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There are two types of Email dangers you need to watch out for Scam and Phishing (among others). You may have gotten quite a few in your inbox and might not have been aware of it.

By becoming aware of what a Phishing and Scam Email contains, you can avoid being the victim of identity theft (to mention one of many outcomes). What are the signs to look out for when it comes to a phishing scam?

What is Phishing Email?

A phishing email is sent by someone claiming to be an official business (your bank for example). The email may ask you to update your personal information such as your credit card number, social security number, and other sensitive information.

The email will always have a link to a site that will try to imitate the design of the authentic company as best as it can. This site is fake. Any information you type will be stolen and used against you.

A phishing email will always follow a pattern. For example, it will still be unasked for (since it falls in the Spam category), commercial, and it will always aim at your emotions. It will try and give you a sense of urgency, trust, intimidation so you can react to it without thinking your actions through.

What a Phishing Email Looks Like

Identifying a Phishing Email is not too difficult. You just have to know what to look for, and the phishing Emails usually follow the same pattern. For example, a phishing email will have a link to a malicious site, as I mentioned before.

They will also have infected attachments that as soon as they are opened give the hackers access to your computer.

Those attachments could be HTML attachments (it’s a basic structure, and it’s the code that is used in the creation of content for pictures, text, games, and more) that infects your computer as soon as you open them.

Phishing Signs to Look Out For

If the attachment is a type of file you’ve never heard of, it’s best that you leave it alone. A file type that you should never be opened will end in exe, msi, bat, cmd, hta, pif, and more. The Email service you use should block this type of file extensions. TXT, docx, xlsx, and xlsx are types of document extensions that are always safe to open.

The phishing email will also sound too good to be true. It could inform you that you’ve won a computer or maybe even a smartphone. That all you need to do to claim your prize is to give personal information to confirm your identity.

Don’t forget to look at who is the sender of the Email. Even if the name of the company is spelled correctly, the Email address might not include the name of the company the Email claims to be from.

What is a Scam Email?

A scam Email can come in various forms, but don’t be surprised if you’re offered a job you never applied for. If you’re actually looking for a job at the time, there is a chance that you’ve uploaded your resume onto a job recruitment site.

Some scam Emails will say that they saw your information on such site and want you to join the team. These scam Emails could ask for additional information about you or offer you special training that you will need to pay for before being able to take on your new position.

What a Scam Email Looks Like

In these scam Emails, you are asked to give more personal information that you may be accustomed to. You could be asked for financial data, social security number and other very identity information.

In scam Emails, you will also see bad grammar such as sentences that won’t make much sense or punctuation mistakes. It will also provide a link to give you more information about the job or opportunity it is giving you. When you place the cursor over this link, the real link won’t match the one in the Email.


You may not get these kinds of Email every day but when you do, you’ll know what to look out for. Now, you’ll be prepared to protect your valuable information. Have you received a scam or phishing Email recently?

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The Difference Between Gross And Net Revenue

Gross revenue is the amount of money a business brings in from sales in a given period, while net revenue is sales minus expenses.

Gross revenue tells you how many sales your business is driving, while net revenue compares your income to your expenses.

Understanding the difference between gross and net revenue is important when filing your taxes. Getting it right on your returns is even more important, as some experts expect more small business tax audits are on the way.

This article is for business owners who want to improve their financial literacy and accounting practices.

In accounting, a company’s gross revenue is its total gross sales over a certain period of time. It’s all of the money the business received, not accounting for any expenses whatsoever. Net revenue, or net income, is equal to a company’s gross revenue minus all of its expenses, including fixed expenses.

It’s important to know the difference between the two, because gross revenue only provides part of your company’s overall picture. You can’t budget based on your company’s gross sales. Net income provides a much more comprehensive view, but it’s hard to interpret without gross revenue for context.

Editor’s note: Looking for the right accounting software for your business? Fill out the below questionnaire to have our vendor partners contact you about your needs.

Key Takeaway

Net revenue measures how much money your company brought in after accounting for all expenses in the same period.

Gross revenue reporting

You’ll report your business’s gross revenue on your income or cash flow statement as top-line revenue. It’s equal to your gross sales – the total amount your company took in over a certain period of time.

Gross revenue doesn’t really have a formula, but this is what it would look like:

Total sales over covered period = Gross revenue

Gross revenue is a relatively easy number to calculate and to report using small business accounting software – it’s just the total money that came into your business during the reporting period (in the form of sales, not capital contributions or loans).

This figure does not take into account any costs you incurred to produce the sales that generated that revenue.

Net revenue reporting

While still quite straightforward, net revenue is slightly more challenging to report because it involves a few more calculations. In accounting, your company’s net revenue is your bottom line – equal to your gross revenue for the reporting period minus all expenses you incurred over the same period.

Here’s the formula for net revenue:

Gross revenue - Cost of goods sold - Overhead - Other variable expenses = Net revenue

You’ll use this formula to calculate how much of your business’s gross income is left over after accounting for all of the company’s expenses. It reflects your company’s total profit over a particular period.

Gross vs. net revenue examples

Consider a retail clothing store that has $250,000 in sales over a particular quarter. That $250,000 is the company’s gross revenue for the quarter.

Beginning with gross revenue, the store’s owner or manager then subtracts the cost of goods sold (the amount the store paid to acquire inventory); the rent for the storefront; utility costs; compensation paid to store employees; expenses for office supplies; payroll, income, sales and excise tax; expenses for office supplies; interest expense for money borrowed to buy inventory; and all its other costs. The amount remaining after all of those items are deducted is the store’s net revenue.

[Related Read: Guide to Financial Management Health for Startup Businesses]

When to use gross vs. net revenue

Gross revenue is extremely helpful for tracking your sales volume and ensuring that your company’s market share is growing and that your salespeople are hitting their goals. However, it provides little insight into your company’s overall profitability.

Net revenue, on the other hand, is great for tracking your profitability and provides considerably more insight than simple gross revenue. But net income also has its limits. For example, as net income fluctuates, you can’t immediately tell why. Without looking at your gross revenue over the same period, you can’t tell whether your business’s net income is changing because of fluctuations in sales or expenses.

Key Takeaway

Gross revenue and net income are both useful to track. You need to know both in order to expand strategically and ensure sufficient cash flow to support operations while growing the bottom line.

Gross vs. net revenue ratios

Gross and net revenue are both regularly used in ratios and other metrics to indicate a company’s financial strength and performance.

Gross profit ratio is one metric that provides key insights as to the profitability of your specific products or services. Also called gross profit margin, gross profit ratio is the percentage of gross sales of a particular product or service that is profit above the cost of producing that good.

Gross profit ÷ Net sales = Gross profit ratio

In this formula, net sales equals your gross sales minus returns minus the cost of goods sold.

Did You Know?

Your gross profit ratio measures the profitability of your specific product lines, answering the question of whether certain products are profitable to make and sell.

Net profit margin, also called return on revenue, is another metric based on your company’s revenue – this time your net revenue.

(Revenue - Cost) ÷ Revenue = Net profit margin

In other words, your net profit margin is your business’s overall profitability, accounting for all fixed expenses and overhead.

Difference Between While And Do

Key Differences between while and do-while loop in C

While loop checks the condition first and then executes the statement(s), whereas do while loop will execute the statement(s) at least once, then the condition is checked.

In the while loop, we do not need to add a semicolon at the end of a while condition, but we need to add a semicolon at the end of the while condition in the do-while loop.

While loop statement(s) is executed zero times if the condition is false, whereas the do-while statement is executed at least once.

While loop allows initialization of counter variable before starting the body of a loop, whereas do while loop allows initialization of counter variable before and after starting the body of a loop.

What are loops?

A Loop executes the sequence of statements many times until the stated condition becomes false. A loop consists of two parts, a body of a loop and a control statement. The control statement is a combination of some conditions that direct the body of the loop to execute until the specified condition becomes false. The purpose of the loop is to repeat the same code a number of times.

What is While Loop?

After the body of a loop is executed, the control again goes back to the beginning, and the condition is checked. If it is true, the same process is executed until the condition becomes false. Once the condition becomes false, the control goes out of the loop.

In a while loop, if the condition is not true, then the body of a loop will not be executed, not even once.

What is a Do-While Loop?

A Do-while loop is similar to the while loop except that the condition is always executed after the body of a loop. It is also called an exit-controlled loop.

In the do-while loop, the body of a loop is always executed at least once. After the body is executed, then it checks the condition. If the condition is true, then it will again execute the body of a loop. Otherwise, the control is transferred out of the loop.

Syntax of While loop in C

Here is a syntax of While loop in C programming:

while (condition) { statements; }

In the while loop, we have to write a condition that needs to be evaluated. The statement inside curly braces indicates the code to be executed.

Syntax Do While Loop in C

Here is a syntax of Do while loop in C programming:

do { statements } while (expression);

In the do-while loop, we need to first write the statement inside curly braces, which indicates the code to be executed. After this, we need to mention Java, C, or C++ program expressions that need to be evaluated.

How While Loop Works?

While loop works as follows:

Flow Chart Explanation:

Step 1) Start of while loop

Step 2) The test expression or condition is evaluated

Step 3) Next, if the test expression is true, the program executes the body of do-while loop

Step 4) If the test expression is false, the program outside while loop is executed

How Do-While Loop Works?

The Do-while loop works as follows:

Flow Chart Explanation:

Step 1) Start the do-while loop

Step 2) The body of do-while loop is executed

Step 3) The test expression or condition is evaluated

Step 4) If the test expression is true, the compiler executes the body of do-while loop

Step 5) Next, if the test expression is false, the compiler executes the statements after the loop body

Step 6) Statements that come after the loop body are executed

While vs Do-While Loop: Difference Between Them

Here is an important difference between While and Do While Loop:

While Do While

It checks the condition first and then executes statement(s) This loop will execute the statement(s) at least once, then the condition is checked.

While loop allows initialization of counter variables before starting the body of a loop. Do while loop allows initialization of counter variables before and after starting the body of a loop.

It is an exit controlled loop.

We do not need to add a semicolon at the end of a while condition. We need to add a semicolon at the end of the while condition.

In case of a single statement, we do need to add brackets. Brackets are always needed.

In this loop, the condition is mentioned at the starting of the loop. The loop condition is specified after the block is executed.

Statement(s) can be executed zero times if the condition is false. Statement is executed at least once.

while (condition) { Statements; } do{ Statements; } while (condition);

While Loop Example in C

Following program illustrates while loop in C programming with an example:

int main() { int num=1; while(num<=4) { printf(“%dn”,num); num++; } return 0; }


1 2 3 4

The above program illustrates the use of a while loop. In the above code, we have printed a series of numbers from 1 to 4 using a while loop.

We have initialized a variable called num with value 1. We are going to print from 1 to 4. Hence the variable is initialized with value 1. If we want to print from 0, then assign the value 0 during initialization.

Next, in a while loop, we have provided a condition (num<=4), which means the loop will execute the body until the value of num becomes 4. After that, the loop will be terminated, and control will fall outside the loop.

In the body of a loop, we have a print function to print our number and an increment operator to increment the value per execution of a loop.

An initial value of num is 1, after the execution, it will become 2, and during the next execution, it will become 3. This process will continue until the value becomes 4, and then it will print the series on the console and terminate the loop.

Do While Loop Example in C

The following program is a Do-while loop example to print a table of number 2 in C:

int main() { int num=1; do { printf(“%dn”,2*num); num++; } while(num<=4); return 0; }


2 4 6 8

In the above example, we have printed a multiplication table of 2 using a do-while loop. First, we have initialized a variable ‘num’ with the value 1. Then we have written a do-while loop.

In a loop, we have a print function that will print the series by multiplying the value of num with 2. After each increment, the value of num will increase by 1, and it will be printed on the screen.

Initially, the value of num is 1. In a body of a loop, the print function will be executed in this way: 2*num where num=1, then 2*1=2.

Hence the value 2 will be printed. This will go on until the value of num becomes 10. Next, the loop will be terminated, and a statement which is immediately after the loop will be executed. In this case, it will return 0.

Which One Should We Choose?

When checking a condition, if the first iteration is compulsory, we need to use the while loop. It can also be used if the number of iterations is unknown or uncertain.

Do while loop mainly requires in the case where we have to execute the loop minimum one time. The do-while loop is typically needed in a menu-driven programming language where the final condition is based upon the end-user.

Difference Between Ecm And Pcm

ECMs (Engine Control Modules) and PCMs (Powertrain Control Modules) are employed in the engine’s computer module. Although a PCM is a single unit from the outside, it often has a separate ECM and TCM, each with its CPU and programming ROM. During most activities, they operate independently, exchanging data only when a function needs both systems to work together.

For tuners, this implies that programming on one system may be altered while keeping the other unaffected. The PCM may monitor the car’s performance using sensors such as temperature, oil and fluid level, air intake, emission level, camshaft angle, or throttle position. The check engine light will turn on when the PCM cannot restore them to optimal levels.

The PCM guarantees that your car’s idle speed is not increased over the necessary RPM to manage any ancillary tasks, such as air conditioning. Vehicles have been moving toward a single operational unit (the PCM) since 1996. The PCM manages all systems, yet, as previously said, they can still function independently. Because there was no need for a computer to handle the transmission operations, automobiles with manual transmissions had an ECM.

Read this article to find out more about ECM and PCM and how they are different from each other.

What is an ECM?

An Engine Control Module (ECM) is sometimes called an Engine Control Unit (ECU). It is a computer that collects sensory data from all sections of the vehicle and processes it before transferring it to electronic systems for improved performance. In the early 1980s, the first ECMs were created. ECMs could only regulate fuel injection at the time.

ECM functionality and design developed and got more efficient over time, thanks to developments in-car technology.

An ECM now collects data from the cooling system, exhaust, intake, and other internal components. ECM issues the commands based on this information. It regulates ignition timing, throttle position, wastegate pressure, and fuel injection time, among other things.

What is PCM?

The Powertrain Control System (PCM) oversees all vehicle activities, from gearbox control to the primary engine. PCMs are meant to coordinate each activity to enhance fuel efficiency and power delivery. When the driver decides to change gears, this is an example of PCM operating as a holistic system.

A PCM can throttle back ahead of time to provide for smoother transitions. On the surface, the PCM may look like a single unit. Most cars, however, have a separate ECM and TCM (transmission control module) to set the ROM for optimal performance. Both of these systems (PCM and ECM) operate independently for the majority of operations. However, they can collaborate and exchange data for most processes.

The PCM (Powertrain Control Module) is the vehicle’s main computer that regulates its functions. The PCM may better coordinate their activities for greater power delivery and fuel economy by combining control of the gearbox and engine into a single unit. When the PCM changes gears, it can, for example, back off the throttle to make the transition smoother.

The Powertrain Control Module (PCM) is an abbreviation for the Powertrain Control Module. A vehicle’s powertrain comprises various components, including the engine, gearbox, and driveline. For maximum efficiency, its onboard computer monitors and regulates the functioning of each system. The PCM receives data from a network of sensors, which transfer the information to the PCM.

When each sensor delivers data to the computer, a sophisticated network of software programmes works together to alter settings such as fuel/air mixes for the fuel system, and gearbox shifting RPMs. The PCM receives data from computer systems such as ABS, throttle position sensors, and the Check Engine Light.

Differences between ECM and PCM

The following table highlights the major differences between ECM and PCM −





ECM is an abbreviation for the engine control module.

The powertrain control module is referred to as the PCM.


ECMs are in charge of regulating the engine.

PCMs are in charge of controlling the powertrain.


Engine control modules (ECMs) continually monitor engine characteristics and make modifications to guarantee peak performance.

PCMs are in charge of controlling the powertrain.


ECMs are required for optimal vehicle performance.

PCM continually monitors and adjusts powertrain settings to guarantee peak performance.


To control the engine, ECM employs a number of algorithms.

The PCM collects data from many sensors to alter the air/fuel mixture, ignition timing, and other engine characteristics.


The fundamental distinction between the two is that the ECM regulates and sends orders to particular areas of the engine. In recent models, the PCM controls practically all engine functions. However, there is a narrow line that separates the two. Most people, even automotive professionals, mistake the two.

The ECM and PCM govern engine operations that must work together to burn fuel effectively. When the engine stumbles, coughs, or stalls, it may be due to the PCM or ECM failing to regulate the fuel mixture or the firing of ignition components

Difference Between Abduction And Adduction

Abduction and adduction are two fundamental terms used to describe the movements of body parts. These terms are often used in anatomy, kinesiology, and physical therapy to describe the movements of the limbs, fingers, toes, and other body parts. Abduction refers to the movement of a limb or body part away from the midline of the body, while adduction refers to the movement of a limb or body part towards the midline of the body. In this essay, we will explore the differences between abduction and adduction and how they relate to the body’s movements and functions.

What is Abduction?

Abduction refers to the movement of structures or limbs away from the middle of the body by the contraction of abductor muscles. Toes and fingers are pulled apart by contraction of the abductor muscles.

Anatomical structure involved in Abduction − The physiological function of a muscle is related to fiber length and cross-sectional area. It has been found that abductors usually have a shorter muscle fiber length (in general) than an adductor muscle.

Abductors of the hand − There are many examples of abductor muscles in the human body. Some are even partly named for the action they perform. For instance, abductor pollicis brevis and abductor pollicis longus which are two muscles acting on the thumb, causing the abduction of the thumb. The abductor pollicis longus, as the name implies, is a long muscle that attaches to the bones of the forearm and thumb. The dorsal interossei are muscles found between the long bones that bring about abduction of the fingers.

Abductors of the arm − Part of the deltoid muscle is responsible for abduction of the arm, as is the supraspinatus muscle. The deltoid muscle covers the shoulder region. The supraspinatus is attached to the shoulder blade (scapula) and the upper arm bone (humerus).

Abductors of the leg − These muscles are often called abductors of the hip. They include the following muscles: gluteus minimus and gluteus medius which are found in the gluteal region. The gluteus medius is the larger of these two muscles and is very important in keeping the hip stable during walking. Abduction muscles allow you to move your legs sideways, and also function in stabilizing the hip joint. Abductor muscles found in the hip region contract to produce a lateral movement of the pelvic region of the body. Any weakness of abductor muscles that are found in the hip region can cause an abnormal gait.

Abductors of the foot − Abductor movement of the big toe is brought about by the abductor hallucis and movement of the little toe is brought about by the digiti minimi pedis. The dorsal interossei bring about some abduction of the toes.

What is Adduction?

Adduction refers to the movement of structures or limbs towards the middle of the body by the contraction of adductor muscles. Toes and fingers are moved closer together by contraction of the adductor muscles.

Anatomical structure for Adduction − Adductor muscles generally have a longer average muscle fiber length when compared with an abductor muscle. Longer fibers and fibers with greater cross-sectional area produce greater force, even within a type of muscle. Research has shown therefore that the adductor magnus, which is longer and has greater cross-sectional area than adductor longus and adductor brevis, also has greater force.

Adductors of the hand − The adductor pollicis is a muscle that acts on the thumb. The palmar interossei are muscles found between the long bones that bring about adduction of the fingers.

Adductors of the arm − The latissimus dorsi is a back muscle that helps in adduction of the arm. The pectoralis major is a very large chest muscle that is involved in adduction of the arms.

Adductors of the leg − There are three very important adductor muscles that are found on the human thigh. These are the adductor magnus, adductor longus and adductor brevis. These muscles attach to the lower parts of the pelvic bones and to the long bone (femur) of the upper leg. The contraction of the adduction muscles moves the leg inwards towards the middle of the body, allowing you to move your thighs together.

Adductors of the foot − Adductor movement of the big toe is brought about by the adductor hallucis. The plantar interossei are also important in the adduction and spreading of the toes.

Differences: Abduction and Adduction

In summary, the main difference between abduction and adduction is the direction of movement. Abduction refers to the movement of a limb or body part away from the midline of the body, while adduction refers to the movement of a limb or body part towards the midline of the body. Both movements are important for many physical activities and for maintaining balance and stability during movement.

It is worth noting that both abduction and adduction can be performed by various muscles throughout the body. For example, the abductor muscles of the hip are responsible for abducting the leg, while the adductor muscles of the hip are responsible for adducting the leg. Similarly, the deltoid muscle of the shoulder is responsible for abducting the arm, while the pectoralis major muscle of the chest is responsible for adducting the arm.

The following table highlights the major differences between Abduction and Adduction −





Abduction is the movement of a limb away from the middle of the body.

Adduction is the movement of a limb towards the middle of the body.


Abduction is caused by the contraction of abductor muscles.

Adduction is caused by the contraction of adduction muscles.

Anatomical structure

Abductor muscles have relatively short fibers.

Adductor muscles have relatively long fibers.

Hand muscles

Abductors include for instance, the abductor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis brevis, and dorsal interossei.

Adductors include the adductor pollicis and palmar interossei. Fingers are spread apart by abductors and fingers are moved together by adductors.

Arm muscles

Examples of abductors include the deltoid and supraspinatus muscles.

Examples of adductors include the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major.


In conclusion, understanding the differences between abduction and adduction is important for anyone studying anatomy, kinesiology, or physical therapy. These terms are fundamental to describing the movements of the body and are essential for many physical activities.

By understanding these movements and the muscles that control them, we can better understand the mechanics of the body and how to optimize our movements for improved performance and injury prevention

Difference Between Smoking And Vaping

Smoking is a highly addictive behavior. The negative health effects of smoking are well- documented and include, but are not limited to, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary illness, and cancer, accounting for more than 480,000 annual fatalities in the United States alone.

In spite of the fact that nicotine addiction is complex and difficult to overcome, the vast majority of smokers who attempt to quit eventually succeed. Addicts often try to stop smoking with nicotine replacement therapy or other drugs that don’t contain nicotine. Other people get the same buzz from vaping as they would from smoking, but without the health risks.

What is Vaping?

Vaping refers to using a vaporizer or electronic cigarette to take in gaseous substances. When the liquid is heated, it evaporates and becomes a gas. However, the liquid’s chemical makeup is not altered, and no new compounds are added throughout this procedure.

In addition to saving money, vaping saves your health since e-cigarettes are far safer than traditional cigarettes. This is so because it provides nicotine e-liquid, a form of nicotine that does not produce any additional pollutants. However, the amount of vape inhaled is determined by a person’s aping technique and the e-liquid they choose.

What is Smoking?

The smoke produced by the combustion of a chemical can be breathed and absorbed into the body in this way. Smoking smoke is the collection of liquid, solid, and gaseous aerosol particles produced by burning at a temperature above the ignition point.

Toxins such as ammonia, lead, carbon monoxide, diacetyl, hydrogen cyanide, and benzene are among those released into the body by smoking. Since nicotine is given by burning tobacco, additional hazardous compounds are created while smoking. Nicotine intake is proportional to the number of cigarettes smoked, but it also varies with the smoking technique. Most smokers spend more than $6,000 annually on smoking products.

Differences between Vaping and Smoking

The following table highlights the major differences between Vaping and Smoking −





Vaping refers to the process of inhaling vapor (a substance in its gas form) through an electronic cigarette or vaporizer.

Smoking refers to the process in which a substance is burned, producing smoke which is then inhaled and absorbed into the bloodstream.


The mediums used in vaping include personal vaporizers, electronic cigarette or electronic nicotine delivery systems.

The medium used in smoking is cigarettes.


Vapes consist of solvents and flavors, a battery-powered device, a liquid cartridge containing nicotine, and heating element.

A cigarette consists of tobacco rolled up in a paper.


Vaping is less expensive as e-cigarettes are less costly.

Smoking is costly.

Health effects

Vaping is less harmful because the process does not change the chemical composition of the liquid hence does not introduce new chemicals.

Smoking is harmful to a smoker’s health as it exposes them to toxicants including ammonia, lead, carbon monoxide, diacetyl, hydrogen cyanide, and benzene.

Amount inhaled

The amount of vape inhaled depends on how a person apes and the e-ltreatmentiquid chosen.

The amount of nicotine inhaled while smoking is generally fixed but also depends on how a person smokes.


To conclude, both vaping and smoking are harmful to a person’s health as both deliver nicotine. Vaping can aid smokers on their road to recovery, but it has the potential to become addicting even for those who have never smoked before. Therefore, it should be utilized to help those who are trying to quit smoking.

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