Trending February 2024 # Learn How To Use Kubernetes Tolerations? # Suggested March 2024 # Top 9 Popular

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Introduction to Kubernetes tolerations

The Kubernetes tolerations are defined as; it is the property which is provided by the Kubernetes that allows user to trace a node which is called as the taint of the node which is reserved by artificially; hence no any pod has been scheduled to it; otherwise, a pod clearly tolerate the taint. Thus, the toleration feature of Kubernetes allows us to generate the nodes which are committed for the particular pod; we can say that a pod that is needful of more assets of the node that are available for utilizing the schedule to a node which is specified for them.

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What are Kubernetes tolerations?

The Kubernetes tolerations is the feature provided by the Kubernetes to allow the user to trace a node, in which toleration is the process of disregarding a taint. In contrast, scheduling, the tolerations are not be applied to a pod. Still, we can apply them to the pods; if we try to put in toleration to the spec of the pod, then we can tolerate the disk slowly on the node which is in use; the feature of toleration can be used to spot a node so that we cannot be able to apply to schedule it rather than the pod can be tolerated explicitly which we can be called then a taint.

The tolerations can be applied to a pod that does not mean needful of the pod, but it allows the pod to schedule on the node with equal taints.

How to use Kubernetes tolerations?

Let us see how Kubernetes allows us to use the toleration; if we want to work with committed nodes, then we can use taint and tolerations both because by using the committed nodes, we can able to generate the pool of nodes by using particular parameters and also we can utilize them for particular applications hence we can also be able to distinguish the pods of allocations from our secondary applications.

The taint and tolerations can work together to ensure that the pods cannot be scheduled for unsuitable nodes; we can put in one or more taints to a node in which the pod will not approve such types of nodes they will not tolerate the taints.

We can use taint in such a way that,

key = value : Effect,

In which we can assign three different values to the effect such as NoSchedule, PreferNoSchedule, and NoExecute.

It has default value ‘equal’ for the operators, which can also use it as ‘exist,’ and if we wanted to change the operator with ‘exist,’ then we do not need to give the value to it also if the taint is not available on the node then he effect can be applied for the pod.

taint = test: NoSchedule, where we can say that the pod will not match the taint; hence it cannot be scheduled for this node.

Create Kubernetes tolerations

For creating the Kubernetes tolerations and also the taint first, we need to check the available nodes in the cluster,

We have to execute the command to check the available nodes in the cluster

"kubectl get nodes #Get current pods in the cluster "

For more than one node, we can use the command “describe” to check taints in the first node

"kubectl describe node node1 #Describe node01 node to extract more details"

We can add ‘app=frontend: NoSchedule ’ taint to the first node by using the command,

"kubectl taint nodes node01 app = frontend:NoSchedule #Add taint to the node01 node details of the node01 node" "kubectl describe node node01 #Extract"

We can generate the file and add it in a pod in the definition,

"vim chúng tôi #create a pod definition"

After that, for generating the pod without toleration, we need to execute the command,

"kubectl create –f chúng tôi #Create a pod" "kubectl get pods #Get details of the pod"

We can use the ‘describe’ command also for getting more details about the pod,

"kubectl get pods #Get details of the pod" "kubectl describe pod frontend #Extract more details of the Pod." Applying Kubernetes tolerations

The tolerations can be applied to a node by using the kubectl, we can apply kubectl for the verification of the described nodes, and that are may be applied to taint also, the described nodes may be multiples also, let us see an example of running or applying a node onto the node,

spec :

Tolerations :

key: machine learning

Operator : “equal”

effect : “NoSchedule”

In this example, the toleration can be matched by using the tainted node, and any of the pods can be developed in the node of machine learning; if we wanted to remove the tolerations on the node, then kubectl uses the command to remove them.

Kubernetes tolerations example

Let us see the example for tolerations,

apiVersion: v2 kind: Pod metadata: name: mhjoy labels: env: test1 spec: containers: - name: mhjoy image: mhjoy imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent tolerations: - key: "taint" operator: "Exists" effect: "NoSchedule"

Above is an example of a pod that uses tolerations in which it has operator ‘exists’ so that case no. the value will be specified and ‘equal’ operator which has equal values, and the ‘NoSchedule’ effect should be given in which our system should attempt to spot a pod so that it does not tolerate the taint of the node which is not needful.

Conclusion

In this article, we conclude that the taint and tolerations are both can work together for making sure that the pod is not scheduled over appropriate nodes; we have also discussed some points which are related to using it and creating it, so this article will help to understand the Kubernetes tolerations.

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Learn How Do Kubernetes Services Work?

Introduction to Kubernetes Service

In Kubernetes, services are generally a group of pods on the cluster, it is a logical, abstract layer, and here all of the pods perform the same function. This Kubernetes service helps us to enable pods that provide a specific set of functions such as image processing, web service, and many more; this function is assigned a unique IP name and address. So that means if the service is running, that means the IP address will not change till then; also, in order to access the service, we have to follow its policies. In the coming section of the tutorial, we will discuss more about the internal working their implementation in detail for better understanding and clarity for the beginners.

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What is Kubernetes service?

As we have already seen about the service, it is a logical, abstract layer, which helps us to connect the sets of pods to the specified abstract service name and the IP address; let take a few points to understand the service in detail;

2) Helps us to connect a set of pods.

3) Kubernetes service helps us to connect our application frontend to its backend.

4) Services use selectors and labels, which helps us match the pods with the other application.

5) It consists of various types of an attribute; some of them are mentioned below;

a) Port definition

b) Label which helps us to connect to the pods

c) Port number and assigned cluster IP address.

d) Mapping of incoming ports to the out coming ports.

Also, in Kubernetes, we have different types of service, which can be discussed in detail in the coming section of the tutorial for better clarity for beginners to understand and implement it in a better way.

How do Kubernetes Services work?

In this section, we will see about the internal working on the Kubernetes service step by step so let’s get started,

1) First, it starts pointing to pods with the help of labels.

2) Also, the Kubernetes service is node-specific; it can still point to the pods, irrespective of where it is currently running in the cluster.

This will be clearer once we see the definition and creation of service in the next section of the tutorial.

Kubernetes Service Types

In this section, we will discuss about the different types of service we have in Kubernetes; first, let’s have an overview about each of them; later, we will discuss each of them in detail for better understanding in detailed explanation about each of them, so let’s get started to see below;

1) ExternalName: This service type helps us map the service to a predefined externalName filed.

2) ClusterIp: This type of service helps us to expose a service that can only be accessible with in the cluster.

3) LoadBalacer: this type of service helps us to expose the service with the help of a cloud provider.

4) NodePort: This type of service helps us to expose the service with the help of a static port present on each node IP.

1) Kubernetes ClusterIP service: This is the default service provided by Kubernetes; it mainly uses the IP address to expose the service. But it has one restriction here: it helps us expose the service with the help of an IP address, but it will be internal to the cluster. That means we can access the exposed service within the same cluster itself, not from outside that cluster. This can be sued when we do not want other external services to use our expose service, hence increasing the accessibility part here. In sort, we can say that it helps to expose the service on internal cluster IP if we choose this service, then we will only access the service with the cluster.

2) Kubernetes NodePort service: As this name suggests, this service type helps expose the service on every node port. That means it allows us to open ports on every cluster node. So it will navigate the traffic to every node of the service, even if the service is not running on running on that particular node, thus helping us to handle the traffic as well by navigating it to a different node. It is one of the high-level methods which can be used in development. If we want to connect to the NodePort from outside of any cluster, then we can use this format to connect to them;

3) Kubernetes ExternalName service: As the name suggests here, this type of service can be accessed by the external name assigned to them. Rather than access them via cluster IP etc. In short, if we want to access this service, then we have to use the externalName field, which we define when creating the service. It returns a CNAME record that contains the value of the externalName parameter. In this type of service, no proxy is set up.

Create a new instance Kubernetes service

As we already discussed, it is an abstraction layer that is used to define the set of pods; in this section, we will see how to create the Kubernetes service within a reference file; we can define service as a simple REST object, we can create all them, and POST a service definition to the server in order to create the new instance from it. Below is the definition by which we can define a service in the Kubernetes see below;

e.g. :

apiVersion: v1 kind: Service metadata: name: your_name spec: selector: app: name ports: - protocol: TCP port: 80 targetPort: 9376

As you can see, we are trying to define a service here, where we are defining name, version, posts, etc., defining it. Also, we need to mention what kind of REST object it is of use ‘kind’ keyword to define it line above syntax.

1) First, it assigns them in Service IP; the service proxy further uses this IP.

2) We also have a controller for service responsible for scanning the Pods that match the selector of the service. After matching, it sends any updates to that endpoint.

3) Default protocol used by the service is TCP.

4) With the help of service, we can expose as many ports on the service object it is supported by Kubernetes.

Conclusion

In this tutorial, we have seen all the steps needed to take regards to service in Kubernetes, with a detailed explanation about the attribute, components, and different types of service in Kubernetes; go through the whole tutorial it will give you detailed knowledge about the Kubernetes service which will be helpful.

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Learn How To Use Extensions In Inkscape

Introduction to Inkscape Extensions

Inkscape Extensions are types of additional scripts or plugins that help Inkscape for performing particular operations that are not built-in in it during its development. There are a number of extensions in Inkscape already those you can use for enhancing the working ability of this software, and these extensions make our work easy, and we can perform complex operations smoothly. If you want, you can install any external extension in Inkscape and use that external extension, same as we can use a built-in extension of it. Here in this article, I will tell you where you can find extensions to use them in Inkscape and how to install external extensions too?

How to use Extensions in Inkscape?

We can use built-in extensions of Inkscape for performing several types of works in it. You will find a number of good extensions in the Extension menu of the menu bar of this software. So let us start our discussion about it.

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Let me tell you how you can use them. Each and every extension has its different way of using it. So you can learn all the important extensions by practicing on them. I will tell you about one of the extensions and explaining to you how you can perform that extension?

Then I will take the Bezier tool from the tool panel.

And create a path like this. You can create any path by using other tools of this software; that is, you can create a rectangular path and then edit as per your choice or create a circular path with the Ellipse tool and so on. We are going to change the view of this text to a perspective view.

Now both of the objects are paths, so I will repeat the same process and go to again the Perspective option of Modify Path extension.

And you can see it changes the view of my text according to the perspective of the other selected path.

The other path is still a separate path, and you can do modification in it for making it a good background of this text or some other creativity with it, or you can delete it also it will not affect the text path anymore.

So, in the same way, you can use other extensions of the Extension menu of the menu bar for different types of purposes.

Now let us see what we have to do if we want to use any external extension that is not in this software.

How to Install Extensions in Inkscape?

For installing your desired extension in Inkscape, first, navigate for your desired extension and find its download link. For example, I want to have this extension in my Inkscape program. So I will download its Zip file from its download link.

Now after downloading its zip file, extract it.

After extracting it, open its folder and copy all the files of the folder. I will select all by pressing the Ctrl + A button of the keyboard and press the Ctrl + C button of the keyboard.

Now go to the C drive of your computer, then open the Program files folder.

Find Inkscape folder the list of Program Files folder and open it.

Then again, there is an Inkscape folder, so open it too.

Now in this folder, you will find the Extensions folder, so open it.

And paste copied files of extension here by pressing the Ctrl + V button of the keyboard.

And we will have all the copied files here. After doing this process, you can restart Inkscape if it is open, and you will find your installed extension in the same Extensions menu of the menu bar.

In this way, you can go with an extension in Inkscape and also have our desired one as per our choice.

Conclusion

Now working with extensions is no more an unknown task for you, and you will also find it very helpful during working with several types of extensions for particular work. The plus point of Inkscape is that it offers you a number of built-in extensions as well as you can add your favorite one from external sources.

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Viruses Learn How To Im

We’ve been writing frequently about the growing interest in IM bots, or interactive agents. In a corporate environment, an IM bot can interface with a backend database to provide information in response to a natural-language or text-based menu query — perfect for memory-limited mobile devices or for simplifying routine tasks, like corporate directory lookups.

On the consumer side, IM bots are being explored as a way to promote goods and provide ad-supported content (as Dow Jones is doing with its recent WSJonline launch.) Other companies, like ActiveBuddy, are looking to sell instant messaging-based information-services to consumers.

But there’s a more sinister sphere of innovation taking place within the realm of IM bots: malicious Internet viruses.

Witness the recent Fizzer worm, which is only now thought to be dying out after close to a week of rampant spreading.

Essentially, Fizzer works like a host of other worms, spreading as an e-mail attachment sent to random addresses, and addresses culled from Outlook Contacts and Windows Address Books on infected PCs. Once running, however, the worm acts as an IM bot to cause its mischief.

The bot attempts to connect to the AOL Instant Messenger network, as well as the venerable Internet Relay Chat network. On both networks, the worm seeks to make itself available to receive commands from its creator.

To connect to IRC, the worm scans through a built-in list of IRC channels, pinging each one to check whether it’s available. Once the worm has found an open channel, it connects using a random username. The worm also can automatically register a new, random AOL Instant Messenger username. It next attempts to log into AIM, using port 5190. Once online, it then joins a particular chat session.

In both cases, the hacker — who would be monitoring IRC channels and AIM chatrooms — can then see that the worm has successfully infected a PC. The hacker is then free to begin sending commands to the bot, including orders to transmit or delete files.

“Fizzer, which does a number of things — it’s a very creative little worm, — creates it own account, and that account attaches to a chat room on the Internet,” said David Loomstein, group product manager at Symantec Security Response. “So [hackers] know anyone on that chat room is infected with the virus — and they use that chatroom as a backdoor to do hacking on the infected machine.”

Similarly, the worm also runs an HTTP server on port 81, which acts as a command console. An outside party can then query the system for system information, like information on the user’s current version of mIRC and AIM. It also allows the hacker to launch AIM and IRC bot commands, as well as more immediately threatening actions, like a Denial of Service attack.

The worm is reminiscent of the AIM-Canbot worm that appeared, briefly, in April. That worm also creates its own AIM username and logs into a chat session, sending the message “aimb0t reporting for duty…” to alert malicious hackers to the fact that an infected PC is able to be hacked.

However, the AIM-Canbot is spread manually, rather than automatically.

An IRC-reliant virus in April, dubbed Aphex/Aplore, could surreptitiously install a freeware IRC client on a user’s PC — and then begins spamming IRC channels with links to Web pages with viral code. It also could use AIM — waiting until users connected to the service before using the IM client to send links for infectious Web pages to Buddies.

AIM and IRC aren’t the only IM and chat networks susceptible to chúng tôi February, the Menger/Coolnow worm used a security vulnerability in Microsoft Internet Explorer to gain control of a user’s MSN Messenger IM client.

But the Fizzer, AIM-Canbot, and Aphex/Aplore worms are some of the first examples in which a virus creates its own instant messaging identity and tries to connect with its creator — rather than wresting control of a user’s own IM username.

“There are several viruses that communicate using IRC or using the messenger programs, but I haven’t found anything yet that does create a new [AIM] account,” Loomstein said. “This is indeed an interesting wrinkle.”

Patches for the viruses have been released by the major anti-virus firms.

In the case of Fizzer, white hat hackers played a role in slowing the worm, when they undermined a tool the virus used to update itself. Since the worm connects to a geocities user page to download updates to its code, the hackers took control of the Web page and replaced the virus’ content with benign content.

While destructive, the trend toward viruses with an IM bot component could serve as additional ammunition for firms that market tools to secure public instant messaging, and for standalone enterprise IM vendors as well. That’s as companies are increasingly looking to assert control over IM’s often-surprising ubiquity in the workplace.

“IM is definitely a part of the equation now … It’s a new frontier that’s being exploited” by hackers, Loomstein said.

Learn How To Code: Step

blog / Coding Top 10 Inexpensive Ways to Learn How to Code

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ALSO READ: What is Coding? An Intro to Coding and Career Opportunities

Why it is Important to Learn Coding

It helps increase problem-solving ability

It inculcates resilience in the coder by offering challenges

It helps in understanding how to think

It helps develop creativity

Coding is an essential skill for the future

It aids in critical thinking

It develops logic

Benefits of Learning How to Code

Coding has multiple benefits, which you will understand at a deeper level when you learn how to code. Some of these benefits are given below:

Coding Can be Used for Data Visualization

One of the best ways to gain data analysis and visualization experience is by working with coding languages like Python and SQL. These abilities are useful for creating intricate data dashboards and reports, which are essential for improving data accessibility and comprehension.

Coding Can Support Creative Expression

You can find numerous jobs in more creative industries like graphic design, web development, or app development if you learn how to code. As an alternative, coding may be useful for non-tech positions too. For example, if you’re a writer and you need to update the design of a blog, or compose an email or newsletter, you can do so by using HTML or CSS.

Coding is a Universal Language

Code is a global language, much like mathematics; it is the same everywhere and does not require translation. Linguistic limitations can occasionally cause problems when changing jobs or migrating to another country. However, since coding languages are universal, you can take this talent wherever you go. Learning to code can increase your employability and offer you the flexibility to succeed anywhere.

Career Opportunities Can be Improved Through Coding Top 10 Reasons to Learn How to Code

Here are the 10 reasons why you need to learn how to code:

1. Jobs are Drifting Toward Automation

Many routine jobs have been mechanized thanks to programming. We need additional programmers to understand cookie-cutter jobs and then create a framework for automation. There are numerous tasks that can be automated like this.

2. Coding is a Lucrative Profession

In the past decade, the industry has witnessed a proliferation of startups and IT products. Companies continue to adopt newer technology stacks, even in programming. Every business cycle sees a brand-new stack enter the market, increasing the demand for programmers. Technology businesses often pay significantly better as the requirements increase.

3. The IT Community is Always Willing to Assist

Despite the fact that programming and technology-related occupations are in high demand, the tech community is less competitive than other sectors. Communities assist newcomers and mentor them as they learn new skills. Members of tech communities work at top firms and are quite helpful. They assist you to acquire a better job by including networking in the session.

4. Coding Jobs are Flexible (Remote/Hybrid)

Because coding makes use of cloud-based source-control technologies, you do not need to work from a traditional office. The developer can complete an issue and send the code to the team for approval. Everything is done remotely. This helps coding professions to be more empowering and flexible.

5. You Can Start a Pet Project

Many of today’s unsolvable challenges need a technological approach. It is challenging to find the correct individual to collaborate with in order to build a solution. Programmers are not cheap. As a developer, you may readily pick up side projects and provide engaging creative solutions. Without any dependencies, the solutions may serve a bigger market.

6. You Become Self-Reliant

Web-based apps are not the only ones that consume code. Programming is required for the Internet of Things (IoT) devices, drones, and semiconductors. Hardware devices too need programming. All of this can get challenging if you do not learn how to code. Additionally, coding allows you to create new things.

7. Coding is Basic Literacy in the Digital Age

Human interactions with websites, programs, and software, constitute the major money online. These are created and designed by programmers. Learning to code not only simplifies their development but also allows you to customize them. Companies employ a lot of technical languages because tech-based products are becoming more popular. Coding comes in handy even to request and discuss technical features.

8. Coding is User-Friendly

Application programming is a fundamental skill. The grammar and syntax of machine languages are built on human language. As a result, the learning curve is shorter. There is no minimum or maximum age to learn to code, as there can be for any other talent or interest. Coding, contrary to common assumptions, is not rocket science. Anyone of any age can learn how to code.

9. The Leisure of Online Classes 10. Coding Develops Logic and Creative Thinking

An algorithm is a primary tool used in coding. Algorithms divide an issue and its solution into smaller stages. Such algorithmic thinking has become more popular in recent times. Coding, therefore, broadens creative thinking and aids decision-making. It helps you to break down any difficulty into smaller steps, and then pursue one action at a time.

10 Steps to Learn How to Code

Figure out why you want to learn to code

Choose which coding language you want to learn first

Take online courses

Watch video tutorials

Read books and e-books

Use tools that make learning to code easier

Check out how other people code

Complete coding projects

Find a mentor and community

Consider enrolling in a coding bootcamp

ALSO READ: Wondering How to Improve Coding Skills? Here’s a 5-Step Guide

Can You Learn Coding at Home?

It is feasible and not unusual to learn to program from the comfort of your own home. Emeritus provides instructional courses that are valuable to both rookie and expert coders wishing to learn a few new professional tactics.

Learning to code has a great impact on all aspects of your life and provides you with a renewed feeling of motivation to accomplish your life objectives. If you’re new to coding and want to see if it’s for you, check out Emeritus’ online coding courses to gain a head start in this field.

By Siddhesh Shinde

How To Learn New Skills Online

There’s a lot wrong with the internet, but one of the best things about it is how easy it is to learn new skills. It’s actually one of the big reasons I have this job: I taught myself photography and photo editing, and I got my break writing about it. There are hundreds of thousands of videos out there teaching pretty much every skill imaginable, so if you want to learn something, there’s almost certainly someone teaching it.

However, there’s a reason most colleges haven’t done away with face-to-face classrooms. Learning by yourself has its own set of challenges—you can’t ask questions, there’s no feedback, and you have to be totally self-motivated.

But people still overcome these caveats and teach themselves everyday—and you can be one of them. If you want to learn how to sew, cook, or take a decent photograph, here’s how to do it well.

Have a reason to study

It’s easy to get excited about learning a brand new skill, but it’s much harder to stick with it once that rush fades. Before diving in, think about why you want to learn what you’re trying to learn.

“Have an end goal in mind when you’re learning,” says Aaron Nace, founder of chúng tôi “What do you want to do with this information? How is it going to improve your life? If you don’t plan on using any of the skills you learn, there is little chance you will retain the information.”

Even if you just want to do it for fun, come up with a cool project you can’t do without learning the skill. It’ll give you something to work toward.

Find the right instructor

How will you ever know what all these things do without a good teacher? Belchonock via Depositphotos

The most important part of learning anything online is to find a teacher who’s right for you. One instructor might move too slow, another might move too fast, and maybe the third one has an annoying voice that distracts you. But don’t worry—there’s definitely someone you’ll find who’s just right, Goldilocks.

My big break came when I discovered Nace. I’d watched tutorials from other photographers before, but they’d all fallen a bit flat with me. Nace was different: his Photoshop lessons were unbelievably thorough but never boring. He was personable, fun, and an incredibly good teacher. For me, learning from Nace was super easy.

Don’t binge

Much like a good show on Netflix, watching online tutorial videos can get addictive. But don’t let it—you’re trying to learn something, not get distracted for a few hours. If you watch too many tutorials in a row, you’ll stop taking in the information.

How long you’ll be able to study depends on a few factors—the density of the subject and the amount of information in each video matter a lot. For skills like coding, web design, and data analytics, where big things happen in just a few lines of code, you’ll probably have to slow down and pause each video to follow along. It’d be impressive if you could retain all the information after more than one 20-minute video.

On the other hand, longer, more repetitive subjects like photography, photo editing, or cooking will feature less information in significantly longer videos. You might find you’re able to watch two or more hours of lessons in a row and come away with a good grasp of what’s going on.

Similarly, how much you already know about the subject you’re learning is also important. If you’re already at a high level, you’ll find most videos easier to watch—while beginners are trying to take it all in, you’ll only be learning a few new tips and techniques. I can now watch Photoshop tutorials at double-speed for hours because I know all the mechanics, but when I was starting out, I could only sit through a lesson or two in a row.

Time matters

Choosing the time also means shoes are optional. Alexander Raths via Deposit Photos

Another important factor is the type of time to dedicate to learning, but also to resting. First, pick the right time for you—catching a couple of lessons after a long day at work definitely isn’t the same as doing it when you’re fresh, first thing on a Sunday morning.

Maybe you learn better with your morning coffee, or maybe your brain absorbs more information late at night. But whatever the time of day, it’s important to consider a couple of breaks during your learning sessions—this will give information time to set in.

“Ideally, you should rest when you feel yourself getting tired or you notice you are not able to pay attention,” says Nace. “Our attention span changes throughout the day.”

The only way to find out exactly how much you can get done in a day is trial and error. It’s different from person to person, subject to subject, and instructor to instructor. However, Nace recommends erring on the side of less.

“Don’t try to push yourself and ‘cram’ a lot of information into one session,” he says. “Try to learn over multiple days and allow time for everything to sink in.”

Follow along and take notes

Taking notes will prevent you from having to watch a 30-minute video to find the keyboard shortcut to the crop tool. GaudiLab via Deposit Photos

Most online courses provide you with the sample files the instructor works with: use them to follow along. The best way to learn is by doing and practicing, not just by watching.

You have two options: watch the lesson through once, then go back and watch it again while following along, or follow along from the start. If you’re totally new to what you’re learning, the first option will make it easier for you to follow along, since you’ll already know where the lesson is going. Once you’ve got the basics down and you’re learning higher-level skills rather than simple mechanics, you can follow along as you go.

Also, take notes. Write down any important steps, handy keyboard shortcuts, or tips and tricks. Video is great for in-depth learning but it’s terrible for a quick-skim refresher. You don’t want to have to sit through 20 minutes of footage just to find out what tool you were meant to use next.

Practice on your own

At the beginning, it’s good to be able to do something following along with someone else, but eventually you’ll have to take off the training wheels and put things into practice.

Once you’ve learned a new skill, try it out for yourself. You’ll almost certainly make a few mistakes, and that’s totally okay. If you go wrong, review your notes, but otherwise just keep going. You’ll learn a huge amount from your own early errors, rather than just mimicking someone else’s work. And if you get lost, you can always go back to the original lesson.

When you’re starting out, I’d recommend turning the video off and working with the provided exercise files, as you can then compare your final results to the instructor’s. However, learning is not about memorizing a series of steps, but knowing when each step is necessary. So, as you get better, you’ll need to go on your own.

“I suggest students work on their own projects that are similar to the lessons to see how this new information integrates into their current workflow,” says Nace.

Revise in the background

Once you’ve learned something, you need to keep refreshing it to make sure it sticks. The best way I’ve found to do this with online lessons is to throw them on in the background when I’m cooking, photo editing, cleaning, or otherwise semi-occupied.

Actively watching a lesson you’ve already sat through once (or even twice) is pretty boring and, unless you’ve totally forgotten everything, completely unnecessary. However, by having one on in the background while you do other things, you can tune in and out as you go. It’s a great way to keep your skills strong.

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