Trending December 2023 # Master Your Maths With These Linux Apps # Suggested January 2024 # Top 12 Popular

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Linux offers great educational software and many excellent tools to aid students of all grades and ages in learning and practicing a variety of topics, often interactively. The “Learn with Linux” series of articles offers an introduction to a variety of educational apps and software.

Mathematics is the core of computing. If one would expect a great operating system, such as GNU/Linux, to excel in and discipline, it would be Math. If you seek mathematical applications, you will not be disappointed. Linux offers many excellent tools that will make Mathematics look as intimidating as it ever did, but at least they will simplify your way of using it.


Gnuplot is a command-line scriptable and versatile graphing utility for different platforms. Despite its name, it is not part of the GNU operating system. Although it is not freely licensed, it’s free-ware (meaning it’s copyrighted but free to use).

To install gnuplot on an Ubuntu (or derivative) system, type


apt-get install

gnuplot gnuplot-x11

into a terminal window. To start the program, type


You will be presented with a simple command line interface

into which you can start typing functions directly. The plot command will draw a graph.

Typing, for instance,

plot sin






into the gnuplot prompt, will open another window, wherein the graph is presented.

You can also set different attributes of the graphs in-line. For example, specifying “title” will give them just that.

You can give things a bit more depth and draw 3D graphs with the splot command.

The plot window has a few basic configuration options,

but the true power of gnuplot lies within its command line and scripting capabilities. The extensive full documentation of gnuplot can be found here with a great tutorial for the previous version on the Duke University’s website.


Maxima is a computer algebra system developed from the original sources of Macsyma. According to its SourceForge page,

“Maxima is a system for the manipulation of symbolic and numerical expressions, including differentiation, integration, Taylor series, Laplace transforms, ordinary differential equations, systems of linear equations, polynomials, sets, lists, vectors, matrices and tensors. Maxima yields high precision numerical results by using exact fractions, arbitrary-precision integers and variable-precision floating-point numbers. Maxima can plot functions and data in two and three dimensions.”

You will have binary packages for Maxima in most Ubuntu derivatives as well as the Maxima graphical interface. To install them all, type


apt-get install

maxima xmaxima wxmaxima

into a terminal window. Maxima is a command line utility with not much of a UI, but if you start wxmaxima, you’ll get into a simple, yet powerful GUI.

You can start using this by simply starting to type. (Hint: Enter will add more lines; if you want to evaluate an expression, use “Shift + Enter.”)

Maxima can be used for very simple problems, as it also acts as a calculator,

and much more complex ones as well.

It uses gnuplot to draw simple

and more elaborate graphs.

(It needs the gnuplot-x11 package to display them.)

while its main menus offer an overwhelming amount of functionality. Of course, Maxima is capable of much more than this. It has an extensive documentation available online.


Mathematics is not an easy subject, and the excellent math software on Linux does not make it look easier, yet these applications make using Mathematics much more straightforward and productive. The above two applications are just an introduction to what Linux has to offer. If you are seriously engaged in math and need even more functionality with great documentation, you should check out the Mathbuntu project.

Attila Orosz

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These 10 Apps Drain The Battery Of Your Smartphone

Although they are not always successful, we are accustomed to taking a variety of steps to extend the battery of the smartphone as much as possible. Primarily because we now know which applications are the most dangerous in this regard. Because they completely deplete energy with just the use of them.

The Top 10 apps that drain your battery

There are countless applications for your Android device in the Google Play Store. There are services for everything, but on the whole, users tend to download the same popular apps. However, in order to best care for the battery in your smartphone. There are some of them that you should avoid downloading or using less often.

Be cautious, while some of these applications are quite helpful and should be installed on our smartphones, others can be disastrous for those who already experience battery issues. So examine whether you actually require them. The list of apps with the highest energy usage is as follows:











The organization that has compiled this data is pCloud, a research firm. To achieve this, they created a list of applications that use the battery of the device the most. And the end result is shown here. No matter how great these platforms are, according to the entity, they are affecting the battery life really hard.

The smartphone’s most demanding applications

They were able to determine which of the 100 most popular apps is the most demanding and name them the ultimate phone killers by combining the results of these three factors.

Fitbit and Verizon are the most apps that drain your battery

The two best phone competitors were Fitbit and Verizon. 14 of the 16 resources that are available can be in use by both apps in the background. Including the four most resource-intensive ones. The camera, location, microphone, and wifi connection. Due to this, these apps received the highest study score (92.31%).

Social media apps

Social media apps account for six of the top 20 battery-intensive apps on your phone. On average, 11 additional resources —including photos, wifi, locations, and the microphone. They can run in the background on Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, Youtube, WhatsApp, and Linkedin. Each of these uses more energy to operate, which puts more strain on your phone’s battery.

Online dating apps

According to the research, online dating apps use the phone’s battery just as quickly as your emotions do. 15% of the top killer apps are online dating apps like Tinder, Bumble, and Grinder. Which permit an average of 11 resources to run in the background. The lack of a dark mode makes all three dating apps more energy-intensive to use, which accelerates battery drain.

Travel apps

The United Airlines app uses up the most phone storage (437.8MB). Followed by the Lyft and Uber apps with storage requirements of 325.1MB and 299.6MB, respectively. All of these apps require a lot of storage, which slows down your phone and uses up storage.

Fortunately, when you’re not traveling, you can easily delete travel apps like United Airlines. When thinking about how to free up phone storage, these should be the first to go. Additionally, less extensive airlines like Ryanair and Jet2 only need 109.2MB of storage and 47.3MB, respectively. Both can be easily exchanged.

However, when it comes to having convenient transportation on a daily basis, apps like Lyft and Uber are more of a necessity. Make sure to only have one trustworthy transportation app. So you can save space for other apps and make your phone run faster rather than deleting both of them.

How to stop apps from draining your battery

Many people might be pondering whether you ought to remove these apps from your smartphone in order to free up storage and battery life. In this regard, it’s crucial to emphasize that this precaution does not need to be perfect. Because you can opt to turn off background activity or location permissions.

Enter your Android smartphone’s settings.

Go to “Battery” in the menu.

Choose “Optimize battery use” under “Advanced settings” from the menu.

Tap “Don’t optimize” after selecting the apps you want to disable background activity from.

Easily Back Up Your Partitions In Linux With Apart Gtk

If you have full partition backups, you can restore your data or even your operating system when disaster strikes. The main problem is creating the partition backup. Most tools for backing up disks and partitions on Linux feel complicated. Some expect you to use commands in the terminal. Others come with old-school interfaces or use cryptic lingo. Luckily, there is Apart GTK.

Apart GTK is a GUI for partclone that allows you to clone your partitions to compressed image backups. Then, you can quickly and easily recover them from those backups whenever you wish. Let’s see how you can keep your data safe with Apart GTK.


If you’re on Ubuntu or a compatible distribution, Apart GTK is available in the default repositories. You can search and install it from the Software Center or with the following command in a terminal:





When the process completes, you’ll find Apart GTK among the rest of your apps.

Backup Your Partition

Find and open the Apart app from your Applications menu. It will prompt you to enter your administrative password. Apart GTK needs full access to your disks and partitions to be able to copy every bit of data on them.

On the left of Apart GTK, you’ll see a list of all the partitions on your system. We had many storage devices on our testing PC, so the list is long. For your PC, you may only find one or two entries.

Note: Apart GTK can’t clone the system partition of the active OS. You have to boot up with a live CD to be able to back up the system partition.

Currently, there is a bug with Apart GTK that prevents the process bar from being updated. Apart from an updating Elapsed time indication, the progress bar looked stuck (though it is running in the backend).

You can confirm that it is indeed running by checking the output file. If it is continuously increasing in size, then you know that it is running normally. Once the backup is completed, Apart GTK will update its window to inform you that the cloning process completed successfully.

Restoring your Partition Backup

Once again, it is best not to restore a backup to the active partition. Other than that, restoring your backup with Apart GTK is easy.

When the process completes, you’ll find the contents of your backup in the selected partition. If it was a system partition, like in our case, by rebooting your PC to that OS, it will be back to the point when you initially made your backup.

Apart GTK is probably the friendliest tool for backing up a partition. It works for Windows partitions too, making it one of the best tools for dual-boot environments.

Odysseas Kourafalos

OK’s real life started at around 10, when he got his first computer – a Commodore 128. Since then, he’s been melting keycaps by typing 24/7, trying to spread The Word Of Tech to anyone interested enough to listen. Or, rather, read.

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How To Easily Diagnose Your Network With Mtr In Linux

The tool is called MTR, for Matt’s Traceroute. It’s named after Matt Kimball, the original developer. Roger Wolff has been the maintainer since 1998.

MTR combines the functions of both the standard programs ping and traceroute. Like ping, it sends ICMP requests to a destination, either a domain name or an IP address, and listens for the destination to answer back. Like Traceroute, it also works by setting the Time To Live (TTL), or the number of maximum hops a packet can take over the network, to a low number, increasing with each attempt. This determines the route packets are taking to a destination along the way. The information will update continuously for as long as MTR runs.


Installing it is easy enough. If you’re on a Debian/Ubuntu system just type:


apt-get install


For other distro that doesn’t include MTR in its repository, you can download the source code and compile it with the command:








MTR works in two modes, a graphical mode that users who aren’t as comfortable with the command line can work with more easily, and in a text-based mode.

Using MTR is pretty easy. If you wanted to test Google, you’d just use this command:

mtr chúng tôi version in Ubuntu comes with a graphical interface. When you start MTR, the results will pop up in a window. If you’d rather have it in your terminal window like most Linux users, you have several options.

The easiest way is to call MTR with the “--curses” switch:



chúng tôi that’s too much for you as well, you can download the plain text version:


apt-get install


If you want the graphical bells and whistles (although there really aren’t any in MTR), just use the “--gtk” option.

If you want to test an IP address instead of a hostname, use the “--address” option:



Of course, this will test the loopback device, or in other words, your own machine. You can use any IP address you want. It can be useful in case your DNS ever gets hosed.

You can also do some interesting things like change the display node and the way the fields are represented.

Linux is a great platform for learning how the Internet really works, and it’s due in no small part to the availability of tools like MTR. While sophisticated networking tools can cost thousands of dollars on other platforms, you can find quality tools to diagnose and troubleshoot connections available for free on Linux.

Image credit: Medical Instrument With Computer by BigStockPhoto

David Delony

David Delony is a writer for Make Tech Easier

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Save An Extra 30 Percent On These Apps That Help Protect Your Online Privacy

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Protecting your digital privacy isn’t as complicated as you think. Digital security experts have made protection software much cheaper and more accessible to help people dodge trackers and safeguard their personal information. Believe it or not, all it takes is downloading a few apps to get started.

Thanks to security apps, protecting yourself online is no longer a chore. From VPN services that mask your identity to password managers that help protect you against hackers, here are tools that are designed to defend your privacy, and they’re all on sale for an extra 30 percent off for a limited time. During our Best Of Digital Sale, just key in the code DOWNLOADNOW at checkout.

This VPN utilizes industry-standard encryption protocols to protect your traffic from eavesdroppers at home or on the go. It also uses high-quality connections and premium-grade carrier lines to offer the fastest possible speeds online. A lifetime subscription usually costs $540, but you can get it on sale for $27.29 with code DOWNLOADNOW.

Rated 4.6 out of 5 stars on the App Store, this app protects your real phone number by providing you with a secure second number you can use for making calls and sending texts for work, dating, or even Craigslist sales. This way, you can have an additional private phone number without committing to an expensive phone contract. Originally $150, a lifetime subscription is on sale for $13.99 with code DOWNLOADNOW.

This VPN uses a litany of privacy and security features to offer the best protection possible. It features AES 256-bit encryption, unlimited bandwidth, split tunneling, simultaneous connections, an internet kill switch, and an AdBlocker. It also lets you switch between servers in a snap, and you can set it up in a router. A lifetime subscription is formerly $600, but you can get it on sale for $27.99 with code DOWNLOADNOW.

Boasting a 4.4 out of 5-star Google Play rating and 4.6 out of 5-star App Store rating, AdGuard has its own security protocol to provide a faster and safer VPN connection. Its zero-log policy helps ensure personal data security and it can connect up to 5 devices simultaneously. You can get a 5-year subscription for only $27.99 (MSRP $359) with code DOWNLOADNOW.

This bundle nets you access to a lifetime subscription to KeepSolid VPN and 10TB cloud storage courtesy of Deego Premium. When used in conjunction with each other, you can enjoy digital anonymity and secure data whenever you hop online. Usually $3799, you can grab the bundle on sale for $62.99 with code DOWNLOADNOW.

VPNSecure is one of the few VPNs that practice a zero-log policy, allowing for complete online freedom. With a smart DNS component, it also lets you bypass annoying geographical restrictions so you can enjoy your favorite content with ease. A lifetime subscription normally costs $1,194, but when you enter the code DOWNLOADNOW at checkout, you can get it on sale for $27.99.

If you’re one to frequently forget your password or have trouble coming up with unique codes (or perhaps both), LastPass simplifies your digital life by safekeeping all your passwords and generating complex ones to protect you against hacking. It also safely stores your insurance cards, memberships, Wi-Fi passwords, and more. Formerly $36, new LastPass members can enjoy a 1-year subscription for only $17.49 with code DOWNLOADNOW.

Prices subject to change.

Network Revamp: Linux With Windows

More and more corporations and small businesses are taking the Linux plunge these days, and for good reason. The low cost of Linux combined with an abundance of geeks who eat, sleep, and breathe UNIX has created a win-win situation for IT managers and geeks alike. Since it’s usually a younger junior systems administrator or “that kid from the design group who knows a lot about computers” who introduces Linux into the workplace, there’s already someone in-house to move into a full-time systems administration position with no training required.

In other cases, Linux is just stumbled across on accident, as illustrated by one of my previous contracts. About two years ago, I was brought into a large manufacturing outfit to improve their network. They were having problems all the way around the board, from poor network performance to their NT file server grinding to a halt because they lost their systems administrator and never bothered to hire a new one.

When I was brought in to take a look at their network and to do an initial inventory, I found an old Red Hat Linux 4.2 disc kicking around in their supply cabinet. It turns out that an intern who was working for them introduced them to Linux but wasn’t skilled enough to do a full installation. Since they needed a zero-maintenance solution and part of my contract was to get their entire LAN up on the Internet with full e-mail and remote access capability, I decided that Red Hat Linux 5.0 (remember, this was 1997) would make the best replacement for their dying NT server.

The first step in the network overhaul was to get a full inventory of everything touching the network. It’s always a good idea to have a list of every system in the building for asset control and to find out the exact environment that end users work in on a day to day basis. Here is a basic inventory checklist to use when collecting data (I’ve used one of the systems from this upgrade as an example):

System Name: John’s Beast (Windows 95 Revision A)

Description: Computer in John’s office


IP Address: N/A

Protocols: NetBIOS, IPX, NetBEUI

CPU/RAM/HDD: Intel 486dx2/66, 16MB RAM, 420MB HDD

Make/Model: Generic Scratchbuilt PC

Serial Number: N/A

Asset Tag: XXXX-XXXX

Owner Name: John Dough

Username: doughj

Password: lamepass

Applications: MS Office 97 (Word, Excel and PowerPoint), Internet Explorer, Microsoft Outlook, SMS Database Client.

Documents: C:JOHNSTUFF

Since most of the Windows 95 systems had been neglected and were in pretty poor shape, I decided that it would be best to do a full Windows 95 reinstall after the Linux server came online. That way, I had full control over what got installed, a consistent naming and IP addressing scheme could be instated, and all the little nasty problems that had been cropping up on each system would be wiped out. The last thing you want to happen is for management to blame the new Linux server for Windows 95 crashing.

Also, since a strict backup policy was set in place, I had each end user move all documents from their C: drive to their NT network drive. (Getting end users to actually do this was like pulling teeth, but they tended to comply once I told them that they’d lose three years worth of work when I formatted their hard drive if they don’t move their files to the server.) After all users moved their files to the NT server, I started server inventory.

There were two NT production servers online. Both were virtually identical P133 systems with 64MB RAM and 4GB SCSI drives running Windows NT 4.0 Server. The NT server I wouldn’t be touching for this upgrade was their domain controller and inventory, tracking, accounting and manufacturing system. Although it needed major work, it wasn’t the focus of this job. The second system was just a file server running as a secondary domain controller. The file and directory structure was extremely simple showing that each user had a home directory and there were two shared group directories: an accounting/human relations area and a manufacturing/design area.

Unfortunately, there was no solid username policy in place so the upgrade wouldn’t be as transparent as I had hoped. All users were reassigned new eight-character-or-less usernames based on their last name and first initial. A new password policy was also put in place to require alphanumerics and at least one punctuation mark. Since the network was no longer an island and would be connected to the Internet, this was the first security policy set in place.

Username migration took place around 3:00am after the last set of backups fired off. I simply changed the usernames on the domain controller and then pushed the changes to the secondary domain controller. The whole process only took about 30 minutes, including walking from PC to PC changing usernames so the end users wouldn’t even have to type in their new name. The next day, each user was assigned a new password and their new username and password was noted on the inventory sheet.

Since I couldn’t afford to take a chance at bringing the NT server offline, I decided to do a redundant install. One of the spare 486dx2/66 systems with 16MB RAM and a 540MB HDD was initially used for their testbed Linux server, but after seeing the performance increase over the P133 running NT, it was decided to keep the 486 in place as their primary proxy, e-mail, Web, and file server.

I decided that using the 540MB HDD as a boot disk and then adding a 7.2GB HDD for /home and /var would be the best configuration. Red Hat Linux 5.0 was chosen because of my experience with it and its flawless performance as a high-load Web server. Had I been doing an equivalent installation, I would have chosen OpenBSD 2.5 or Red Hat Linux 6.0. I used the following partition table to squeeze the most space out of the drive:

/dev/hda135MB / /dev/hda275MB swap /dev/hda3 350MB /usr /dev/hda480MB /tmp /dev/hdb1 500MB /var /dev/hdb2 6.7GB /home

Although disk requirements for Red Hat Linux 6.0 and other various distributions have started to skyrocket for a full installation, the above partition table works great for a small server with minimal services and packages installed. The minimal approach was chosen primarily because of security and the lack of funds for new hardware. Besides, the more simple the system, the more secure it is and the easier the maintenance.

Custom package installation was used and only the Base, Network, DNS, Email, FTP, Samba, and Web Server packages were installed. Because the server would rarely be used at the command line, niceties such as Emacs, IRC, and Netscape weren’t installed and only the bare minimum tools would be used. The only other non-standard tools that were installed were *hobbit*’s netcat, qmail, sniffit, trafshow, and ssh.

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