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Introduction to SQL Keys

In SQL, keys are the set of attributes that used to identify the specific row in a table and to find or create the relation between two or more tables i.e keys identify the rows by combining one or more columns. SQL provides super key, primary key, candidate key, alternate key, foreign key, compound key, composite key, and surrogate key. SQL keys use constraints to uniquely identify rows from karger data.

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CREATE TABLE `customer` ( `cust_id` int(11) NOT NULL, `cust_name` varchar(100) NOT NULL, `cust_address` text NOT NULL, `cust_aadhaar_number` varchar(50) DEFAULT NULL, `cust_pan_number` varchar(50) NOT NULL ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1; ALTER TABLE `customer` ADD PRIMARY KEY (`cust_id`);

In the above-given SQL query, we can see how a column ‘cust_id’ is set as a Primary Key.

Type of SQL Keys

Multiple types of Keys are supported by the SQL Server.

The following are the list of SQL Keys:

Primary Key

Unique Key

Candidate Key

Alternate Key

Composite Key

Super Key

Foreign Key

For Example 

Customer Table

cust_id cust_name cust_address cust_aadhaar_number cust_pan_number

100001 Sunil Kumar Noida 372464389211 ADSFS3456K

100002 Ankit Gupta Gr Noida 442289458453 CGHAD7583L

100003 Suresh Yadav New Delhi 878453444144 NMKRT2278O

100004 Nilam Singh Lucknow 227643441123 HFJFD3876U

100005 Amal Rawat Ghaziabad 932571156735 CBMVA9734A

100006 Harsh Saxena Kanpur 1453534363319 TRYUC2568H

Below given the “Order” table having the related data corresponding to the “cust_id” from the Customer Table.

Order Table

cust_id order_month_year order_amount

100001 2023 – Jan $100,000

100002 2023 – Jan $120,000

100003 2023 – Jan $100,000

100004 2023 – Jan $110,000

100001 2023 – Feb $105,000

100002 2023 – Feb $125,000

Now, we will go through one by one on each of the Key:

1. Primary Key

Primary Key is a field that can be used to identify all the tuples uniquely in the database. Only one of the columns can be declared as a primary key. A Primary Key can not have a NULL value.

Example: In the above given relational table, “cust_id” is the Primary Key as it can identify all the row uniquely from the table.

2. Unique Key

Unique Key can be a field or set of fields that can be used to uniquely identify the tuple from the database. One or more fields can be declared as a unique Key. The unique Key column can also hold the NULL value. Use of Unique Key improves the performance of data retrieval. It makes searching for records from the database much more faster & efficient.

Example: In the above given relational table, “cust_aadhaar_number”, “cust_pan_number” are the Unique Key as it can allow one value as a NULL in the column

3. Candidate Key

Candidate Key can be a column or group of columns that can qualify for the Unique Key. Every table has at least one Candidate Key. A table may have one or more Candidate Key. Each Candidate Key can work as a Primary Key if required in certain scenarios.

Example: In the above given relational table, “cust_id”, “cust_aadhaar_number”, “cust_pan_number” are the Candidate Key as it can identify all the row uniquely from the table. These columns also qualify the criteria to be a Primary Key.

 4. Alternate Key

Alternate Key is that Key which can be used as a Primary Key if required. Alternate Key also qualifies to be a Primary Key but for the time being, It is not the Primary Key.

Example: In the above given relational table, “cust_aadhaar_number”, “cust_pan_number” are the Alternate Key as both of the columns can be a Primary Key but not yet selected for the Primary Key.

5. Composite Key

Composite Key is also known as Compound Key / Concatenated Key. Composite Key refers to a group of two or more columns that can be used to identify a tuple from the table uniquely. A group of the column in combination with each other can identify a row uniquely but a single column of that group doesn’t promise to identify the row uniquely.

Example: In the above given relational table i.e. Order Table, “cust_id”, “order_month_year” group of these columns used in combination to identify the tuple uniquely in the Order Table. The individual column of this table is not able to identify the tuple uniquely from the Order table.

6. Super Key

Example: In the above given relational table, Primary Key, Candidate Key & Unique Key is the Super Key. As a single column of Customer Table i.e ‘cust_id’ is sufficient to identify the tuples uniquely from the table. Any set of the column which contains ‘cust_aadhaar_number’, ‘cust_pan_number’ is a Super Key.

7. Foreign Key

A foreign key is a column which is known as Primary Key in the other table i.e. A Primary Key in a table can be referred to as a Foreign Key in another table. Foreign Key may have duplicate & NULL values if it is defined to accept NULL values.

Example: In the above given relational table, ‘cust_id’ is Primary Key in the Customer table but ‘cust_id’ in the Order table known as a ‘Foreign Key’. Foreign Key in a table always becomes the Primary Key on the other table.

The above-given picture displays how each column is shown as a Key according to their qualification to identify the tuples uniquely from the table. Screenshot summarizes all the Key through the use of the relational table.


SQL Keys is one of the attributes of the relational database. which plays important roles to establish a relationship between two or more tables. It also helps queries to execute faster i.e. retrieval of the records from the database becomes much faster by using Keys. Keys also set the different constraint to uniquely identify the tuples from the large data.

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Learn Top 10 Most Useful Spring Boot Interview Questions In 2023

Introduction to Spring Boot Interview Questions

The following article provides an outline for Spring Boot Interview Questions. Spring Boot is a general framework built on top of the Spring framework. It comes up with a new development approach to ease bootstrapping and development of Spring applications. In a typical Spring framework, there are lots of bean and meta configurations in multiple ways, like XML, annotations, and Java configuration. Spring boot avoids all arrangements so that the developer can quickly start a new Spring project within a short period. Spring Boot is not a new approach to solving some problems, but it solves the same problem as the Spring framework but with minimal to no configuration. It follows a default configuration approach which is opinionated. It helps reduce many boilerplate codes and designs to improve development, unit testing, and integration test process.

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Now, if you are looking for a job related to Spring Boot, you need to prepare for the 2023 Spring Boot Interview Questions. Every interview is different as per the various job profiles, but still, to clear the interview, you need to have a good and precise knowledge of Spring Boot. Here, we have prepared the critical Spring Boot Interview Questions and answers to help you succeed in your interview.

Part 1 – Spring Boot Interview Questions (Basic)

This first part covers the basic Spring Boot Interview Questions and Answers.


Spring boot provides an opinionated configuration, thus avoiding lots of boilerplate code and design.

Its applications can be easily integrated into the Spring ecosystem, like Spring Security, Spring AOP, Spring transaction, cache, etc.

It provides embedded HTTP servers like Tomcat etc., to enhance the development process.

Spring boot offers a command-line interface, i.e., a CLI tool to develop and test the application, which is prompt and less intrusive.

Spring boot reduces development time by decreasing the configuration to a minimal or “no-configuration” approach, thus enhancing productivity.

Q2. What is @SpringBootApplication annotation?


Before Spring BOOT 1.2, it was very common to use annotations like @Configuration, @EnableAutoConfiguration, and @ComponentScan. The @SpringBootApplication annotation equals all three annotations mentioned before with their default attributes. This means a single annotation is enough now for multiple features like enabling auto-configuration and performing a component scan of beans.

@SpringBootApplication public class MyApp { ………. } Q3. Explain the Spring boot starter POM file.


The starter POM file actually contains a lot of dependencies, so that project can be up and running quickly within a brief period. It is a combination of dependency descriptors that anyone can include in their application, and automatically all project-related dependencies would be available. Starter POM files also manage the transitive dependencies of the project.

The POM file structure is arriving from a Maven-based application. In other words, a developer creating a project that uses Spring REST for creating rest APIs must include a relevant starter POM file, which will import all required dependencies for the Spring rest application. All the tedious task of searching and configuring dependencies required for a framework is no longer needed.

Q4. Explain the Actuator in Spring Boot.


The actuator brings production-ready features to the table for the Spring boot application. Production-ready features like application monitoring, gathering metrics, understanding traffic, and the database state become very crucial to keep the application in a healthy form. A significant benefit of utilizing an Actuator like a library is that a developer can have access to production-grade tools without having to implement any one of these tools. To enable Spring Boot Actuator dependency on our package manager, add the below to your POM file.

Once this dependency is in the classpath, multiple endpoints are available with the developer.

Q5. What is the way to reload changes on Spring boot without server restart?


Any changes are reloaded in spring boot without starting the server by using dev tools.

Part 2 – Spring Boot Interview Questions (Advanced) Q6. What is the way to run the Spring boot application on a custom port?


There is a file called in Spring Boot. This file can be customized to bring in any change, to alter the behavior of a running spring boot application. If a developer wants to run a spring boot application on a custom port, he can specify the port in an file:

server.port = 8080

Q7. What is the way to implement the Spring batch in Spring Boot?


Batch processing involves large volumes of data records processing. Spring boot batch provides a function that can be reused and is essential for doing batch processing. It also provides services and features that help optimize and partition techniques, resulting in high-volume and high-performance batch jobs.

The above changes to the POM file will include the necessary packages required for batch processing in a Spring Boot project.

Q8. What is the way to configure logging in the Spring boot application?

The developer can easily specify the logging level in an file:

Logging.level.spring.framework = Debug

This single line in the application properties file will let the spring framework logs to the debug level. If a developer wants to put logs to the file; he can specify the chúng tôi in application properties.

Logging.file = ${}/sample.log

Apart from the above two approaches, a developer can also create a chúng tôi file under main/java/resources and specify the logging configuration in the file. Spring boot will automatically pick this file.

Q9. What is the benefit of including the spring-boot-maven plugin?


The spring-boot-maven plugin enables the developer to package the code as a jar file and provides a list of commands that are helpful for running the application.

Spring-boot: run; it will run a spring boot application.

Spring-boot: repackage; it will repackage jar or war file.

Spring-boot: build, generate build information.

Spring-boot: start, and stop, to manage the lifecycle of the spring boot application.

Q10. What is the way to add custom JS code in the Spring boot application?


A developer can create a folder by the name of “static”, under the resources folder. Then all the static content can be put into this folder.

Any JavaScript file i.e. chúng tôi would reside in /resources/static/js/test.js

The developer can then refer to this file in JSP like:

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Sql Injection: Meaning, Types, Query, Statements, Examples

What is SQL Injection?

SQL injection is a security flaw that grants an intruder access to add, delete, or modify the application’s database and queries. 

For instance, in November, a SQL injection was found in the Zendesk CRM by a few Varonis Threat Labs researchers. Due to the vulnerability, the intruder would have had access to over 100,000 customer data. The issue was, however, resolved within a week with the help of those researchers.

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Key Highlights

SQL injection or SQLi is a popular attack method that uses malicious SQL code to manipulate backend databases and access secure data.

There are three types of SQLi options: in-band, inferential, and out-of-band.

Intruders use SQL queries and commands like data retrieval, update, removal, and modification to carry out these attacks.

The SELECT statement is the most popular and common option to detect vulnerabilities.

How to Create an SQL Statement?

A structured query is used to accomplish an SQL statement by triggering the desired answer. The attacker needs the response to comprehend the database design and gain access to the application’s safeguarded data. SQL injection can be carried out by an attacker using the following techniques:

1: A Constant True SQL Statement

A hacker uses a SQL statement that is perpetually true to carry out a SQL injection.

As an illustration, the hacker chooses 1=1 rather than just inputting the “false” data because it is a statement that is always true.

2: Batched SQL Injection

A group of SQL statements are combined into a batch SQL injection and are separated by semicolons.

However, it must be kept in mind that if the SQL commands (the statement that appears after the semicolon) are legitimate, this strategy can function properly.

Real-Life Examples Example #1: GhostShell Attack

The most renowned cyber attack by the Ghost gang was taken over, where they claimed to leak around million user accounts from 100 websites worldwide. Their main targets were government agencies, banks, manufacturing companies, and banks. The attackers employed the famous SQLmap tool for this attack and hacked databases that included around 30,000 records.

Example #2: 7-Eleven Breach

On August 8, 2023, a group of hackers attacked the retail chain of 7-Eleven, where they stole 130 million credit card numbers. It was confirmed that each customer loses around $600 million and the hackers did this via the newly launched payment app of the store, i.e., 7pay. After this incident, the store was closed for a long time, and people were instructed to block their cards.

Example #3: HBGary Breach More Examples Example #1

Say you have entered “100 OR 1=1” when submitting the query. The response that it will return will be in the table details.

“OR” “=”

You certainly notice a similarity with the above SQL injection method. An attacker will insert “OR” “=” in the query box. It is a malicious code and will dig deeper into the application.

Example #2

A hacker wants to retrieve a user’s login ID and password from the SQL database.  The hacker will type “OR=” in the user ID and password section. Since this is a valid SQL statement, the hacker will have access to the user ID and password without any trouble.

Example #3 How to Detect Vulnerabilities?

There are three types of queries available to detect SQL Injection.

#1 SELECT statement

The Select Query statement fetches specific information or data from the database.

If you want to retrieve data from the SQL database, you must use the SELECT statement.

One uses the SELECT statement commonly for information search purposes or to view a specific profile in a table.

In some scenarios, one uses the SELECT statement for login purposes.

#2 INSERT statement

The Insert Query statement is used to insert data or info into the database.

If you want to include a new row in the database table, you need to use the INSERT command. They are frequently used whenever a program makes a new order, includes new data in the audit log, or creates a new account for the user.

If you are creating a new user account, you need to use the INSERT statement to submit the data into the database.

The syntax:

INSERT INTO accounts (user_name, password, signature) VALUES (‘xxx,’ ‘yyy,’ ‘zzz’);

Mention the account’s name in the “accounts” section and observe the “(user_name, password, signature)” section of the syntax.

These are the names of the columns featured in the database. If the database does not feature the columns’ names, you need to add them.

Move to the section that precedes VALUES, “(‘xxx,’ ‘yyy,’ ‘zzz’)” and insert the username for ‘xxx,’ password for ‘yyy,’ and a signature for ‘zzz.’

Due to the high risk, keeping the application secured is important. It can be hacked by specially designed input and injecting random values in the  database.

Use the user_name parameter: (‘name,” pass,” sign’)- to examine the vulnerability of the data.

After finding the location of the injected data in the database, it becomes easy to modify the data or even extract it by altering the input.

#3 UPDATE statement

The Update Query statement is used to alter or modify the content of the database.

One uses the UPDATE statement to manage the proceedings if one wants to alter the existing rows in a database table.

One uses the UPDATE statement commonly to modify passwords, change the value quality on a line, or even update contact details.

The UPDATE statement is very similar to that of the INSERT statement but with a slight difference, the use of the WHERE clause that indicates the rows in the table to be updated.

For example, UPDATE Contacts SET Phone Number=”569853264″ WHERE Name = ‘Sandy’

Types of SQL Injections #1 In-band SQLi

The attack and the resulting gathering are made using the same communication channel for the attacker. One of the most prevalent kinds of SQLi attacks is the in-band SQLi due to its simplicity and effectiveness.

Error-Based Injection

In this type of injection, the hacker will try to insert a spam query into the table’s fields, and the output will display an error, indicating a problem in the database or SQL syntax.

This technique is considered the simplest and easiest of the two to detect the location of the SQL injection.

Union Based Injection

This method uses the SQL operator UNION, which combines many select statements produced by the database into one HTTP response.

The information in this response might be useful to the attacker.

#2 Inferential SQLi

Also known as Blind Based Injection, the hacker injects the malicious syntax or query into the SQL database table. Here, the output message will only indicate that the syntax is incorrect. Through this approach, the hacker will try to retrieve some information by verifying true or false statements when querying.


The attacker issues a query to the SQL database to force the application to deliver a result. Based on the pattern of the inquiry (true or false), the outcome will change.

Depending on the outcome, the data in the response server will change or remain the same. After then, the attacker can determine whether the output is true or false.

The database must wait (for a time in seconds) before responding to the attacker’s SQL query, which is sent to the database. Depending on how long it takes the database to answer, an attacker can determine the validity of the query.

Depending on the outcome, an HTTP reply will either be generated immediately or after a short delay. Thus, the attacker does not need to rely on information from the database to determine whether the message returned true or false.

#3 Out-of-band SQLi

Out-of-band SQLi is carried out when a hacker cannot utilize the same channel to retrieve information or attack the server.

One can also use it with slow and unstable servers.

These strategies rely on the server’s ability to send HTTP and DNS requests to send data to an intruder.

How to Prevent SQL Injection?

The user/developer needs to filter every input from the program, including single quotes (likely to hold malicious elements), as well as login forms and other web input forms.

Next, turning off the database error visibility on the site is a better idea to prevent further damage.

Remember, database errors can prove harmful in giving away information regarding the database.

One uses WAF, or Web Application Firewall, to eradicate online threats and filter out SQL injection attacks. It first detects a suspicious input. Then it cross-verifies the same with the concerned IP data before deciding whether it’s malicious, and then the IP can only block the input if it has a bad user interface.

Final Thoughts

Although SQL injection is primarily recognized as a website attack vector, it may be used to target any kind of SQL database. When it comes to vulnerabilities in SQL databases, detecting them is of real importance. Without detecting the vulnerabilities in the database, it will become impossible to move on with the identification process.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Q1. What is an injection in SQL?

Answer: SQL injection is known as a code injection technique that might corrupt or destroy any database. It is one of the most commonly used web hacking techniques used by hackers. In this entire process, the hacker places malicious code in the SQL statements through web page input.

Q2. What are the three types of SQL injection?

Answer: Typically, SQL injection is divided into three categories: In-band SQLi (Classic), Inferential SQLi (Blind), and Out-of-band SQLi. One can classify the types of SQL injections on the basis of methods used to gain access to backend data and the potential damage.

Q3. What can a hacker do with the SQL injection process?

Answer: The potential outcomes if the application has a SQL injection vulnerability include Possible authentication bypass, the confidentiality of the data could be compromised, and an attacker can modify and delete database data and remove entries.

Q4. Which tool is best for SQL injection?

Answer: SQLMAP is an open-source SQL injection tool and is popularly used SQL injection amongst folks. This tool helps to make it very easy to exploit the SQL injection vulnerabilities of any web application and gain access to the database server.

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Types Of Variables In Statistics

Introduction to Types of Variables in Statistics

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Different Types of Variables in Statistics

In statistics, the variable is an algebraic term that denotes the unknown value that is not a fixed value which is in numerical format. Such types of variables are implemented for many types of research for easy computations. So there are many different types of variables available that can be applied in varied domains. Many other variables are discussed in minimally are listed are active variable which the researcher evaluates. A variable that occurs before the independent variable is called an antecedent variable.

1. Independent Variables

The independent variable is the one that is computed in research to view the impact of dependent variables. It is also called as resultant variables, predictor or experimental variables. For example, A manager asks 100 employees to complete a project. He should know the capacity of the individual employee. He wants to know the reason behind smart guys and failure guys. The first reason is that some will be working hard for day and night to complete the project within the estimated time, and the other one is that some guys are born intelligent and smarter than others. The variable which is similar to an independent variable is called a covariate variable but is impacted by the dependent variable but not as common as a variable of interest.

2. Dependent Variables 3. Categorical Variables

It is a wide category of variable which is infinite and has no numerical data. These variables are called as qualitative variables or attribute variable in terms of statistics software. Such variables are further divided into nominal variables, ordinal and dichotomous variables. Nominal variables don’t have any intrinsic order. For instance, a developer classifies his environment into different types of networks based on their structure, such as P2P, cloud computing, pervasive computing, IoT. So here, the type of network is a nominal variable comprised of four categories. The varied categories present in the nominal variable can be known as the nominal variable levels or groups.Dichotomous variables are also called binary values, which have only two categories.

For example, if we question a person that he owns a car, he would reply only with yes or no. such types of two distinct variables that are nominal are called as dichotomous. It just accounts for only two values, such as 0 or 1. It could be yes or no, short or long, etc.Ordinal variables are nominal variables that include two or multiple categories. If you see any hotel feedback form, it has five ratings such as excellent, good, better, poor and very poor. So we can rank the level with the help of ordinal variables that hold meaning to the research. It is unambiguous, and values can be considered for decision making.

4. Continuous Variables

It can account for only a certain set of values, such as several bikes in a parking area are discrete as the floor holds only a limited portion to park bikes. Ratio variables occur with intervals; it has an extra condition that zero on any measurement denotes that there is no value of that variable. In simple, the distance of four meters is twice the distance of two meters. It operates on the ratio of measurements. Apart from these mentioned variables, a dummy variable can be applied in regression analysis to establish a relationship to unlinked categorical variables. For instance, if the user had categories ”has pet” and ”owns a home” can assign as 1 to ”’has pet” and 0 to ”’owns a home”.

A factor that remains constant in an experiment is termed as a control variable. In an experiment, if the scientist wants to test the plant’s light for its growth, he should control the value of water and soil quality. The additional variable which has a hidden impact on the obtained experimental values are called confounding variables.

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Making The Most Of The Holidays In It

I was in the office during the week of Christmas and not a soul was stirring, not even a mouse. To be truthful, the little rolling ball in my mouse was making an annoying squeaking sound and I really had been meaning to order a wireless mouse. But you know how the little things never get done in IT because we are all so busy (barely) keeping up with the big things day by day (and sometimes night by night).

Well guess what? This is the perfect time of year to tackle the tasks resulting from your year long procrastination. You need to get off your rump and put all that energy stored from over consumption of holiday party treats to good use.

A lot of people take this time off for vacation and if that includes you, stop reading this article and go back to sunning yourself on the beach. But if you are one of the unfortunate souls stuck behind the desk the last week of December, this is your time to make a list and check it twice.

Over the years, here are some tasks I have tackled and a few I wish I would have (and still might this year). Not all of these are tangible, but that doesn’t make them less important.

• Take a look at your desk. Can you see it? Or do you see a stack of papers? It may be that you know exactly where everything is (as I claim) but one strong breeze from a hastily closed door or an accidental spill of your coffee mug would put your “filing” system in disarray. Take this time to clean up your desk and do some filing. You may even come across some papers that will add a couple more tasks that otherwise would have been overlooked.

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• The holiday season is a great time to network. Take account of important people in your network that you haven’t connected with recently. Either drop them an email or give them a call to see what’s new and fill them in on your recent doings. This is the time of year where people are in a good mood to connect and you might set the stage for a business or personal opportunity in the coming year.

• Continuing on the networking front, if you have been postponing joining an online network now is the time. The dominant player is LinkedIn and it seems to be loaded with IT professionals. If you enter your professional profile now, by the end of next year at this time you’ll have a burgeoning network that you can leverage for answers to technical questions, finding recommended contractors and job searches (hiring for your team and for your next job).

• Take a close look at your heavy usage personal hardware. Many companies have set plans to cycle equipment every so many years, but many do not. Identify the desktops, laptops, printers, PDA’s, etc. that keep needing repairs or are more than a few years old and do some holiday shopping for the business.

Important Shortcut Keys In Microsoft Word

MS Office is probably the most common productivity program in the world, with millions of people using Word to write all kinds of documents every day, from primary school essays to professional writing manuscripts. Knowing important shortcut keys in Microsoft Word will make whichever job you have easier, faster, and more enjoyable.

Shortcut keys, also known as hotkeys, help make your writing tasks easier to execute. It speeds up your work by allowing you to give simple commands using the keyboard rather than searching through a menu with your mouse.

In Windows, MS Word uses the Ctrl key along with another alphabet key for shortcuts. However, the Mac version of Word is a little different. It uses the combination of the Command key with an alphabet key. To launch a command, simply press the first key (Ctrl or Command) and without releasing it press the related alphabet key. Once the task is accomplished both the keys are released.

There are a lot of commands in MS Word that can be executed through the shortcut keys. Some of them are listed below:

Ctrl+X will cut a part of a document from the larger portion.

If you intend to paste the same document that you have cut to another place in the same document or any other document, simply press Ctrl+V.

If you want to copy the document without removing it from the original document, press Ctrl+C. This is especially useful when you use a document from the online source.

To undo something from the text press Ctrl+Z

To redo what you have removed while creating a document, press Ctrl+Y.

Once the document has been completed, save it with Ctrl+S.

Ctrl+P will print a document.

Ctrl+N will enable you to create a new document.

Ctrl+O enables you to open an already existing document.

Ctrl+W closes the document.

Alt+Ctrl+S will either split the Window or will remove the split view.

Ctrl+Alt+V will open access to the Print Layout View before you print.

Ctrl+F finds a document or a specific word in the document.

F7 runs a spelling and grammar check for a text.

Shift+F7 opens the thesaurus. Select the word and press Shift+F7, this will automatically look the word up.

There are other shortcut keys that help you move around MS Word easily and quickly. Some of these are discussed below:

Left/Right Arrow key will move the cursor one character to the left or right as needed.

Ctrl+Left/Right Arrow Key will move the cursor one word to the left or right.

The End key will take you to the end of the line.

Ctrl+End will move you to the end of the document.

Up/Down Arrow key will move you up or down one line.

Ctrl+Up/Down Arrow key will move you to the preceding or the following paragraph.

Pressing the Home Key will take you to the beginning of the line on which you are working.

Pressing Ctrl+Home key will take you to the start of the document.

Pros & Cons of Using Microsoft Word Shortcuts

By using these shortcuts, an individual’s writing tasks can become much easier, but using them at all times might infringe on other skills and options. Having options is the best, as you should know both the short way and the long way, as well as all the features that come with both.

You can purchase the whole Microsoft Office 2023 suite of Amazon that includes Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and others. You will receive a key by mail and would be able to authorize the Office you download from the internet.

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