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A wired security camera system represents a significant investment of time, money and effort. However, if you have a large property to secure that needs many cameras for proper coverage, it’s the best long-term option. 

Getting started with a wired security camera system can seem daunting, but once you know how wired security camera systems work, it will all make perfect sense.

Table of Contents

The Two Types of Wired Security Camera Systems

The first order of business is to cover the two main types of wires security camera systems. 

The traditional wired camera system uses analogue coaxial cables and offers a relatively lower quality image. More modern systems use cameras that transmit data digitally over Ethernet cabling.

Both types of camera receive power over their respective cable types, so you don’t need to worry about providing power at the point of installation.

Typical Components in a Wired Security Camera System

Whichever type of wired security camera system you choose, the basic components are the same:

The actual cameras and their mountings.

The cables that run from the individual cameras.

A hub device that connects all the cameras.

A recording system, often integrated into the hub device.

A hard drive to store recordings.

A monitor to view the live feed from the camera system.

Sometimes, a computer to manage and control the system is required.

While most wired camera security systems have these components, the individual capabilities of each component can vary significantly. For example, the hub device might have the ability to connect to the internet or it may just be a simple video switcher.

A Closer Look at Wired Cameras

The cameras themselves can vary. Most wired security camera starter kits will give you a few identical cameras, but it’s important to match the different types of camera to the environments they’ll be expected to operate in.

For example, if you’re going to use a camera outdoors, you should certainly look for a model that’s been designed to work in rain, sleet, snow and other environmental hazards.

The same goes for low light environments. In those cases you want cameras that can see well when there’s not much light. Some cameras are sold as having “night vision”, which usually means that they are sensitive to infrared light.

Cameras can have different fields of view and focal lengths. So you also need to keep that in mind when choosing which cameras to use for your various surveillance spots.

Wired Security Camera Installation Overview

So what does it take to install a wired security camera system? It can be pretty complicated, but the basic work involved includes:

Mounting the cameras in their correct locations. Usually by drilling holes and then screwing the mount into place.

Drilling holes through which to route cabling. This can be a challenge because you may have to drill through a wide variety of materials.

Pulling and routing cable between the cameras and hub device.

Attaching the connectors for each respective type of cable.

Connecting the cameras to the hub device.

Connecting the hub device to a monitor.

Installing a hard drive in the hub device or attaching the video output to a computer with a capture card.

While mounting the cameras and setting up the video receiver hub, video recorder, computer and monitor are all relatively easy, it’s the cabling that offers a real challenge.

Attaching the connectors at the ends of the routed cable can be particularly tricky. Coaxial cables aren’t that hard to connect, although you need to take care with insulation and waterproofing where appropriate. Ethernet cables require a special crimping tool and knowledge of what the correct wiring order is according to a wiring diagram. 

You can of course purchase lengths of cable with connectors already attached, but this can mean having excess cables or ones that are too short. If you pay to have cables made to length, make sure your measurements are accurate!

The Pros and Cons of Wired Cameras

The biggest con for a wired camera security system is undoubtedly how much of a pain it is to install it. Once you have it installed, you’ll find it’s the most reliable and foolproof solution. 

Since the cameras all draw power from the video receiver, it’s simple to keep the system running in the event of a power outage, especially a deliberate one. All you have to do is attach the main system to a suitable uninterruptible power supply.

Wired camera systems can also be a nuisance when something goes wrong with the cabling. If a mischievous rat decides to nibble through one of your cables, it can be hard to find the break or to access it for a repair.

The Pros and Cons of Wireless Cameras

Which brings us to the first downside of a wireless camera: power. Each camera needs to be plugged into an outlet. Which means you either have to limit your camera placement to where power is available or do additional wiring, which rather defeats the point. Battery-powered wireless cameras are also an option, but as you can imagine this brings a new set of issues to the table.

Another limitation of wireless cameras is that you can’t have too many of them running at the same time. Not only because of WiFi congestion, but because the apps that operate them generally only support around four cameras at the same time. That’s not a big deal for apartments or small homes, but anyone with bigger spaces to cover is out of luck.

These cameras can also suffer from the same sorts of interference as any other WiFi device. Unless you connect them to a router that has no internet connection, they always have the risk of being hacked.

Who are Wired Systems For?

Wired camera systems are best for people with larger budgets. Especially budgets that include professional installation. If you want a solid surveillance system with many cameras, robust recording and the option to go off-grid, wired is the way to go.

Wireless cameras are best for small dwellings where you want to spend as little as possible, have an easy installation process or perhaps in situations where you aren’t allowed to drill extensively. The choice is ultimately up to you!

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Bolster Your Remote Work Security Policy With Portable Ssds

Remote work, which was already a rising trend before COVID-19 sent many businesses into lockdown, is now clearly here to stay. The 50 million employees and contractors who worked remotely during the pandemic aren’t rushing back to the office, and Gallup predicts that on any given day, 37 percent of workers who can work from home will. At the same time, employers are widening the net they use for recruitment efforts, which means more organizations have dispersed employee bases.

While these are welcome developments for employees, they can make matters a bit more complicated for IT departments, who must support and protect company employees and data from afar. The problem is even worse than it seems, according to the Ponemon Institute. Only about half (53 percent) of organizations updated their remote working security policy due to the pandemic.

But there is good news. Some two-thirds (66 percent) of IT leaders who were asked about how their organizations’ security policies have changed cited an increased emphasis on the remote workforce. One area they’ll need to reconsider to bolster remote work security will be their storage options. Fortunately, portable solid state drives (PSSDs) have risen to the occasion.

Why remote work security policies are necessary

When it comes to data security, experts — including the U.S. Department of Commerce — agree: organizations that offer telework, remote access and bring your own device (BYOD) policies will be attacked at some point. It’s not a matter of if but when. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recommends developing and enforcing a telework security policy and using validated encryption technologies “to protect communications and data stored on the client devices.” Such policies, experts say, should include guidance around security best practices with regard to external storage solutions.

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There are many types of external storage offerings, including PSSDs, removable drives and other remote storage devices. While these can be a boon to employees who need to move data and files from one office to another or offload large files from a laptop or PC, they also require very specific security practices. Since the drives are external, there’s always a risk of loss or theft.

Knowing this, organizations should include policies that protect data when it’s in use and at rest. The best way to do this is to require employees to use company-issued storage devices that have hardware-enabled security built in. The policy should also include acceptable use language so that employees don’t put their data and storage in harm’s way. For example, traveling employees should avoid open, unsecured Wi-Fi connections and public PCs, such as those found in hotel business centers.

Acceptable use also includes allowlisting and blocklisting the types of sites that employees might access, and where they are permitted to store their data, including cloud-based offerings. Remote storage policies should also remind employees that data stored on portable devices must always be encrypted, and that the devices belong in a locked drawer or box when they’re not in use.

How portable SSDs solve remote work security concerns

In the case of Samsung’s T7 Shield, end users also have the benefit of a rugged rubberized case that covers an aluminum frame. This IP65-rated frame means the PSSD is secured against drops, bumps, dust and water — dangers that many IT organizations fail to include in their security policies. The device, which comes in 1TB and 2TB configurations, uses USB 3.2 Gen 2 and PCIe NVMe for fast data transfer, and it has read/write speeds of up to 1,050/1,000 MB/s.

Of course, there’s more to a remote security policy than buying the right PSSD. Once a policy is written and circulated, organizations should ask their employees to confirm that they’ve read it. In addition, IT should update the policy regularly (once or twice a year at minimum) to include new security threats and technology in the mix. But having the right technology is a solid first step on the road to remote work security.

Not sure if T7 Shield is the right data solution for your remote workers? Browse Samsung’s acclaimed SSD offerings for the right size and form factor for your organization.

Biophysical Chemistry: Study Of Biological Systems

What is Biophysical Chemistry?

Biophysical chemistry is the science which deals with the study of the biological systems by applying the combination of concepts of both physics (scientific study of both matter and energy and how they interact with each other) and chemistry (Complex application of physics which focuses on the interaction of matter and energy in chemical systems).

The interdisciplinary topic, biophysical chemistry combines the principles of biology, physics and chemistry and whose study mainly focused at the collection and quantitative analysis of data for predictive models of biological systems at a molecular level and chemical sequence level.

Unlike biophysics which covers all the scales of biological organization right from the molecular level to organism and finally populations, biology which focuses on the system’s phenotype which is to be studied and biochemistry which mainly focus on functions, role and structure of biomolecules, biophysical chemistry employs different physical chemistry techniques for probing the structure of biological systems. Biosystems are very complex and vast to understand however process becomes easy and simplified when we use physical model to learn how the changes occur in a system every time.

Some of the examples where the biophysical chemistry is applied using the concepts of physics, chemistry and biology includes −

With the use of physical concepts like quantum mechanics, hydrodynamics, optics, electromagnetic and thermodynamics many biological processes can be explained physiologically such as

Muscle contraction

Neural communication

Vision etc.

The most recent Nobel Prize winning study which falls under the biophysical chemistry category is the X-ray crystallographic studies of ribosome which is the site of protein synthesis. Protein crystals includes the atoms of the whole molecule which are packed into a crystal shape and when X-rays are used causes diffraction of light.

Many biophysical chemists are known to show interest in the topics like protein structures that may include enzyme activity which is either due to shape of substrate molecule or an alteration in its shape when a metal ion is bonded. Also the structural and functional analysis of biological cell membranes using the studies on models of supramolecular structures like liposomes and phospholipids.

By understanding the thermodynamics, we can build the specific protein models. Protein folding is mainly governed by thermodynamics. Proteins tend to be in folded state as it reduces the free energy. Proteins has well defined 3D structures. The science of understanding proteins as molecules with legitimate structures is a new challenge in the present world and Protein Folding is an achievement or challenge in biophysical chemistry Diffusion which is the net movement of particles from high concentration region to low concentration medium until it attains an equilibrium is another interesting area under the umbrella of biophysical chemistry. Here movement of ions across the biological cell membranes is studied.

Fluid mechanics is another interesting area used in the biology where many biological processes involve the movement of particles in fluids for example during blood circulation, gas exchange etc.

Techniques for Study of Biological Systems

Biophysical chemists make the use of different methods of physical chemistry to gain knowledge about the biological systems at both atomic and molecular level. Here the methods are overlapped with the other fields of science like biology, physics, bio-chemistry and chemistry to study the molecular structures, modes of interaction, size and shape, polarity of different biological molecules. The three different biomolecules which are important for the survival of all the living organisms includes proteins, nucleic acids and lipids.

Some of the following techniques of biophysical chemistry which are important to study the structures and functions of biological molecules are discusses below. All the techniques are mainly focused on 4 categories. They are

Thermal Techniques

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) are the 2 techniques can be discussed in this category. These techniques provide information on nucleic acids about nucleic acids-ligand interactions, protein-ligand interactions.


It is a type of thermoanalytical technique in which sample cell containing molecules of interest and reference material are maintained at same temperature by heating simultaneously until it reaches a differential point. DSC hence measures the change in heat which is due to absorption or radiation during temperature difference between sample and reference.


This is yet another type of thermal technique which is sensitive in qualitative and quantitative measuring of energy released due to interactions between sample molecules and the biological reference molecules.

Electrical Techniques Spectroscopic Techniques Miscellaneous

Many techniques now made possible to detect the structural changes in proteins which are responsible for their functioning and also to quantify the energetics of biological membranes. Radioactivity-based analysis technique is one such method which uses the radioisotopes to determine the influx and out flux measurement of ions and other substances across the cell membranes.


Biophysical chemistry is an application of basic concepts or principles of physical chemistry to solve the problems in biology. All the living organisms depend mainly on the three important biological molecules whose chemical characteristics are due to their organic and inorganic nature.

Proteins, lipids and nucleic acids are the three main macromolecules within the biological system. Biophysical chemists use many techniques of this field to study the biological molecules within the system. All these techniques are mainly categorized into 4 types that are thermal, electrical, spectroscopic and other miscellaneous group of techniques.

How Nvl Work In Redshift

Introduction to RedShift NVL

RedShift NVL expression will return the first expression value from the argument list which was not null, NVL function will return the empty result when our argument contains all null values. NVL function is equivalent to the coalesce function while using a big query, at the time of migrating our code from redshift we need to rewrite the function in a big query. The function is identical to the coalesce function, NVL expression is the synonym of coalesce function or expression. We can say that NVL and coalesce expressions are synonyms to each other.

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Syntax of RedShift NVL

Below is the syntax of NVL expression in RedShift:

NVL (expression1, expression2,…., expressionN);

Select NVL (column_name1, column_name2) From table_name;

Parameter description syntax of NVL function:

Expression1 to expressionN: This is defined as any expression which we have using with NVL function in redshift. For multiple values, the NVL function will return a first not-null value in the result.

Table name: This is nothing but the name of the table which was we have using with the NVL function to retrieve the first not-null value.

Select: Select is used to fetch data from a table by using the NVL function in redshift. Using column name with NVL function we can retrieve data from a table which was we have used in our query.

Argument 1 to Argument N: Argument is nothing but an integer value that we have passing with NVL function in redshift. If suppose we have passing three-argument with NVL function and if the first argument contains null value then NVL function will return next not null value.

Column name: This is the column name of the table which was we have used with NVL function. If we want to fetch data from a table using the NVL function in redshift then we need to pass column name.

NVL: NVL is the function or expression name which returns the first not-null value as a result. NVL function is the identical to coalescing function in redshift.

How NVL works in RedShift?

RedShift NVL function will evaluate values or arguments from left to right to find the not-null value or argument.

The function is used to return the first, not null value from the table column or from the list of arguments which was we have used in the query.

At the time of finding the first, not null value, the NVL function will not evaluate the remaining argument from the column or argument list which was used in our query.

NVL function will not treat zero as a not null value, zero is considered as valid, not null value with NVL in redshift.

The below example shows that the NVL function will not treat zero as a not null value, zero is considering as valid, not null value is as follows.


Select NVL (NULL, 0, NULL, 10, 20);


In the above example, we have used the argument list as (NULL, 0, NULL, 10, 20). In the first argument, we have used null value and in the second argument, we have used zero value. So NVL function will return the result as zero which was not null because the NVL function is considering zero as a not a null value.

We can also use order by and group by condition with NVL function to extract the data from a table.

As we know that NVL function is identical with coalescing function in redshift. NVL function will return the null values if our argument list contains all the null values.

NVL function will not evaluate all lists when it has found the not null value from the argument list. If suppose our argument list contains five numbers like (NULL, NULL, 10, NULL, 50).

In the above list, we can see that we have provided 10 values which were not null in the third position so the result of this argument using the NVL function is 10. After retrieving the result as 10 it will not evaluate the other argument list.

The default column name of NVL expression in redshift coalesces. At the time of executing the NVL function on the argument list it will show the output column name as coalesce.

The below example shows the column name of NVL expression in RedShift is coalesce.


Select NVL (15, 20, NULL, 25, NULL);


In the above example, we can see that we have used NVL expression with argument list but in result, it will showing column name as coalesce.

Examples of RedShift NVL

Given below are the examples mentioned:

Example #1

NVL function using a single value as the argument list.

The below example shows that the NVL function using a single value as argument list is as follows. We have using 20 values as an argument list with the NVL function.


Select NVL (20);

Example #2

NVL function using multiple values as the argument list.

The below example shows that NVL functions using multiple values as argument lists is as follows. We have used (20, 25, 30, 35, 40) values as argument lists with NVL function.


Select NVL (20, 25, 30, 35, 40);


Example #3

NVL function using null value as the argument list.

The below example shows that the NVL function using all null values as argument list is as follows. We have used (NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL) values as argument list with NVL function.




Example #4

NVL function using two-column as the argument list.

Below example shows that NVL function using two-column as argument list are as follows. We have using date1 and date2 columns as argument lists with NVL functions.


Select nvl (date1, date2) from nvl_test;


Example #5

NVL function using the single-column as the argument list.

The below example shows that the NVL function using a single column as an argument list is as follows. We have using the date1 column as an argument list with the NVL function.


Select nvl (date1, date2) from nvl_test;



RedShift NVL function is very useful and important to find the first not null value from column or argument list. NVL function is identical to the coalesce function in redshift. If suppose all column value contains the not null value then NVL function will return the empty result.

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This is a guide to RedShift NVL. Here we discuss the introduction, how NVL works in RedShift? and examples for better understanding. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

How To Fix Zoom Camera Glitch

Many Zoom users have complained that their camera starts going haywire while in a Zoom meeting. The camera’s image starts showing another user’s image, or the camera image starts showing some green glitch. You try to turn off the camera to see if it goes away when you turn it on. But it keeps coming back. The good news is that these are tips you can try to fix the issue and not have to deal with those video glitches. Hopefully, you can use all the options Zoom offers without worrying about the video.

Zoom Video Glitch: Tips to Fix the Issue

Your camera started giving your problems one day when you were in a Zoom meeting. Since you probably thought it was your hardware, you may have purchased another camera, but the problem continued. The good news is that it wasn’t the hardware, but the bad news is that you couldn’t use video during a meeting and that you ended up with another camera you probably didn’t need. Let’s see the tips to eliminate this video glitch issue.

Method #1 Update Zoom

The issue arrived with an update, and it can go away with an update. That’s why it’s important always to have your apps updated. Some users may always get a notice that there is an update pending for Zoom, but that may not always be the case. That only results in your having to check for Zoom updates manually.

Method #2 – Turning off Optimize Video Quality With De-Noice

There are some tech issues that can easily be fixed by disabling one option. That might also be the case with the Zoom video glitch. An option in settings called Optimize video quality with de-noise can make the issue go away if you disable it. Getting to it is easy.

Method #3 – Set Adjust Low Light to Manual Method #4 – Uninstall/Reinstall Zoom

You can also try closing any programs that need access to your camera. Maybe you forgot to turn them off, and they are interfering. I was personally experiencing this issue and applied methods one and two, and I haven’t seen the glitch since. If some of those programs are ones you rarely use, consider uninstalling them altogether.

Further Reading

Since no software is perfect, you could encounter other issues when using Zoom. For example, Zoom might not show you your upcoming meetings, but there are some tips you can try to fix it too. Another issue you can experience is that Zoom won’t let you assign a co-host. This can be unpleasant, especially when you need someone to help you with a big meeting.

Zoom can also close for no reason or refuse to convert a recording.

There are various things that can go wrong, but that doesn’t mean that there are no tips you can try to fix them. That’s why it’s important always to have Zoom updated since you never know when that pending update has the fix to the bug you’re experiencing.


For some time now, Zoom users have had issues with their cameras when they are in a meeting. Their image gets mixed up with someone else’s, or a green glitch completely hides their video. Some users have tried to turn off their video and turn it back on, but this usually doesn’t fix it. The good news is that there are various tips you can try to try and fix it.

Learn How Do Kubernetes Services Work?

Introduction to Kubernetes Service

In Kubernetes, services are generally a group of pods on the cluster, it is a logical, abstract layer, and here all of the pods perform the same function. This Kubernetes service helps us to enable pods that provide a specific set of functions such as image processing, web service, and many more; this function is assigned a unique IP name and address. So that means if the service is running, that means the IP address will not change till then; also, in order to access the service, we have to follow its policies. In the coming section of the tutorial, we will discuss more about the internal working their implementation in detail for better understanding and clarity for the beginners.

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What is Kubernetes service?

As we have already seen about the service, it is a logical, abstract layer, which helps us to connect the sets of pods to the specified abstract service name and the IP address; let take a few points to understand the service in detail;

2) Helps us to connect a set of pods.

3) Kubernetes service helps us to connect our application frontend to its backend.

4) Services use selectors and labels, which helps us match the pods with the other application.

5) It consists of various types of an attribute; some of them are mentioned below;

a) Port definition

b) Label which helps us to connect to the pods

c) Port number and assigned cluster IP address.

d) Mapping of incoming ports to the out coming ports.

Also, in Kubernetes, we have different types of service, which can be discussed in detail in the coming section of the tutorial for better clarity for beginners to understand and implement it in a better way.

How do Kubernetes Services work?

In this section, we will see about the internal working on the Kubernetes service step by step so let’s get started,

1) First, it starts pointing to pods with the help of labels.

2) Also, the Kubernetes service is node-specific; it can still point to the pods, irrespective of where it is currently running in the cluster.

This will be clearer once we see the definition and creation of service in the next section of the tutorial.

Kubernetes Service Types

In this section, we will discuss about the different types of service we have in Kubernetes; first, let’s have an overview about each of them; later, we will discuss each of them in detail for better understanding in detailed explanation about each of them, so let’s get started to see below;

1) ExternalName: This service type helps us map the service to a predefined externalName filed.

2) ClusterIp: This type of service helps us to expose a service that can only be accessible with in the cluster.

3) LoadBalacer: this type of service helps us to expose the service with the help of a cloud provider.

4) NodePort: This type of service helps us to expose the service with the help of a static port present on each node IP.

1) Kubernetes ClusterIP service: This is the default service provided by Kubernetes; it mainly uses the IP address to expose the service. But it has one restriction here: it helps us expose the service with the help of an IP address, but it will be internal to the cluster. That means we can access the exposed service within the same cluster itself, not from outside that cluster. This can be sued when we do not want other external services to use our expose service, hence increasing the accessibility part here. In sort, we can say that it helps to expose the service on internal cluster IP if we choose this service, then we will only access the service with the cluster.

2) Kubernetes NodePort service: As this name suggests, this service type helps expose the service on every node port. That means it allows us to open ports on every cluster node. So it will navigate the traffic to every node of the service, even if the service is not running on running on that particular node, thus helping us to handle the traffic as well by navigating it to a different node. It is one of the high-level methods which can be used in development. If we want to connect to the NodePort from outside of any cluster, then we can use this format to connect to them;

3) Kubernetes ExternalName service: As the name suggests here, this type of service can be accessed by the external name assigned to them. Rather than access them via cluster IP etc. In short, if we want to access this service, then we have to use the externalName field, which we define when creating the service. It returns a CNAME record that contains the value of the externalName parameter. In this type of service, no proxy is set up.

Create a new instance Kubernetes service

As we already discussed, it is an abstraction layer that is used to define the set of pods; in this section, we will see how to create the Kubernetes service within a reference file; we can define service as a simple REST object, we can create all them, and POST a service definition to the server in order to create the new instance from it. Below is the definition by which we can define a service in the Kubernetes see below;

e.g. :

apiVersion: v1 kind: Service metadata: name: your_name spec: selector: app: name ports: - protocol: TCP port: 80 targetPort: 9376

As you can see, we are trying to define a service here, where we are defining name, version, posts, etc., defining it. Also, we need to mention what kind of REST object it is of use ‘kind’ keyword to define it line above syntax.

1) First, it assigns them in Service IP; the service proxy further uses this IP.

2) We also have a controller for service responsible for scanning the Pods that match the selector of the service. After matching, it sends any updates to that endpoint.

3) Default protocol used by the service is TCP.

4) With the help of service, we can expose as many ports on the service object it is supported by Kubernetes.


In this tutorial, we have seen all the steps needed to take regards to service in Kubernetes, with a detailed explanation about the attribute, components, and different types of service in Kubernetes; go through the whole tutorial it will give you detailed knowledge about the Kubernetes service which will be helpful.

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