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Introduction to Spark Tools

Spark tools are the software features of the Spark framework used for efficient and scalable data processing for big data analytics. The Spark framework is made available as open-source software under the Apache license. It comprises 5 important data processing tools: GraphX, MLlib, Spark Streaming, Spark SQL, and Spark Core. GraphX is the tool that processes and manages graph data analysis. The MLlib Spark tool is used for implementing machine learning on distributed datasets. At the same time, users utilize Spark Streaming for stream data processing, while Spark SQL serves as the primary tool for structured data analysis. Spark Core tool manages the Resilient data distribution known as RDD.

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Top 5 Spark Tools 1. GraphX Tool

This is the Spark API related to graphs as well as graph-parallel computation. GraphX provides a Resilient Distributed Property Graph, an extension of the Spark RDD.

The form possesses a proliferating collection of graph algorithms and builders to simplify graph analytics activities.

This vital tool develops and manipulates graph data to perform comparative analytics. The former transforms and merges structured data at a very high speed consuming minimum time resources.

Employ the user-friendly Graphical User Interface to pick from a fast-growing collection of algorithms. You can even develop custom algorithms to monitor ETL insights.

The GraphFrames package permits you to perform graph operations on data frames. This includes leveraging the Catalyst optimizer for graph queries. This critical tool possesses a selection of distributed algorithms.

The latter’s purpose is to process graph structures that include an implementation of Google’s highly acclaimed PageRank algorithm. These special algorithms employ Spark Core’s RDD approach to modeling essential data.

2. MLlib Tool

MLlib is a library that contains basic Machine Learning services. The library offers various kinds of Machine Learning algorithms that make possible many operations on data with the object of obtaining meaningful insights.

The Spark platform bundles libraries to apply graph analysis techniques and machine learning to data at scale.

The MLlib tool has a framework for developing machine learning pipelines, enabling simple implementation of transformations, feature extraction, and selections on any particular structured dataset. The former includes rudimentary machine learning, filtering, regression, classification, and clustering.

However, facilities for training deep neural networks and modeling are not available. MLlib supplies robust algorithms and lightning speed to build and maintain machine learning libraries that drive business intelligence.

It also operates natively above Apache Spark, delivering quick and highly scalable machine learning.

3. Spark Streaming Tool

This tool also leverages Spark Core’s speedy scheduling capability to execute streaming analytics. Mini-batches of data are ingested, followed by performing RDD (Resilient Distributed Dataset) transformations on these mini-batches. Spark Streaming enables fault-tolerant stream processing and high throughput of live data streams. The core stream unit is DStream.

The latter is a series of Resilient Distributed Datasets whose function is to process real-time data. This helpful tool extended the Apache Spark paradigm of batch processing into streaming. The Apache Spark API was employed to break down the stream into multiple micro-batches and perform manipulations. Spark Streaming is the engine of robust applications that need real-time data.

The former has the big data platform’s reliable fault tolerance making it extremely attractive for development. Spark Streaming introduces interactive analytics for live data from almost any common repository source.

4. Spark SQL Tool

The platform’s functional programming interface combines with relational processing in this newly introduced module in Spark. There is support for querying data through the Hive Query Language and Standard SQL.

SQL Service

Interpreter and Optimizer

Data Frame API

Data Source API

5. Spark Core Tool

This is the basic building block of the platform. Among other things, it consists of components for running memory operations, scheduling jobs, and others. Core hosts the API containing RDD. The former, GraphX, provides APIs to build and manipulate data in RDD.

The core also provides distributed task dispatching and fundamental I/O functionalities. When benchmarked against Apache Hadoop components, the Spark Application Programming Interface is pretty simple and easy to use for developers.

The API conceals a large part of the complexity involved in a distributed processing engine behind relatively simple method invocations.

Spark operates in a distributed way by merging a driver core process which splits a particular Spark application into multiple tasks and distributes them among numerous methods that perform the job. These particular executions could be scaled up or down depending on the application’s requirements.

All the tools belonging to the Spark ecosystem interact smoothly and run well while consuming minimal overhead. This makes Spark both extremely scalable as well as a very powerful platform. Work is ongoing to improve the tools in terms of both performance and convenient usability.

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This is a guide to Spark Tools. Here we discuss the basic concept and top 5 Spark Tools namely GraphX, MLlib, Streaming, SQL, and Core. You may also look at the following articles to learn more-

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Complete Guide On Sql*Plus With Detailed Explanation

Introduction to SQL*Plus

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What Is SQL*Plus?

There are specific categories that SQL_Plus follows in terms of SQL blocks or text, which are as follows:

SQL Statements

Specific environmental configurations involving SET and SHOW with control and monitoring features within them.

PL/SQL blocks

Specific external commands that need to be prefixed something with ! char

All the controls interact with it.

SQL Plus follows

which SQL Plus follows :













































@ at sign

@@ (double at sign)

Use SQL Plus

SQL Plus has a lot of usage for graphical interfaces related to queries for execution; even specific other third-party plugins can also interact for enhancement.

Oracle database users don’t rely much on the SQL Plus-related environment because these third-party plugins have covered most topics.

Oracle has the privilege of using SQL plus scripts for creating simple reports with some simplified hands that need to be updated with every CRON that needs to be manipulated.

Data can be extracted from the text file that is part of SQL*Plus.

How Can I Learn and Guide?

There are various sources to learn SQL plus, but the recommendation is to follow genuine sources with authenticity.

There are specific prerequisites before learning SQL plus, like SQL Plus special keys and their respective keys.

There might be different functioning and keys to the Operating system supporting it.

Original Oracle docs with relevant versions shall be referenced while learning.

Oreilly and other reputed sites can be considered authentic websites for learning SQL.

Many websites can be referenced for research and other learning activities regarding SQL Plus.

Part of SQL Plus

SQL PLUS [ user_name, pass_word, sysadm]: To log in to the database

STARTUP[Parameters_to_pass]: to start the associated database.

HOST [ command_as_parameter]: To enlist the host with the required details and execute the host commands.

SHOW [ALL, ERRORS]: This command in SQL Plus is mainly used for showing SQL* Plus variables for systems or environment settings with manipulation.

CONNECT[Parameters]: For connecting to the database once the connection is established.

SET [ system variables or environmental variable]: This command is mainly used to manipulate the system or ecological variable, which is passed as a parameter for manipulation.

EDIT: This command is used mainly for editing the contents of the SQL buffer or the file used for manipulation.

SAVE: This command is used for saving the contents of the entire SQL buffer to a specific file.

APPEND: This command is used for appending the text to the end of the current line in the SQL buffer.

Windows GUI

Specific licenses are using which SQL Plus Client can be downloaded, and it includes functions for modifying the GUI that can be used in various ways to perform actions.

Download and extract any of the SQL plus clients to specify one SQL* Plus chúng tôi once done, the development related to GUI can be performed, followed by some other processes.

All the Windows GUI development will then be mapped to an oracle database supported for all the CLI-based queries to be executed.

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This is a guide to SQL plus. Here we discuss the categories SQL Plus follows in terms of SQL blocks and the command. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

5 Top Tech Tools For World Language Classes

When utilized effectively and efficiently, technology can enhance instruction and heighten student interest. In world language classes, a wide variety of technology tools can be used to give students practice with speaking, listening, reading, and writing in the target language. These are some of the tools I use regularly with my students.

1. Move beyond vocabulary with Quizlet: Language teachers typically create Quizlet study sets with key words in the target language and matching meanings in English. Quizlet also offers vocabulary games in which students match words with corresponding pictures. Consider trying something new: Create a study set for your students in which you incorporate maps to teach geography. This will allow you to pinpoint cities or countries in which the target language is spoken.

Or create a study set featuring key questions in the target language, such as: What is your name? Where are you from? What do you like to do in your free time? Provide sample answers, also in the target language, and have students match the answers to the correct question. This serves as great practice for novice learners, and you can do this without using any English.

2. Incorporate listening and drawing activities with Pear Deck: Pear Deck is the perfect way to make your Google Slides interactive. Try using the Pear Deck Chrome extension for listening and drawing activities: Add a Pear Deck interactive “Drawing” slide and read a description aloud.

For example, I will read the following description aloud (in Spanish) to my Spanish I classes: “The boy is tall, thin, and has black, curly hair and green eyes. The boy is feeling happy because it is warm and sunny outside. He likes to listen to music and read, but he does not like to study or play sports.”

As I read off this description, students draw what they hear. Once their drawings are complete, I ask them to restate what they drew aloud. You can also ask them to write about what they drew. Students are enthused when I project all of their drawings on the board—each student’s drawing is different and has its own style, even though everyone heard the same description.

You could instead partner with a school abroad where students speak the target language and introduce them to this tool, setting up an authentic digital pen pal program. You can use social media to find a partner school: If you use Facebook, try searching for professional language teaching groups. On Twitter, there are countless language educators around the world—try searching the hashtags #LangChat, #MFLTwitterati, or #FLTeach to find them. Or go the traditional route and network with your fellow language teaching colleagues—they may be able to help you contact a teacher abroad.

4. Bring music and song competitions to your class with Lyrics Training: One of my students’ favorite tools for extra practice in the target language is Lyrics Training, which allows them to view a music video and type out the lyrics according to what they hear. With Lyrics Training, you can host a competition to see who can fill out the lyrics at the quickest pace. In the process, students learn the words to their favorite songs in the target language.

There are music videos available in a variety of languages, and students can compete against other users. This is sure to get all of your students singing and engaged.

5. Host an online discussion via Padlet: Padlet allows students to view a prompt and respond on an online discussion board. If you want to engage students in a digital discussion rather than an oral one, you can have them respond with text, images, videos, or links. This can be a great tool for pre- or post-reading discussions in the target language, as well as for warm-up activities or exit tickets.

As students answer, their responses populate the online discussion board, so they can see their classmates’ responses. They can express whether they agree or disagree as an extension activity.

Technology is always changing and evolving—our activities should too. If you have tech tools that you already love, consider using them in different ways. As language teachers, we need to constantly design new experiences to empower our students to use the languages they’re learning.

5 Problems With The Nintendo Switch You Should Know Before Buying

Nintendo’s latest and maybe-greatest console has cometh, ready to banish memories of the cumbersome controls and glossy, smeary screens of the Wii U forever.

But while the Nintendo Switch is here and for the most part is a solid and innovative console (and it’s home to one of the best-rated games of all time in The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild), it’s not without its problems.

Before you commit to a purchase, read this list of reported issues with the Switch since launch, then decide whether you want to “make the switch” or hold out until its niggles get resolved.

1. Dead Pixels

Let’s get the most controversial stuff out of the way first – those damned dead pixels. A dead pixel is the term for a single pixel on your display refusing to light up. (The opposite of this is a “stuck” pixel where it’s lit all the time.)

Although barely noticeable, once you spot one of these things it becomes hard to ignore. Nintendo, however, has washed its hands of the issue, saying that a small number of dead pixels is “normal” and doesn’t amount to a defect.

With that said, when there was a customer backlash to the same problem back in the DS days, Ninty eventually, reluctantly allowed people to trade them in, so there’s always hope.

2. Storage Space

Unless Nintendo has a deal with SanDisk, Kingston, and all the other big names of microSD card manufacturers, I’m not sure what they were thinking by only chucking in a 32GB SD card by default.

Sure, it’s “easy” to expand storage, with microSD coming in sizes up to 512GB, but one of those will set you back at least $200. For some perspective, an entire PS4 with a 500GB hard drive is only $250.

At some point down the line, Nintendo will probably bundle the Switch in with a higher storage capacity, but at this point the cost is pretty steep when you take storage into account.

3. Joy-Con Controller Malfunctions

Of course, this shouldn’t be happening with modern Bluetooth devices, but it’s a workaround while Nintendo looks into the issue (or a good reason to refrain from buying a Switch just yet).

4. No Backwards Compatibility

Okay, so this problem isn’t exactly a new one, but it’s a big enough issue that it’s made me hold off from buying a Switch. Until now, a big part of Nintendo consoles’ appeal has been backwards compatibility with previous-gen consoles. You can’t do that on the Switch, however.

The Switch may use microSD cards instead of discs, but that doesn’t mean Nintendo couldn’t come up with a digital solution at some point down the line, perhaps allowing people who own a given game on a previous-gen console to download it for free or at a discount. Until Nintendo say something about this, I’m not biting.

5. TV Changes Channel with Switch Docked

Back to more pressing issues, a lot of users have reported that when the Switch is docked, it has the habit of changing the channel to that of the Switch, even if you don’t want to use it at that time. That’s not a very friendly way to get people to play on your console, Nintendo.

It seems that the problem only occurs with certain TVs, particularly Samsung ones. There is, thankfully, a solution to this while Nintendo, Samsung or whoever pull their socks up. Go to your TV’s settings, find the HDMI-CEC option, and turn it off. Job done.


I always encourage a “wait and see” approach with game consoles and games. A new console usually takes at least a year to really hit its stride, come down in price, and have its software issues sorted. There may even be models of the Switch by that point that eliminate minor hardware faults like dead pixels.

The Switch does, on balance, seem to be a slightly more troubled console on launch than its rivals, but that doesn’t stop it from being a great console. Tempting though it is to get it just for the brilliant Breath of the Wind, patience tends to pay off, and for the reasons outlined above, I’m going to abstain.

Robert Zak

Content Manager at Make Tech Easier. Enjoys Android, Windows, and tinkering with retro console emulation to breaking point.

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Architecture Of Db2 With Brief Explanation

Introduction to DB2 Architecture

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Architecture of DB2

The architecture of DB2 are given below:

1. DB2 Client

The DB2 clients can be either remote application or local applications each of which is linked internally with the client library of DB2. The communication between client and server is made by using different techniques. If the client is local then semaphores and shared memory are used for communication. In the case of remote clients, the communication is carried out by using different protocols like TCP/ IP or named pipes which are also denoted as NPIPE.

2. DB2 Server

The DB2 server consists of different components in which all the activities are controlled by the units called Engine Dispatchable Units that is EDUs. We can observe different components of the DB2 server and the DB2 client-server communications by having a look at the below diagram –

3. Engine Dispatchable Units (EDUs) 4. Subagents

A different set of subagents is used for serving the requests from client application processes. There is a facility and possibility that we can assign multiple subagents provided if the machine which we are using for the DB2 server has multiple processors or the DB2 server internally uses a partitioned database environment. One of the examples, where we can use multiple subagents is symmetric multiprocessing(SMP) which is an environment and the multiple SMP are capable of exploiting multiple processors at the same time.

5. Pooling Algorithm

The pooling algorithm is responsible for managing the agents and subagents that are present inside the DB2 server. This algorithm helps us to minimize the destruction and construction of the EDUs inside DB2 server.

6. Buffer Pool

Buffer pools is the place where the actual data resides. These pools are the part of the memory of our database server which stores the data related to pages of a user, catalog data, and the index data temporarily. There after this data is moved to Hard disks. But initially and while manipulating the data is brought to these pools and modified and manipulated. The buffer pools are regarded as one of the key parameters for measuring the performance of the DB2 server. This is because of the fact that accessing the data from the memory of the buffer pools is much faster and simpler than accessing it from the hard disk.

How quickly can the data inside the DB2 servers can be accessed by the DB2 client side applications depends upon the configurations of the buffer pools as well as other components like page cleaners and the prefetchers.

7. Prefetchers 8. Working of Prefetchers

The client side requests are implemented by prefetchers by using the scatter-read and big-block input operations when the prefetchers become available they bring all the pages which are requested into the buffer pool from the disk. We can also strip the data across the disks provided if we have multiple disks for storing the data. The use of stripping the data helps us and enables the use of prefetchers to retrieve the data simultaneously from multiple disks.

9. Page Cleaners

The working of page cleaners is just the opposite of prefetchers. The responsibility of prefetchers is to move the data to the hard disk from the buffer pool. They work in the background of the EDUs because they are independent of the other agents of the application. The page cleaners are responsible for having the look at which pages are changed and the updated modified pages are written back to the disk. It is the responsibility of the page cleaners to make sure that the required space is available in the buffer pools for the working of the prefetchers. If there were no independent page cleaners and the prefetchers in the DB2 server then the other agents of the application would have to all the operations related to read and write between disk storage and the buffer pool.


The architecture of the DB2 consists of different components. The architecture of the DB2 is mainly divided into the DB2 client and DB2 server. The DB2 server consists of different agents and subagents. The two important components are the prefetchers and the page cleaners which maintain the data in buffer pools for fast and effective retrieval of data.

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This is a guide to DB2 Architecture. Here we also discuss the introduction and architecture of DB2 along with a detailed explanation. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Example And Explanation With Excel Template

What is CAPE Ratio?

CAPE Ratio, abbreviated form for Cyclically-Adjusted Price to Earnings Ratio, is used as a valuation tool to measure the relationship between the company’s earnings per share over a period of 10 years and company’s stock price flushing out all the fluctuations which may occur in the company’s profits during various business cycles and different periods and seasons.

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The formula for CAPE ratio is:

CAPE Ratio = Stock Price / 10-Years Average Earnings Per Share Adjusted for Inflation


CAPE ratio is considered to be a valuation measure which takes into consideration the effect of a company’s earning over a period of a decade post considering the effect of inflation and its simultaneous relation with that company’s stock price in the market. The utmost important point here is that the CAPE ratio can be also applied to any type of indices to get an idea about whether the market is over-valued or under-valued.

This is also referred to as the Shiller P/E ratio, as it was largely popularized by a professor of Yale University, namely, Robert Shiller.

Example of CAPE Ratio (With Excel Template)

Let’s take an example to understand the calculation in a better manner.

You can download this CAPE Ratio Excel Template here – CAPE Ratio Excel Template

Example #1

Carivacous Ltd is listed in a stock exchange currently trading at $1500 per share. The current year EPS of the company is $125. Below given table provides details of earnings per share (EPS) of the past 10 years pertaining to the stock of Carivacous Ltd. Along with EPS, inflation rates are provided pertaining to the specified years respectively. Calculate the CAPE ratio for Carivacous Ltd.


PE Ratio is calculated using the formula given below

PE Ratio = 1500 / 125

PE Ratio = 12

10-Years Average Earnings Per Share Adjusted for Inflation is calculated as

CAPE Ratio is calculated using the formula given below

CAPE Ratio = Stock Price / 10-Years Average Earnings Per Share Adjusted for Inflation

CAPE Ratio = 1500 / 49.73

CAPE Ratio = 30.16

Thus, it can be seen that although the PE for the stock for the current year is 12, its CAPE ratio is at 30. Alternatively, you can also say that the stock is overvalued.

Example #2

Let us take a different example to understand the valuation aspect of a stock or index. Now, consider that an Index has a PE ratio of, say 20 with a historical PE ratio of 24. Now, post computing the CAPE ratio (as explained in the earlier example), the CAPE ratio for the index stands at 34. Please give an explanation of the valuation of the index.

In the case at hand, it is pertinent to note that the current PE of the Index, 20, is very similar or nearby to its historical PE, which is at 24.

Now, you may note that the historical PE is a formula to calculate average PE of the stock or index over the period of 10 years as a simple average. On the other hand, the CAPE ratio stands at 34, which takes into consideration the inflation and cyclical impact of the EPS over a period of 10 years. Even after such adjusted, the CAPE ratio is fairly higher than the current PE and historical PE, which makes the index quite overvalued and risky to be invested in.

Uses of CAPE Ratio

It is mainly used as a financial tool to analyze the PE ratio of a company or index post considers the impact of cyclical changes in the economy over a period of 10 years.

Apart from being used as a financial tool, the CAPE ratio is used to determine whether the stock of a listed company is over-valued or under-valued, as it is quite similar to the PE ratio.

A consistent analysis of the CAPE ratio will be useful as a tool for analyzing the future trends and patterns of the stock or index, as the case may be.

Below we will learn about the limitation and benefits of CAPE ratio:


Given below are the main benefits of CAPE ratio:

It is a very simple mathematical formula and thus easy to calculate by anyone having a basic knowledge of finance;

Due to the fact that this ratio considers the average value of EPS over a period of time, it balances out the effect of any cyclical returns the company may generate and thus gives a better picture of the earnings by the company;

It takes into consideration the impact of inflation on the economy.

The main concern is that the ratio considers an average of earnings for a period of 10 years. In a practical scenario, there are various changes that a business may undergo in such a long timeframe and thus affecting the way business is being carried on for over the years. In such a situation, it may not be right to compare a business today with what it was a decade ago;

In addition to the above point, it needs to be noted that the law governing the business changes massively over such long timeframe and making an impact of the way business is being carried on;

It may be noted that there are various companies that declare and pay dividends to their shareholders. Ratio is completely independent of this and does not take into account any dividend numbers;

Another point that is important and yet not considered while computing the ratio is that the market keeps fluctuating and so does the demand market of a particular stock.


To conclude the whole discussion, it shall be right to say that the CAPE ratio is a tool or method to measure the valuation aspect of any stock or index. It provides an answer in the form of whether the stock or index is over-valued or under-valued. It takes into consideration the impact from an economics point of view and also of the fact of any cyclical changes which may affect stock or index and thus it a better measure to get an insight about future returns of the stock or index in question.

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This is a guide to the CAPE Ratio. Here we discuss how to calculate the cape ratio along with practical examples. We also provide a downloadable excel template. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

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