sharing and swipe to the left over any person you wish to remove. Tap Done when finished.

If you no longer need the shared list, you can safely delete it which effectively stops sharing it with all participants and removes the list from all devices and iCloud.

How to unsubscribe to shared reminder list

All of the reminders in the list are also deleted.

How to accept shared reminder list invitations

All invitees will receive an email invitation and a notification that must be accepted before they can view and edit your shared list.

How to resend shared reminder list invitations

If one or more of your invitees have not received an email invitation or a notification to join a shared reminder list, do the following:

Only the list owner can resend invitations. You cannot resend invitations using Reminders for iOS.

How to add or remove participants

To add a participant to a shared list, or remove one, do the following:

iOS: Tap on Edit in the upper-right corner of your shared list, then Sharing and choose Add Person to add a new participant, or swipe to the left over the person to remove them from the shared list.

System requirements for Reminders

You can create, edit, view and share reminder lists from any computer or device set up with iCloud, using:

Reminders app on iPhone, iPod touch and iPad

Reminders app on Macs with OS X Mountain Lion 10.8 or later or iCal on Macs with OS X Lion 10.7.2 or later

Microsoft Outlook on Windows PCs running Apple’s free iCloud for Windows utility (Reminders might be labeled Tasks).

With iCloud set up on your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch and Mac, edits and changes are pushed to the Reminders app on iOS, macOS and iCloud. On a Windows computer with iCloud for Windows installed, changes appear as tasks in Microsoft Outlook.

Reminders FAQ Reminders and Family Sharing

If you use the Family Sharing feature, all members of your family automatically share a reminder list called Family. You can add reminders to it and they will appear in the shared reminder list on everyone’s devices.

Before you can starting using the family’s shared reminder list, you must first join a family. All family members are automatically added to the Family reminder list and can’t be removed from it except by leaving or being removed from the family.

Limits for Reminders

To help iCloud do its work, keep your items within the following limits:

Total number of calendars, events and reminders: 25,000

Maximum combined number of calendars and reminder lists you can have: 100

Maximum size of all calendar and reminder data (excluding attachments): 24 MB

Maximum number of characters in a reminder title: 100

Up-to-date limits for Reminders, Calendars, Contacts and Bookmarks can be found in Apple’s support document.

Are reminder notifications shared, too?

No, reminder notifications aren’t shared with others and this is by design. When you set a reminder to go off at a time or place, it won’t ping anyone else on your shared list. To share an event with an alert that will ping everyone’s devices, create a shared calendar in the Calendar app and add an event with an alert to it.

Can I specify a default reminder list?

Yes, you can. To automatically put new reminders on your shared list, set your default reminder list to your shared list by selecting Reminders → Default List on macOS, or Settings → Reminders on iOS. Now choose a default list for new reminders.

Reminders not up to date on your other devices?

To keep reminders up to date on all devices, you must use iCloud:

iOS: go to Settings → Apple ID → iCloud, then turn on Reminders.

macOS: go to System Preferences → iCloud, then turn on Reminders.

Related tutorials

You might appreciate these tutorials and resources from our archives:

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How To Share Games On Steam

With so many great games on Steam, it would make sense to have the ability to share them with other friends or family. Thankfully, Steam does have this option, and there are a few ways you can do it. To make sure it works, though, you’ll have to follow a specific process.

Your games can be shared across multiple devices and accounts, making it easy to allow friends or family access to your library. If you follow the steps and tips outlined below, you should have library sharing set up in no time and your friends can get to playing your games on their accounts. 

Table of Contents

How to Set Up Library Sharing

To share games on Steam, you’ll first want to make sure you know your username and password, and that you have access to your friend’s or family member’s computer that they use to log into their own account. This will ensure that they can play your games on their device. Follow these steps to share your games. 

Open the Steam desktop app and log into your own account. 

Make sure Authorize Library Sharing on this computer is checked. 

Log out of your account, and have the other person log back into their own Steam account. They should now be able to play any games that are available for sharing from your library. 

By sharing your games this way, you can authorize up to 10 different devices for Library Sharing and can share games with up to five different accounts. Once authorized, they can download games from your library onto their computer. 

Requesting Access to a Game Library

If you’re sharing a computer and using multiple Steam accounts, you may see games from the other’s account on the list of Steam games. If you want to request access to games from another account, there’s an easy way to do so. 

An email will be sent to the owner of the game requesting access to their library. 

Enabling Steam Guard

If you’re going to be sharing games with others through your account, you’ll want to make sure your account is protected beforehand. Steam Guard is a service you can turn on within your account to ensure everything stays secure. Before logging into your account on other devices or sharing your Steam library, you’ll want to turn this on. 

Make sure you’re logged into your Steam account on the Steam desktop app. 

Choose whether you want Steam Guard codes sent to you by phone or email. This is for two-factor authentication and will allow you to keep your account secure. 

If you’ve already authorized your account on another device, you also have the ability to deauthorize it on any other device besides the one you’re currently using it on. This is a handy tool if you ever want to revoke Library Sharing on other devices. 

Tips for Steam Library Sharing

When using Library Sharing to share games on Steam, there are a few things you’ll want to keep in mind in order to make sure the sharing works smoothly and to limit issues. 

You’ll need to be connected to the internet in order to access any shared games from others accounts. 

Some games may be unavailable for sharing. This could be due to the game needing a subscription or third-party account for it to be played. 

Two users can’t be playing the same game at the same time. In the event that two users try to play one game, the primary account that owns the game will get priority in playing the game. The other user will be prompted to either buy or exit the game.

You can’t share only specific games, the entire library has to be shared to other accounts. 

An account playing a shared game they don’t own will also have access to any DLC bought by the primary game owner, but the guest player can’t purchase DLC for a game they don’t already own. 

Region-restricted content can’t be shared to outside regions. 

Why Isn’t Library Sharing Working?

Steam’s Library Sharing feature is known to have some issues, so it’s entirely possible you may be having trouble getting it to work. However, there are some fixes you can try in order to resolve this and get your games working across other devices. 

Reauthorize a Device

One method that may fix an issue when trying to share games on steam is to log into a previously authorized device on the primary sharing account, deauthorize the device, then log back out. Then, have the other person log into their account and go to play the game. They will then have to request access for the game again. Follow the steps above for requesting game access in order to reauthorize the device. 

Disable Antivirus Software

This will ensure that the game is safe to play on the computer and the antivirus software will not prevent you from playing the game. 

Relocate Steam Files

Another fix to try is changing the location of Steam’s files. To do this, go to the Steam installation folder on your PC. Then delete all files except for SteamApps, Userdata, and chúng tôi Then copy and paste the installation folder into a new location. 

Now, open the Steam app and log into your account, and try to access the game you want to play. 

Make Sure There Are No Other Issues

Remember that multiple people can’t be playing one game at the same time, and also that certain games you may just be unable to play at all. Be sure to rule out these limitations before trying any other fixes. 

Sharing Your Steam Library

Library Sharing is a great way to allow your friends and family to play your favorite games. If you follow all the steps above, you should be able to get it working in no time. This eliminates the need to buy a game multiple times on one device in order to play it, and you can help friends out by sharing a game on Steam they may be wanting to play. 

How To Share Files Using Airdrop From Mac To Iphone?

How To Share Files Using AirDrop From Mac To iPhone?

What else do you need if you have an entirely free tool like AirDrop to share files between Mac and iPhone. Read on further to know how to AirDrop from Mac to iPhone.

How To AirDrop From Mac To Iphone?

Part 1: How To Send Files Using AirDrop From Mac to iPhone

How To Send Files Using AirDrop From Mac to iPhone?

Follow the steps below to send files from Mac to iPhone using AirDrop, here’s how:

Go to the Finder tab, and choose AirDrop from the sidebar. Please note that you’ll need to turn on Bluetooth and WiFi to enable AirDrop on your Mac.

Change the settings ‘Allow to be discovered by’ either as Everyone or Contacts Only.

Now, you need to set AirDrop settings on iPhone. How to do this is in the second part of this article.

You’ll see a list of nearby devices on your Mac with AirDrop on, select the iPhone you wish to send files on.

How to Receive Files From AirDrop on iPhone?

Follow the steps below to receive files from Mac to iPhone using AirDrop, here’s how:

First of all, enable AirDrop on your iPhone. To do this, swipe up from the bottom of your iPhone and open Control Center in the older models and for iPhone X and above, swipe down to the top-right corner of the screen.

Now, press and hold on the section, where you can see options like Airplane Mode. Tap on AirDrop, and set settings to be discovered either by Contacts Only or Everyone.

This will make your device ready to accept files from Mac or other iOS devices.

Where the AirDrop Files Go On iPhone?

Wonder where the files you’ve recently received from Mac through AirDrop has gone? Don’t worry! The items you’ve AirDrop from Mac to iPhone are right there in your device, it’s just you have to look for it inside your phone. How? Here are the steps to follow:

If you’ve transferred a picture or video, it will appear in the Photos app.

If you’ve transferred any different file such as PDF or text document or similar, a dialog box will pop-up asking where to save the file you’re receiving through AirDrop from Mac to iPhone. Choose from the available options i.e. Open with ‘iTunesU’ or ‘Save to iCloud Drive’.

That’s it! You can judge pretty well how easy it is to share data in any format through AirDrop from Mac to iPhone. But, what if AirDrop is not working on Mac? Check out the link below to fix AirDrop Not Working on Mac.

Do you Know? AirDrop lets you share files between all iOS devices. As per our recommendation, it is always a better way to set AirDrop settings to ‘Contacts Only’ for security reasons. Using ‘Everyone’ can be more compatible and a bit easier, but it allows everyone to send you AirDrop data, if you leave that enabled, thus always turn off AirDrop after you are finished using it.

Stay connected with Tweak Library for regular tech updates. Don’t forget to Like us on Social Media and also, subscribe to our YouTube channel.

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Akshita Gupta

How To Share Instagram Reels As A Story Or Dm

Instagram Reels has been in the making for a couple of months now and is finally launched in the U.S. along with 50 other countries. Reels is Facebook’s attempt to enter the short video sharing game. TikTok has a massive social following but is currently under scrutiny in some countries including the U.S. with the current President pushing for its ban. Instagram Reels attempts to fill that void in the market by adding a short video sharing option to its already impressive Instagram app.

What is Instagram Reels?

Instagram Reels is a new feature that Instagram has launched that will allow users to create short videos of themselves from right within the app. In some ways, Reels reflects the likeness of TikTok.

Instagram Reels will be incorporated into the Instagram app itself. It will enable users to create short 15 second videos of themselves. Like TikTok, the function will come with a host of customization options in the way of stickers, filters, music, and more. The introduction of Reels also resulted in a makeover of the social media app. Instagram has introduced a separate ‘Reels’ tab in your profile to display all your content.

Related: How to get famous on Instagram Reels

How to create your own Instagram Reels

Instagram Reels can be accessed from the camera page on the Instagram app. In addition to creating your own live Reel, you can upload a recorded video to use instead. You can also add a video from your gallery to your Reel, and then record the rest of your Reel!

Launch the Instagram app and swipe right to reach the camera page. Alternatively, you could tap on the story button in the top left corner.

In the panel below, select ‘Reels’. It should be to the right of ‘Story’.

Now hit the ‘Record’ button and showcase your talent! Go ahead and play around with the settings in the left panel to add effects, music, and more to your Instagram Reel.

Related: How to share Instagram Reels in Explore but not in feed and profile grid

How to share Instagram Reels

Once you have recorded your Reel and are satisfied with it, you can easily post it to your profile. This is the same as posting an image or video. You can also send it out as a Direct Message (DM) to a person or even add it to your Instagram Story! Here is how you can go about doing that.

Related: What Happens When You Share Instagram Reels In Explore?

How to share your Instagram Reel as a DM

To send your Reel exclusively as a DM to select people, select the ‘Stories’ tab from the top panel.

Now select the people to whom you would like to send the Reel as a DM. You can use the search bar at the top to quickly find your friends on the list. Tap ‘Send’ next to the person’s name to send your Reel as a DM.

How to share your Instagram Reel to your Stories

The same method above can also be used to share your Instagram Reel to your Story. This way everyone in your Friends list can enjoy your Reel! Alternatively, if you have a ‘Close Friends’ list set up, you can decide the audience for your Reel story.

Now tap ‘Share’ next to ‘Your Story’.  Tap ‘Done’ at the bottom to complete the process.

The Reel will be added to your Instagram Story. You can view it by tapping the Story button in the top left corner of the app.

Related: How To Add A Reel To Your Profile Grid Instead Of Reels Tab


Python Lists: An Ultimate Guide & Examples (Updated 2023)

In Python, a list is a data type in which you can store multiple items.

To create a list, separate elements with commas in between square brackets.

For example, here is a list of integers:

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

To access list elements, use the square-bracket accessing operator [] with the index of the item. Also notice that the index starts from 0.

For example, let’s get the 1st and the 2nd element of a list:

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] first = numbers[0] second = numbers[1] print(first) print(second)


1 2

To iterate over a list, you can use a for loop.

For example, let’s print each number in a list separately:

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] for number in numbers: print(number)


1 2 3 4 5

This is a complete guide on lists in Python.

In this guide, you learn everything you need to know about lists starting from creating one.

Introduction to Lists

A list is one of the most commonly used data types in Python.

It is a mutable (changeable) and ordered sequence of elements.

A list element is commonly referred to as an element, item, value, or object.

These terms are used interchangeably in this tutorial similar to other guides on the internet.

Why Are Lists Useful?

Practically all programs have to deal with a bunch of related values. For instance, a course app might deal with student objects and grades. A weather app can deal with a bunch of locations and weather data.

In Python, you can use lists to store multiple related values in one place for easy access.

Lists in Python are useful for the same reason why pencil cases are useful in real life. You can store related items in the same logical place.

By using lists, your program becomes cleaner and more structured.

Also, lists let you perform all kinds of practical operations to its elements.

For example, you can easily:

Calculate the length of a list.

Sort a list.

Find a specific value.

Add, update, and delete values.

And much more.

To get a first impression of lists in Python, let’s start by creating one.

How to Create a List

To create a list in Python, place the elements inside square brackets and separate them by commas.

For example, here is a list of strings:

names = ["Alice", "Bob", "Charlie"]

This is a list of strings.

Each element in this list is a string that represents the name of a person.

Usually, it is a good idea to store elements of the same data type in a list.

For instance, a list of integers, strings, or booleans.

However, this is not a restriction.

In Python, you can store different types of data into the same list.

For instance, let’s create a list that has integers, strings, and booleans:

mixed = [0, True, "Charlie", 100, False, 9732]

This is a perfectly valid list in Python.

However, as stated before, it is usually a good idea to only store one type of data in the same list.

Length of a List

One of the important properties of a list is its length.

This can be useful for many reasons. For instance, the length of the list reveals how much data you are dealing with.

Later on, you see an example of how to use the length of a list to iterate over its elements.

In Python, there is a built-in function called len(). You can use this function to calculate the length of a list.

As a matter of fact, you can use the len() function on other types of iterables, such as strings or tuples. With strings, the len() function returns the number of letters in the string.

For example, let’s calculate the number of names in a list of strings:

names = ["Alice", "Bob", "Charlie"] length = len(names) print(length)



Good job!

Now you understand how to create a list and count the number of elements in it.

Next, let’s talk about accessing the elements of a list.

How to Access List Items

The reason why you insert elements into a list is to store them for easy access later on.

Without being able to access list elements, a list would be a useless data structure.

In Python, accessing the list elements is possible by using the square brackets accessing operator [].

Here is the syntax:



list is a list of items.

index is the index of the item to access.

You are going to see a bunch of examples in the next sections.

Before that, it is important to learn how indexing works in Python. This is because accessing an element depends on its index.

Indexing in Python

In Python, each element in a list is associated with a unique index.

This index can be used to access that particular element.

Python uses zero-based indexing.

In other words, the indexing starts from 0 and grows from left to right.

This applies to lists as well as other types of iterables.

As a matter of fact, most programming languages use zero-based indexing.

When dealing with lists in Python, zero-based indexing means:

1st element has an index of 0.

2nd element has an index of 1

3rd element has an index of 2.

And so on.

This usually causes headaches, especially for beginners.

Let’s see examples of accessing list elements with the index.

As a first example, let’s create a list of strings and access the 3rd element:

names = ["Alice", "Bob", "Charlie", "David", "Eric"] thirdName = names[2] print(thirdName)



As you can see, this piece of code returns the 3rd name, that is, Charlie.

This is because index 2 refers to item number 3.

Problems with Indexing

Zero-based indexing is commonly a root cause of one of the most common errors in Python, the List Index out of Range error.

This error occurs when you try to access an element with an index that overshoots the list.

Let me show you an example:

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] last = numbers[5] print(last)


Traceback (most recent call last): IndexError: list index out of range

In this piece of code, you try to access the 6th element of the list even though there are only 5 elements.

This causes an error that says the list index is out of the range.

To fix this, you need to recall that Python uses zero-based indexing. You should thus use an index that is one less than the actual position of the element.

Next, let’s talk about negative indexing in Python.

Negative Indexing

Python also supports negative indexing that goes from right to left.

In Python, negative indexing starts at the index of -1 from the right-most element in a list.

In other words:

The 1st element from the right has an index of -1

The 2nd element from the right has an index of -2

The 3rd element from the right has an index of -3

And so on.

Using negative indexing can be helpful if you want to access elements from right to left.

For example, if you are instructed to get the second last element in a list, you can use the index -2.

For example:

names = ["Alice", "Bob", "Charlie", "David", "Eric"] secondLast = names[-2] print(secondLast)



The negative indexing does not start from 0 because the 0th index is reserved for the 1st element in the positive zero-based indexing.

Now you understand how the list indexing works in Python.

The next section teaches you how to access multiple items of a list in one go.

Slicing Lists

In Python, you can access a bigger chunk of a list by using what is called slicing.

For instance, to get the first four items of a list, use slicing instead of manually accessing all four items separately.

The most basic way to use slicing is to access elements from a start index until an end index.



start is the zero-based starting index of the slice

end is the exclusive end index of the slice. The item at the index end is not taken into the result.

For example, let’s access the 3 middle-most items in a list:

names = ["Alice", "Bob", "Charlie", "David", "Eric"] firstNames = names[1:4] print(firstNames)


['Bob', 'Charlie', 'David']

Here the slicing starts at index 1, which is the 2nd element of the list. The slicing continues until it encounters the item at index 4 (5th element) which is excluded.

If you leave out the start parameter when slicing, the slicing automatically starts at the first element of the list.

If you omit the end parameter, the slicing automatically continues to the end of the list.

For example:

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] first3 = numbers[:3] last3 = numbers[2:] print(first3) print(last3)


[1, 2, 3] [3, 4, 5]

Another way to do slicing is by specifying one more parameter, that is, the step size.


Here the start and end parameters work as described previously. The step parameter determines the number of elements to step over in the slice.

For example, let’s access every second element in a list:

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] everySecond = numbers[::2] print(everySecond)


[1, 3, 5, 7, 9]

Because we omitted the start and end parameters, the slicing starts from the first element and ends at the last one. The step size of 2 makes the slice only include every second element in the list.

The step parameter can also be negative. This inverts the direction of slicing.

For example, let’s reverse a list:

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] rev = numbers[::-1] print(rev)


[10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1]

In addition to negative step size, you can also use negative start and end parameters.

For example, let’s grab the last three values of a list:

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] print(numbers[-4:-1])


[7, 8, 9]

If you are interested, feel free to read an ultimate guide about slicing in Python.

Next, let’s talk about looping through a list. This is one of the most common operations performed on a list.

Looping Through a List

When you have stored items in a list, you usually want to perform an action for each of those.

This operation could mean displaying the values, performing a math operation, checking a condition, or anything of that sort.

In the last chapter, you learned how to access elements of a list.

However, if you have hundreds of items on a list, you do not want manually perform actions on those.

This is where looping comes in useful.

In Python, you can use a loop to iterate over the list of values.

There are two types of loops at your disposal:

For loops.

While loops.

In the following sections, you are going to learn how to use both types of loops to iterate over lists.

For Loop

In Python, a for loop is used to iterate over an iterable collection of values, such as a list.

Here is the general syntax of a for loop:

for item in list: # actions

The for loop works such that it takes each element in a list at a time and assigns it to a variable called item. The area after the colon is calledthe body of the loop. Here you can run any valid Python code on the list item for example.

To understand how it works, you need to see some examples.

As a first example, let’s create a list of strings and print each string to the console:

names = ["Alice", "Bob", "Charlie", "David", "Eric"] for name in names: print(name)


Alice Bob Charlie David Eric

Here each string in the list is assigned to a variable called name one by one. Then you use the name to print it into the console.

As another example, let’s square each number in the list and show the result:

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] for number in numbers: number = number ** 2 print(number)


1 4 9 16 25

Notice that this piece of code does not modify the original list.

Instead, each time you call number = number ** 2 you modify the copy of the actual number in the list.

Here is how a for loop works behind the scenes when looping through a list:

The for loop assigns each number in a list to a copy variable called number.

Loop with Index: The enumerate() Function

In the previous examples, you learned how to use a for loop to loop through a list of elements.

But what if you want to know the position of the element too?

In this case, you need to couple each list element with an index.

In Python, there is a built-in function enumerate() that does it.

The enumerate() function takes a list and assigns an index to each element. The result is a collection of item, index pairs.

Here is the general syntax of using the enumerate() function:

for index, item in enumerate(list): # actions

The index is the current element’s position in the list whereas the item is the element itself. You can use both of these variables inside the loop.

The best way to see this in action is by taking a look at an example.

For instance, let’s print the order of people in a line:

names = ["Alice", "Bob", "Charlie", "David", "Eric"] for index, name in enumerate(names): print(f"{index}: {name}")


0: Alice 1: Bob 2: Charlie 3: David 4: Eric

Using the enumerate() function is useful when you want to loop through a list and know the index of each element.

This prevents you from having to specify a separate variable to keep track of the index. This reduces the amount of code and improves readability.

In case you are curious, you can check a more detailed guide to the enumerate() function in Python.

List Comprehensions: Shorthand For Loops

In the earlier sections, you saw examples of for loops that spread across multiple lines.

But there is a neat little shorthand you can use to compress for loops into one-liner expressions.

This shorthand is called list comprehension.

Here is a visualization of how to turn a regular for loop into a comprehension:

Let me show you an example.

Let’s square a list of numbers using a list comprehension:

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] squared = [number ** 2 for number in numbers] print(squared)


[1, 4, 9, 16, 25]

Here you only needed one line of code to get the job done.

A word of warning: Keeping it short isn’t always good! If you can convert a regular for loop to a list comprehension without sacrificing the code readability, feel free to do so! However, if the code becomes less understandable, it makes no sense to use comprehensions.

It is not wrong to never use comprehensions.

However, list comprehensions are used commonly so you have to understand them.

By the way, there is a lot more to for loops than you saw in this section.

In case you are interested, here is a complete guide to for loops in Python.

Anyway, the next section teaches you about while loops which is another main loop type in Python.

While Loop

While loop is the other basic loop type in Python.

Unlike a for loop, a while loop repeats actions as long as a condition True.

One application of a while loop is to loop through a list.

To loop through a list using a while loop, you need to keep track of the index of the current item. Furthermore, you need to continue the loop as long as the index is less than the length of the list.

Inside the loop, you can use the index to access the list elements.

Here is a blueprint for a while loop with lists:

index = 0 while index < len(list): # actions index = index + 1

The while loop continues as long as the index is less than the length of the list. It is thus important to update the index at each iteration!

For example, let’s print a list of strings using a while loop:

names = ["Alice", "Bob", "Charlie", "David", "Eric"] i = 0 while i < len(names): print(names[i]) i += 1


Alice Bob Charlie David Eric

This is a really basic example of a while loop.

Here the variable i is used to keeping track of the index of the loop.

The while loop prints out each element with the corresponding index and updates the index for the next round.

A common reason to perform a while loop on a list is to bulk-modify the list elements.

Let’s demonstrate this by squaring a list of numbers:

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] i = 0 while i < len(numbers): numbers[i] **= 2 i += 1 print(numbers)


[1, 4, 9, 16, 25]

Word of warning: Using while loops, it is important not to cause an endless loop (condition is always True). To prevent this, always update the looping condition in each iteration.

To iterate a list, use for loops instead of while loops as much as you can.

This is because the for loop syntax is easier to read and not susceptible to endless loops.

In the next section, you are going to learn a bunch of ways to add an item or items to a list.

How to Add Elements to a List

In Python, a list is a mutable collection of values.

In short, the mutability of a list means you can add elements to a list.

As you can imagine, being able to add items to a list is a must-have feature.

Read more about mutability in Python.

Adding elements to a list can mean one of the following:

Add to the end of a list (to the right-hand side).

Add to the front of a list (to the left-hand side).

Add multiple elements to the end of a list.

Add multiple elements to the front of a list.

The next four sections teach you more about these options.

Add an Element to the End of a List

Perhaps the most common way to add an element to a list is by adding it to the end of the list.

This process is called appending.

In Python, a list has a built-in append() method that lets you add an element to the end of a list.


The append() method takes an item as an argument and adds it to the end of the original list.

For instance:

numbers = [1, 2, 3] numbers.append(4) print(numbers)


[1, 2, 3, 4] Add an Element to the Beginning of a List

A less common, but still useful action is to add an element to the beginning of a list.

To do this, you can use the insert() method.

list.insert(index, item)


index is the index at which you want to add an item.

item is the item to be added to the original list.

This allows you to add an element anywhere in the list. Thus, you can use it to add an element to the beginning of the list.

For example:

numbers = [1, 2, 3] numbers.insert(0, 100) print(numbers)


[100, 1, 2, 3] Add Elements to the End of a List

In the previous two chapters, you learned how to add a single item to a list.

But sometimes it can be useful to add multiple elements to a list at the same time.

To add elements to the end of a list, use the extend() method.

This method takes a list as an argument and adds each element in the list to the end of the original list.

For example:

numbers = [1, 2, 3] numbers.extend([4, 5, 6, 7]) print(numbers)


[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]

Notice that the extend() method argument can be any other iterable, such as a tuple or string.

For example:

characters = ["H", "e", "l", "l", "o"] word = "world" characters.extend(word) print(characters)


['H', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o', 'w', 'o', 'r', 'l', 'd']

A string is an iterable collection of characters. When you pass a string to the extend() method, it takes each character and adds it to the end of a list.

Add Elements to the Beginning of a List

Last but least, it can be useful to know how to add elements to the beginning of a list.

This is not the most usual operation to perform and there is no dedicated method for doing this.

Instead, you can use the + operator to combine the two lists.

This creates a new list which you can assign back to the original one.

For example, let’s add a list of numbers from 1 to 3 to the beginning of a list from 4 to 6:

numbers = [4, 5, 6] oneToThree = [1, 2, 3] numbers = oneToThree + numbers print(numbers)


[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] How to Modify List Items

In Python, you can modify list elements by accessing an element with an index and assigning a new value to it.

As you can imagine, being able to modify list elements is a crucial task because it allows you to change data.

For example, let’s change the first number of a list of numbers:

numbers = [1, 2, 3] numbers[0] = 50 print(numbers)


[50, 2, 3] How to Remove List Items

Similar to adding elements to a list, you can remove elements from a list.

Removing list elements can refer to any one of these:

Remove the last item.

Remove an item with a specific index.

Remove an item with a specific value.

Remove all items with a specific value.

Remove all items.

The next five sections teach you how to handle each of these situations.

Remove the Last Item from a List

In Python, you can remove the last item of a list by using a built-in pop() method.

For example, let’s remove the last number in a list of numbers:

numbers = [1, 2, 3] numbers.pop() print(numbers)


[1, 2]

Notice that this method returns the removed element. This can be useful if you want to operate on the removed element.

For example, let’s remove a value and show it in the console:

numbers = [1, 2, 3] last = numbers.pop() print(last) print(numbers)


3 [1, 2] Remove an Item with a Specific Index

In Python, the pop() method can also be used to remove any element with a given index in a list.

The pop() method takes an optional index argument that removes the element corresponding to that index.

For example, let’s remove the first element of a list:

numbers = [1, 2, 3] numbers.pop(0) print(numbers)


[2, 3] Remove an Item with a Specific Value

In the previous sections, you learned how to remove values from a list by index.

However, sometimes you want to remove an item based on its value instead of the index.

To remove an element with a specific value, use the remove() method.


The remove() method removes the first occurrence of the value in a list.

For instance, let’s remove the name “Bob” from a list of strings:

names = ["Bob", "Alice", "Charlie", "Eric", "David"] names.remove("Charlie") print(names)


['Bob', 'Alice', 'Eric', 'David']

If you have multiple items with the same value in a list, the remove() method only removes the first one!

For example:

names = ["Bob", "Bob", "Alice"] names.remove("Bob") print(names)


['Bob', 'Alice']

As you can see, there is still one “Bob” on the list.

To remove all occurrences, you need to use a different strategy as explained in the next section.

Remove All Items with a Specific Value

You cannot use the remove() method to remove multiple elements of the same value from a list.

But there are many other options you can use.

The simplest way is by using a loop.

For example, here is a list comprehension approach:

numbers = [1, 4, 4, 26, 4, 4, 8, 0, 4] target = 4 numbers = [number for number in numbers if number != target] print(numbers)


[1, 26, 8, 0]

This approach creates a new list in which the specific values are filtered out. Then the new list is assigned back to the original one.

If you want to modify the original list directly, then you can use a while loop.

How to Empty a List

Last but not least, sometimes you may want to clean the entire list.

To do this, you can assign the original list to an empty list:

numbers = [1, 2, 3] numbers = [] print(numbers)



But you can also use the built-in clear() method:

numbers = [1, 2, 3] numbers.clear() print(numbers)



Next, let’s talk about finding elements in a list.

How to Find an Element in a List

When you are dealing with big lists of data, you commonly want to find items with a specific value.

This can mean:

You want to check if an element exists in a list.

You want to access the index of the specific value.

Let’s take a closer look at each operation.

How to Check If a Value Exists in a List

If you only want to know if a list contains at least one element with a specific value, use the in operator.

For example, let’s check if numbers 3 and 100 exist in a list:

numbers = [1, 2, 3] print(3 in numbers) print(100 in numbers)


True False How to Get the Index of a Specific Value in a List

Usually, you also care about the position of the specific item in addition to knowing it exists.

To get the first index of a specific value in a list, use the list.index() method.

For example, let’s find the index of “Bob” in a list of names:

names = ["Alice", "Bob", "Charlie", "David"] bobIndex = names.index("Bob") print(bobIndex)



If you have multiple items with the same value, the index() method returns the first index:

names = ["Alice", "Bob", "Bob", "Bob"] bobIndex = names.index("Bob") print(bobIndex)



In the above list, there are multiple “Bob” strings. However, only the index of the first one is returned by the index() method.

In the next section, you learn a technique to find all the indexes of a specific value.

Find All Indexes of a Specific Value in a List

To get all the indexes of a specific value in a list, you can use a loop or a list comprehension.

For example, here is a list comprehension to find all indexes of “Bob” in a list of names:

names = ["Alice", "Charlie", "Bob", "Bob", "Bob", "Charlie"] bobIndexes = [idx for idx, name in enumerate(names) if name == "Bob"] print(bobIndexes)


[2, 3, 4]

If the enumerate() part confuses you, scroll up to see what it does.

How to Merge Two Lists

In Python, you can merge two lists together by using the addition (+) operator.

This is convenient because it is syntactically clear as to what you are trying to accomplish.

list1 + list2

When you use the + operator to merge two lists, you are creating a new list that is a combination of the lists.

For example, let’s merge two lists of numbers:

part1 = [1, 2, 3] part2 = [4, 5, 6] combined = part1 + part2 print(combined)


[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

If you want to modify the original list directly, use the extend() method you learned earlier.

This method adds a list to the end of another.

For example:

part1 = [1, 2, 3] part2 = [4, 5, 6] part1.extend(part2) print(part1)


[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

This piece of code modified the original list, instead of creating a new list.

How to Copy a List

It is quite common for you to want to clone a Python list.

In Python, copying lists (and other objects) is not possible by using the assignment operator (=):

a = [1, 2, 3] aCopy = a

Instead, you have to use the copy.deepcopy() function.

The assignment operator (=) creates a new reference to the same object in memory.

This is a more complex topic and is out of the scope of this guide.

You can read more about copying lists in Python here.

The next section teaches you the very basics of copying lists in Python.

Why = Operator Does Not Work?

In Python, the assignment operator (=) creates a new reference to an existing object.

Here is a great illustration of what happens under the hood:

You would think an assignment like this creates a copy but it doesn’t.

In the above scenario, you end up having two variables that refer to the same object in memory.

In other words, if you modify the elements of one of the lists, the other one changes too.

For example, let’s create a copy of a list and modify the original one:

a = [1, 2, 3] b = a a[0] = 10000 print(a) print(b)


[10000, 2, 3] [10000, 2, 3]

As you can see, both lists a and b changed. This is because both a and b refer to the same object.

This proves copying this way is not possible.

In the next section, you learn how to create an independent copy of a list in Python.

The deepcopy() Method

In Python, there is a specific built-in copy module that can be used to create true copies of objects.

To create a completely independent copy of a Python object, use the copy.deepcopy() module.

For example:

import copy a = [1, 2, 3] b = copy.deepcopy(a) a[0] = 10000 print(a) print(b)


[10000, 2, 3] [1, 2, 3]

As you can see, the copied list did not change. This means it is a truly independent copy of the original list.

Next, let’s go through useful list methods and functions.

Useful List Methods

An efficient programmer reuses existing code as much as possible.

When dealing with lists, there are lots of operations that you perform countless times.

Calculating the length of a list is one of those.

Even though you could implement a loop that counts the number of elements in a list, you should use the built-in len() function instead.

This saves your time and allows you to write less code.

A Python list comes with a bunch of practical methods you can use to perform some common tasks.

In this guide, you have seen a bunch of them already, such as the list.pop() or list.index() methods.

To top it off, here are two useful list methods we did not cover yet.


To sort a list in Python, use the sort() method.

By default, the sort() method sorts numbers in increasing order.

If you sort a list of strings, the strings are sorted in alphabetical order.

For example:

names = ["Charlie", "Alice", "Bob"] names.sort() print(names)


['Alice', 'Bob', 'Charlie']

Let’s also see an example of sorting numbers.

For example:

numbers = [3, 1, 2, 8, 0, 23] numbers.sort() print(numbers)


[0, 1, 2, 3, 8, 23]

Read more about sorting in Python.


In Python, you can reverse the ordering of a list by using the reverse() method.

For example, let’s reverse the ordering of a list of numbers:

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] numbers.reverse() print(numbers)


[5, 4, 3, 2, 1]

In addition to list methods, there are also useful built-in functions you can use to make your life easier when working with lists.

Built-In List Functions

In addition to calling the methods of a list to perform useful operations, you can use built-in functions.

By the way, these functions are not restricted to working with lists. Instead, they can be called on other types of iterables, such as tuples as well.

In this section, you learn about the most useful built-in functions:







To find the smallest value in a list, you could use a for loop to iterate over each element and find the smallest item.

But there is a built-in function, min(), you can call on a list to get the job done.

The min() function takes a list as an argument. It then returns the smallest element in the list.

For example, let’s figure out the smallest number in a list:

numbers = [10, 2, -100, 4, 3, 19, 7] smallest = min(numbers) print(smallest)


-100 max()

Can you already guess what this function does?

In Python, you can use the built-in max() function to figure out the greatest element in a list.

For example, let’s find the biggest integer in a list of integers:

numbers = [10, 2, -100, 4, 3, 19, 7] biggest = max(numbers) print(biggest)


19 sum()

The sum() function calculates the sum of the list elements.

For example, let’s sum up all the integers of a list:

numbers = [10, 2, -100, 4, 3, 19, 7] total = sum(numbers) print(total)


-55 all()

In Python, the all() function checks if all the values of a list are True in a boolean context.

For example:

bools = [True, False, True] allTrue = all(bools) print(allTrue)



The result is False because one of the booleans is False. In other words, not all booleans in the list are True.

In Python, every data type has a corresponding boolean value.

For example, an integer of 0 is considered False, whereas 1 or any other integers are True.

This means you can call the all() function on a list of values other than booleans.

For example:

bools = [1, 0, 4, 7, 19] allZeros = all(bools) print(allZeros)



The result is False because there is one 0 in the list. In other words, there is one value that translates to False in a boolean context. Thus, not all the values are True as bools and the result is False.


In Python, the built-in any() function checks if at least one of the list elements are True.

For example:

bools = [True, False, True] someTrue = any(bools) print(someTrue)



The result is True because there is at least one True in the list.

Similar to the all() function, the any() function can be called on a list with non-boolean elements. This is because all non-boolean values have a corresponding boolean value, as described in the previous section.

For example:

bools = [1, 0, 4, 7, 19] someNotZero = any(bools) print(someNotZero)



The result is True because there is at least one integer whose corresponding boolean value is True.

How to Find All List Functions and Methods in Python?

Thus far you have seen a bunch of list methods and functions in Python.

These are more than enough for you to work with lists efficiently.

However, it is good to understand there are more functions you can call on lists.

To see a list of all the list methods and functions, call the dir() function on a list:

If you take a look at the last bunch of elements in the list above, you can see some familiar names such as pop, append, and index. Those are all the built-in methods of a list.

But what are those methods with underscores?

Those are called double-underscore methods (dunder methods for short). They are methods that specify what happens when you call a corresponding function on the list.

For example, in the above list, there is a function called __len__. This is a special method implemented by a list that specifies what happens when someone calls the len() function on a list. With lists, it returns the length of the list.

You can call these special methods directly instead of using the built-in functions as an intermediary.

For example, let’s call both len() function and the __len__ method of a list:

numbers = [1, 2, 3] len1 = len(numbers) len2 = numbers.__len__() print(len1) print(len2)


3 3

Behind the scenes, the len() function runs the __len__ method of the list. Thus, they produce the exact same result.

The dunder methods are not a list-specific thing.

Other data types implement the same dunder methods, and you can implement them in your custom classes as well.

If you are confused by the dunder methods, I recommend watching this video. Even though it is an old video, the information is still relevant.

In addition to the dunder methods, there are other built-in functions you can call on lists and other iterables.

Here is a complete list of all the built-in functions in Python.


That is a lot of information about lists!

To recap, a list is one of the most commonly used data types in Python.

A list can be used to store data for later access. For example, a course application could store each student’s grades on a list.

You can easily add, update, and remove list elements.

Also, you can perform useful operations on lists, such as counting the length, finding a specific value, looping, and much more.

Thanks for reading.

Happy coding!

Further Reading

For Loops in Python

How To Track And Share Locations On Iphone With Wondershare Geonection

In a world that focuses on stealing your data rather than securing it, Wondershare Geonection offers real-time location sharing without invasion of privacy.


Easy-to-use UI

Shares data in encrypted form


The SOS feature isn’t available yet

Editor’s rating: 🌝 🌝 🌝 🌝 🌜

Price: 3-day free trial (Subscription starts at $4.99/month)

The planet we live on is huge, and so are the chances of getting lost. I remember my mother calling once every 10 minutes whenever I’m traveling to a new place – just to make sure I’m safe. While it’s because they care for us, it would be better if there was a way to let them know our location without phone calls.

That’s where a location tracker app comes in handy. But oftentimes, location sharing translates to chances of data leaks. And since your data is precious, you should only trust an app or service from a good brand. Here’s Wondershare Geonection, an app for locating sharing that I used, reviewed, and highly recommend!

What is a location-sharing tool, and why should you use it?

Location sharing, as the name suggests, is a tool/app that lets you share your location with friends, family, or anyone close. There are many instances where a location-sharing app like Wondershare Geonection can be useful.


Parents can set location circles at home and school to ensure their children have safely reached/left the school.

Get live updates about family members who have embarked on a long journey.

You can also use this app to ensure that family members drive safely.

You can check on senior citizens in and around your family to ensure they are safe by viewing their location history and current location data.

 You can also check if the member’s phone is active and has enough battery to contact them if you wish to.


When you are concerned about your partner/spouse if you haven’t heard from them in a while.

To know the battery state of your partner’s smartphone or to see if their device is turned off.

Locate where they currently are to make sure they are safe.

View your partner’s location history and know where they have been to ensure they are navigating through the right path.


For parties and other occasions, you can check how long your friends will take to arrive.

Check in to inform buddies that you have reached a particular place.

To ensure they have reached home safely after the party.

What makes Wondershare Geonection special?

Now that you know the use cases of a location-sharing tool, you may wonder what the best location tracker app for iPhone is. While using location-sharing apps, it is always best to go with apps from established brands. We are looking at Geonection mainly because of the brand it’s coming from, Wondershare.

Founded in 2003, Wondershare became one of the frontrunners in introducing software products that make our daily life easier and more productive. Because of their simple and easy-to-use products and amazing service, they now serve millions across more than 150 countries.

With Wondershare Geonection, the brand has ensured you will get all key features. Let’s delve deeper into each feature provided.

Salient features of Wondershare Geonection

Live location sharing: The tool can share your live location with the people within your circle. The members can view your location in real time.

 Location history record: Check members’ location history.

 Place Notification: You can add a reminder/pin at a place, and when a member leaves or enters this place, you will be notified of the same.

 Data Encryption: All the data stored and shared between the members are encrypted.

 Driving Report: The Geonection app will also give you information regarding the driving history of the members. You can get details such as driving routine, distance covered, top speed, average speed, etc.

 Compatible devices: Apart from the iPhone, Geonection is also available on Android so that you can stay close to your friends and family, regardless of the smartphone brand.

How to use Wondershare Geonection on your iPhone or Android

Once you install the app from App Store or Play Store, it’s very easy to use. Open the app and follow the instructions to log in. (Note: On your iPhone, you need to give permission for Location Services, Push Notifications, and Motion Sensors.)

Once you log in to the app, a circle is created by default. A circle is a place where the location of other information is shared. Initially, the circle will expire after 3 days, but you can make it permanent.

But now what? What are the other things possible with the app? Read on and find out.

Create a new circle

While a circle is created by default, you can still make new circles. Here’s how:

Open the Geonection app on your iPhone.

Tap the drop-down menu in the top middle.

Here, tap Create Circle.

Name the circle.

Now select between Permanent Circle or 3-day Circle.

Now you can share the invite code with the members you want to add. To share the code, tap Invite People.

Invite People to your circle 

You can invite people while creating or after creating the circle. Here’s how:

Tap the profile icon on the top left corner.

Select Circle Settings.

Select Add a new Member.

Now that we know how to create a circle and invite people, it’s time to see how to join it. Here’s how you can do that:

If you are opening the app for the first time, you can tap Join Circle and then enter the code. But if you want to join a group later, here’s what you should do.

Join Circle on Geonection

Tap the drop-down menu on the top.

Select Join Circle.

Once you enter a code, you will see a confirmation. Tap Ok to complete.

Manage Circle on Geonection

Now that we know how to create a circle and then invite/join remembers to it, let us look at how to manage these circles.

To switch between the circles, tap the drop-down menu at the center and select the circle you want to switch to. Another feature that I liked about the Wondershare Geonection is that you can disable the location sharing if you want to:

Open the profile and tap Circle Settings.

Select Location Sharing.

Besides that, the app lets the members leave the circle anytime they want, ensuring that you can only share the location with your content.

Should you consider Wondershare Geonection?

I had pretty high expectations from Wondershare since all their previous products impressed me. And with Geonection, Wondershare has continued to deliver. From installation to usage, the app is easy-to-use, has a good UI, and easily findable menu options.

With this app, you can get the precise location of the circle members and information regarding how fast they are driving their vehicles. That’s a good feature to have; it helps your dear ones warn you about speed limits. There is even an option to view the map between regular or satellite views.

Additionally, the app can only track your location if you want to. This means you can easily stop sharing your location when you want, or even better, log out and leave the circle when you want to. But keep in mind the administrator will be informed that you have left the circle. Still, I liked this approach to ensuring privacy.

The shared data will be completely encrypted so that you will know that your data is only accessed by people you want and not anyone else.

Room for improvement

While the Geonection has impressed me overall, there are still some things I want to see improved over the future updates.

Even though it has been mentioned that the SOS feature will be rolled out soon, that should have been rolled out along with the app. It would be of great help to users during emergencies. I hope that this feature is made available pretty soon.

Additionally, I would like an option to revert the permanent circle to a 3-day circle since sometimes the use case may be only for a few days. If the administrator forgets to delete the group, they may still see other members’ updates.


You can get a 3-day trial and switch to the premium plan, which starts at $4.99 monthly. For the price, Geonection provides a good value with rich features and data encryption. I would even recommend this app to those looking for a GPS location tracker.


UI and ease of use


Data security




Value for money



Wondershare Geonection Review

Wondershare Geonection Review





Wondershare Geonection is an easy-to-use app that promises location sharing while keeping your data safe. With this app, you can ensure your loved ones travel safely and track their locations.

Wondershare Geonection is an easy-to-use app that promises location sharing while keeping your data safe. With this app, you can ensure your loved ones travel safely and track their locations.




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Anoop loves to find solutions for all your doubts on Tech. When he’s not on his quest, you can find him on Twitter talking about what’s in his mind.

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