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Indexes are very important in any database, and with MongoDB it’s no different. With the use of Indexes, performing queries in MongoDB becomes more efficient.

If you had a collection with thousands of documents with no indexes, and then you query to find certain documents, then in such case MongoDB would need to scan the entire collection to find the documents. But if you had indexes, MongoDB would use these indexes to limit the number of documents that had to be searched in the collection.

Indexes are special data sets which store a partial part of the collection’s data. Since the data is partial, it becomes easier to read this data. This partial set stores the value of a specific field or a set of fields ordered by the value of the field.

In this tutorial, you will learn –

Understanding Impact of Indexes

Now even though from the introduction we have seen that indexes are good for queries, but having too many indexes can slow down other operations such as the Insert, Delete and Update operation.

If there are frequent insert, delete and update operations carried out on documents, then the indexes would need to change that often, which would just be an overhead for the collection.

The below example shows an example of what field values could constitute an index in a collection. An index can either be based on just one field in the collection, or it can be based on multiple fields in the collection.

In the example below, the Employeeid “1” and EmployeeCode “AA” are used to index the documents in the collection. So when a query search is made, these indexes will be used to quickly and efficiently find the required documents in the collection.

So even if the search query is based on the EmployeeCode “AA”, that document would be returned.

How to Create Indexes: createIndex()

Creating an Index in MongoDB is done by using the “createIndex” method.

The following example shows how add index to collection. Let’s assume that we have our same Employee collection which has the Field names of “Employeeid” and “EmployeeName”.


Code Explanation:

The createIndex method is used to create an index based on the “Employeeid” of the document.

The ‘1’ parameter indicates that when the index is created with the “Employeeid” Field values, they should be sorted in ascending order. Please note that this is different from the _id field (The id field is used to uniquely identify each document in the collection) which is created automatically in the collection by MongoDB. The documents will now be sorted as per the Employeeid and not the _id field.

If the command is executed successfully, the following Output will be shown:


The numIndexesBefore: 1 indicates the number of Field values (The actual fields in the collection) which were there in the indexes before the command was run. Remember that each collection has the _id field which also counts as a Field value to the index. Since the _id index field is part of the collection when it is initially created, the value of numIndexesBefore is 1.

The numIndexesAfter: 2 indicates the number of Field values which were there in the indexes after the command was run.

Here the “ok: 1” output specifies that the operation was successful, and the new index is added to the collection.

The above code shows how to create an index based on one field value, but one can also create an index based on multiple field values.

The following example shows how this can be done;

db.Employee.createIndex({Employeeid:1, EmployeeName:1])

Code Explanation:

The createIndex method now takes into account multiple Field values which will now cause the index to be created based on the “Employeeid” and “EmployeeName”. The Employeeid:1 and EmployeeName:1 indicates that the index should be created on these 2 field values with the :1 indicating that it should be in ascending order.

How to Find Indexes: getindexes()

Finding an Index in MongoDB is done by using the “getIndexes” method.

The following example shows how this can be done;


Code Explanation:

The getIndexes method is used to find all of the indexes in a collection.

If the command is executed successfully, the following Output will be shown:


The output returns a document which just shows that there are 2 indexes in the collection which is the _id field, and the other is the Employee id field. The :1 indicates that the field values in the index are created in ascending order.

How to Drop Indexes: dropindex()

Removing an Index in MongoDB is done by using the dropIndex method.

The following example shows how this can be done;


Code Explanation:

The dropIndex method takes the required Field values which needs to be removed from the Index.

If the command is executed successfully, the following Output will be shown:


The nIndexesWas: 3 indicates the number of Field values which were there in the indexes before the command was run. Remember that each collection has the _id field which also counts as a Field value to the index.

The ok: 1 output specifies that the operation was successful, and the “Employeeid” field is removed from the index.

To remove all of the indexes at once in the collection, one can use the dropIndexes command.

The following example shows how this can be done.


Code Explanation:

The dropIndexes method will drop all of the indexes except for the _id index.

If the command is executed successfully, the following Output will be shown:


The nIndexesWas: 2 indicates the number of Field values which were there in the indexes before the command was run.

Remember again that each collection has the _id field which also counts as a Field value to the index, and that will not be removed by MongoDB and that is what this message indicates.

The ok: 1 output specifies that the operation was successful.


Defining indexes are important for faster and efficient searching of documents in a collection.

Indexes can be created by using the createIndex method. Indexes can be created on just one field or multiple field values.

Indexes can be found by using the getIndexes method.

Indexes can be removed by using the dropIndex for single indexes or dropIndexes for dropping all indexes.

You're reading Mongodb Indexing Tutorial – Createindex(), Dropindex() Example

How Unwind Works In Mongodb?

Definition of Mongodb unwind

MongoDB unwind operator is used to deconstructing the array field from input to output documents, it will be used for each element from the document. The difference between input and output document in unwind operator is very simple, the output document value of a field of array is replaced by a single item of the input array of documents. MongoDB unwind operator is basically used for transfer complex documents into simple documents, it will improve the documents readability and understanding. Using unwind operator in MongoDB we can also perform operations like grouping and sorting on the data.

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Below is the syntax of unwind operator in MongoDB.



1) Unwind operator –

This operator is used to deconstruct the documents in MongoDB. Every output and input documents depend on each other to deconstruct the value. We have passing the input parameter with unwind operator to display the result. Unwind operator is used with prefix as $ while using in MongoDB.

2) Path –

Type of this parameter in MongoDB unwind operator is a string. This is the path field of an array, path is used to specify the path of documents. This is a mandatory parameter while using unwind operator in MongoDB.

3) IncludeArrayIndex –

This is an optional parameter while using unwind operator in MongoDB. Type of this parameter in MongoDB unwind operator is a string. This states that the new name of a field is used to hold the index array for the element. This parameter name does not start with the $ sign.

4) PreserveNullEmptyArrays –

Type of this parameter in MongoDB unwind operator is Boolean. PreserveNullEmptyArrays is an optional parameter while using unwind operator in MongoDB. If the path of this parameter contains the true value unwind operator will show the output, if the path of this parameter contains the false value then unwind operator will not show the output.

How unwind work in Mongodb?

MongoDB unwind operator will deconstructs the documents for every document. Unwind operator is basically works on array elements. We can also use embedded documents with unwind operators.

I suppose our array contains the ABC student mark as {50, 55, 60, 70, 75}. Unwind operator will return the output as below.

{Name: “ABC”, mark: 75}

The above output shows that the array will be deconstructs into multiple documents. Our array contains the single documents value, but we can see the output will show the multiple documents in it.

We can pass includeArrayIndex and preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter while using unwind operator in MongoDB. Both parameters are optional while using unwind operator.

Unwind operator will duplicates each array element into different documents. This is used in an array that contains the data like a month, day of the week, and year.

Unwind operator is also working with the non-array path field. Before MongoDB version 3.2 if we have used a non-array path field it will show an error. After version 3.4 every non-array path field will not show any error it will return single elements of an array.

In the below example, we have used the non-array path field as a name. After using the non-array path field the array element will retrieve the single document.


db.MongoDB_Update.find ()

Figure – Unwind operator is work with non-array path field in MongoDB.

If we have missed any value in the path, unwind operator will not generate any output if we have entered an incorrect value.


Figure – unwind operator will not generate any output if we have entered any incorrect value.

In the above example, we have used id field in unwind operator, but id field is not present in MongoDB_Update collection. So unwind operator will return the empty result in output.


The below example shows unwind operator in MongoDB.

1) Unwind operator with array field –

In the below example, we have used the array field name as lap_storage. After using the array field we can see that result will display each document with a different field.

Lap_storage contains the 6 array elements and MongoDB_Update collection contains the 2 documents, so we can see that unwind operator displays output as 12 documents.

db.MongoDB_Update.find ()

Figure – Example of unwind operator with array field.

2) Unwind operator with includeArrayIndex parameter –

In the below example, we have used includeArrayIndex parameter with unwind operator. We have used array field name as lap_storage and includeArrayIndex field as MongoDBIndex.

MongoIndex is a user-defined field that was used to capture the array index from lap_storage field.


db.MongoDB_Update.aggregate ([{$unwind: {path: “$lap_storage”, includeArrayIndex: “MongoDBIndex”}}])

Figure – Example of Unwind operator with includeArrayIndex parameter.

3) Unwind operator with preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter with true value –

In the below example, we have used preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter with unwind operator. We have used array field name as lap_storage and preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter value as true.

db.MongoDB_Update.find ()

Figure – Example of Unwind operator with preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter with true value

4) Unwind operator with preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter with false value –

In the below example, we have used preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter with unwind operator. We have used array field name as lap_storage and preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter value as false.


db.MongoDB_Update.find ()

Figure – Example of Unwind operator with preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter with false value.

5) Unwind operator using embedded documents –

The below example shows that unwind operator using embedded documents. We have embedded document field name as lap_spec.

Also, we have used preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter with unwind operator. We have set the value of preserveNullEmptyArrays parameter as true.


db.MongoDB_Update.find ()

Figure – Example of unwind operator using embedded documents in MongoDB.


Unwind operator is very useful and important in MongoDB to deconstruct the array field. We have using preserveNullEmptyArrays and includeArrayIndex optional parameter while using unwind operator. We can also use embedded documents with unwind operators. We can transfer complex documents into simple documents by using unwind operator in MongoDB.

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This is a guide to Mongodb unwind. Here we discuss the definition, syntax, How unwind works in Mongodb? Examples, and code implementation. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

How Encryption Works In Mongodb?

Definition of MongoDB Encryption

Mongodb encryption process involves to generate a master key of an entire database, after generating master key we are creating the unique keys for every database. Then we are encrypting our data with the database which was we have created, we can also encrypt our whole database by using master key. Any of the database involves the two forms either data at rest or data in motion, data at rest is the forms where data is not moving anywhere its static data forms. Data in motions will moves the data in network its static data forms.

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Below is the syntax of encryption in MongoDB.

1) Connect MongoDB instance by using encryption –

2) Connect MongoDB instance by using client certificate and certificate authority file –

3) Rotate KMIP master encryption key –

Parameter description syntax of MongoDB encryption are as follows.

1) Mongo – This parameter is used to login into MongoDB instance. In MongoDB we can login database instance using mongo command.

2) SSL – This is defined as login into the MongoDB database instance by using SSL authentication.

3) Host – The host and hostname is defined as IP or hostname used to login specified database instance in MongoDB. While login into any MongoDB database instance we need to use hostname.

4) sslCAFile – This is certificate authority file used to verify that certificate is present or not on database server. This file is used while login into the database server by using encryption.

5) sslPEMKeyFile – This file contains the certificate of mongo shell and this key is present on mongos or mongod instance.

6) enableEncryption – This parameter is define as use of encryption at the time of rotating master key.

7) kmipRotateMasterKey – This parameter is used to rotate master key of KMIP server. Using this parameter we can rotate master key in MongoDB.

8) kmipServerName – This is nothing but the KMIP server hostname which was used at the time of rotating master key.

9) kmipServerCAFile – This is certificate authority file of KMIP server. This file is used while rotating the master key.

10) kmipClientCertificateFile – This is client certificate file of KMIP server. This file is used while rotating the master key.

How encryption works in MongoDB?

MongoDB involves two types of data encryption forms.

2) Data in motion encryption

To encrypt the data using data at rest encryption enterprise MongoDB will provides the storage based and native symmetric key.

We can say that data at rest encryption is the data not moving over the network, we can say that it’s in static forms. Data at rest database encryption is also called as transparent data encryption its abbreviation is TDE. MongoDB uses the AES 256-bit standard encryption algorithm to encrypt the database. MongoDB uses the same encryption cipher key to encrypt as well as decrypt the data.

4) Fourth step is encrypt whole database by using the master key which was we have generated in first step.

In MongoDB, data is transacted between server application and database in two ways.

TLS and SSL are most secure protocols of encryption to send and receive data from two systems. This protocols is used in MongoDB encryption is some PEM file which was issued by the certificate authority. There are multiple settings available in MongoDB to configure the TLS and SSL protocol for client certificates.

We can also use sslCAFile to create certificate. We can store this file in MongoDB instance to use the encryption while login into the MongoDB instance. We can also rotate our encryption key. We can rotate our key by using KMIP master rotation.


Below example shows encryption in MongoDB. Below steps shows how to use encryption in MongoDB.

1) First step is to create locally managed key file to manage the key management service. We can create by using OpenSSL. We have created the file name as mongodb_client.key.


# cat /encryption/mongodb_client.key

Figure – Example to create locally managed key file to manage the key management service.

2) After creating the key file, open the mongo shell command and login by using the keyfile, –shell, and –nodb option.



3) Third step involves load the documents of encryption using client-side encryption configuration.



Figure – Example to load the documents of encryption using client-side encryption configuration.

4) After setting configuration connect to the local host database.


csfleDatabaseConnection = Mongo(ClientSideFieldLevelEncryptionOptions)

Figure – Example to connect the local host database.

5) Fifth stage is show the database, connect to the database and show the collections from connected database.


show collections

Figure – show the database, connect to the database and show the collections.


Data at rest encryption and data in motion encryption has two forms of MongoDB data encryption. Data encryption is very important in MongoDB to secure data. Encryption involves generate master key for the database. We can rotate our master key using KMIP master rotation algorithm.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to MongoDB Encryption. Here we discuss the Definition, How encryption works in MongoDB? examples with code implementation respectively. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Google Working On Indexing Instagram & Tiktok Videos

Google is negotiating deals with Instagram and TikTok to index their content in search results, according to a new report.

The Information has the early details of Google’s talks with Facebook and ByteDance — parent companies of Instagram and TikTok respectively.

“Three people who were briefed about the discussions” tell The Information that deals are being worked on to get Google the data it needs to index and rank videos.

The deal is said to be similar to the one formed between Google and Twitter in 2023, in which Google was granted access to a “firehose” of tweet data for immediate indexing.

Prior to forming a partnership with Twitter, Google did not index and rank individual tweets in search results the way it does today.

Now it’s so common to run into Twitter content in Google’s SERPs it’s difficult to remember a time when tweets weren’t discoverable with a simple search.

Should the reported negotiations between Google, Instagram, and TikTok pan out, then short-form video content could end up being as common as tweets in search results.

In reference to any search deal talks, a Google spokesperson provided the following quote to The Information which neither confirms or denies anything:

“We help sites make their content discoverable and benefit from being found on Google, and they can choose how or whether their content appears in Search.”

To the spokesperson’s point, appearing in Google Search is a choice for content publishers.

In most cases that choice is a no-brainer, because why wouldn’t a website want to get its content found in Google?

With regard to Instagram and TikTok, there’s reasons why they wouldn’t want to hand over to Google the data it needs to index videos.

Google owns YouTube, which competes for the same audience of short-form video viewers. It’s understandable that Instagram and TikTok are reluctant to share too much information without receiving something of value in return.

Google’s deal with Twitter, for example, has the search company paying an annual licensing fee. In return Google is given the ability to index tweets as soon as they’re published to the platform.

It’s likely Instagram and TikTok will receive similar compensation. In addition, they’ll also receive the benefits that come with having their content discoverable in Google.

Currently, it’s not possible to search in Google to find either Instagram or TikTok videos. This deal would allow that to happen, which could bring a whole new audience of viewers to those platforms.

In return, Google will have billions of new videos to index in search results. That’s a positive thing for the longevity of the world’s top search engine.

Over the long term, expanding Google’s index with Instagram and TikTok content will turn the search engine into a destination for both articles and videos.

That could lead to an increase in overall search volume, and more searches on Google means more opportunities for all publishers to get found.

It sounds like a win-win-win for all involved if the three internet giants can come to an agreement.

The potential terms of the agreements Google is negotiating with Facebook and ByteDance aren’t available at this time.

Source: The Information

Featured Image: Camilo Concha / Shutterstock

Digital Marketing Tutorial: Online Course

What is Digital Marketing?

Digital Marketing is a branch of marketing that mainly involves technologies like internet, computers and mobile phones to promote the products and services online. It is a well-targeted, conversion-oriented and interactive marketing approach to reach the customers and transform them into clients. The purpose of digital marketing is to promote your business online to reach the right audience that can be your customers.

Recent studies show that Digital Marketing is the fastest growing sector in the tech industry. This course is geared to make you a digital marketing pro

In this tutorial, you will learn-

👉 Introduction to Digital Marketing

👉 Search Engine Optimization – SEO Tutorial

👉 Social Media Marketing: Tips and Secret

👉 Online Paid Advertising: Ultimate Guide

👉 Email and Mobile App Marketing

👉 Introduction to Digital Marketing

Throughout centuries, marketing always remained customer centric, the way of delivering services and product has changed but the strategies remained same. Technologies did bring revolution in all fields and marketing is no exception, from print media to digital media. The rapid growth of digital marketing is the direct consequence of penetration of internet and social media sites.

Unlike traditional marketing method you don’t have to go door to door to convince people how good your product is, instead the ‘likes’ in Facebook and ‘followers’ in twitter does this job.

Digital Marketing revolves around four things

Social Media : Interact with your customer base using social sites like Facebook and twitter. Use it as a support channel, Launchpad for new products , announce discount and exclusive coupons to drive sales

SEO: SEO or Search engine optimization is a technique that allows a site to get more traffic from search engines like Google, Microsoft, Yahoo etc. It is divided in two categories, off page SEO and on page SEO

Content Marketing: The goal of Content marketing is to retain and attract customers by consistently creating valuable and relevant content with the intention to engage targeted audience in order to drive profitable customer action. Content marketing is valuable for companies as information people find online impacts their purchase decision.

👉 Search Engine Optimization – SEO Tutorial What is SEO?

SEO is the process of improving the structure, content and organization of your site to the Search engines can index them correctly. It also involves doing promotional activities to boost your search engine rank

Before we look into this any further, let’s first understand –

How Search Engine Works?

Almost every Search engine does the following Spiders or Web Crawling, Indexing & Displaying.

Spiders & Crawlers: Spiders crawl over the web in search of content (Hence the name Spider). Once they finish scanning and identifying the relevant content, they copy the searched content and store it in a search engines database. While they are scanning one web page, they make note of links to other web pages from this page and later scan the linked web pages as well & this process keeps going on for all webpages. (For example : Page A links to Page B which in turn links to Page C. Here, Page A,B,C will be stored as well as any page which is linked from Page C ) .

Web Crawler will collect the following (not limited to) information from a web page –

Indexing: Now that website information is stored in Search Engines Database, how will it know which page to put on top of search results and which on last ? Enter Indexing.

Ranking is done based on keywords.

As the engines crawl and index the contents of pages around the web, they keep track of those pages in keyword based indices. The search engines have millions and millions of smaller databases, each centred on particular keyword term or phrase.

Next question, how does the search engine know which keyword to rank a page for? To determine so the search engine looks into the content of the page, Page Title , Page URL and other factors

Next question, suppose there 20000 Webpages each catering to the same keyword say football. How does the Search Engine determine which Page to display as # 1 , # 2 and so on… Enter Search Engine Ranking Factors which considers Domain Age , Domain Trust , Topicality , Number and relevance of external pointing links to the page , social signals and many more. This will be covered in detailed later in the tutorial

Displaying: The last step in search engine activity is retrieving the best matched results for search queries, which is displaying the search result in browser.

Role of Keywords in SEO

Keyword is actually the key to SEO. Keyword is what a person or user enters into a search engine to find specific information.

Keywords form part of a web page’s metadata and help search engines to match page with an appropriate search query.

Keyword Density

Often it is misunderstood that by including more keywords which describe your website can eventually help search engine to bring your website on top. Infact, more keywords sometimes get you penalized for “spamming “or keyword stuffing. So, using keyword wisely from SEO point of view becomes mandatory. So what is the ideal frequency of Keyword? It is believed that for best result, keyword density should be 3-7% for the major and 1-2 % for minor key words.

Keywords in Special places, Page titles & Headings

It is imperative where your keyword exactly appears on your web page. It counts more if you have keywords in the “page title, the headings, the paragraphs” especially in URL. For instance, if your competitor’s web page has same number of keyword as your webpage but if you have included the keywords in your URL then your webpage have more chances to stand out than your competitor.

Placing the keywords in the “Title of the page” or “Heading tags” is considered the best place to put your keywords. The reason behind is that the search engine looks first for the keywords in your “Title tag” and then in “Heading tag”. The standard title tag keyword is around 70 characters max.

In order for a title tag to be most effective, it needs to be supported in other areas of each web page like the “headline”. Your headline should be the largest headline on the page rich with primary keywords, you can also include secondary keywords in your headline. There is no limitation for headline length, but still preferred around 7- 8 words length. For keywords there are some set criteria for best result as shown in table below.

Keywords Criteria for best SEO result

Keywords in URL

First word is best position for keyword in URL

Keywords in Title tag

Keywords should be in beginning of title tags, 10- 60 characters , no special characters

Keywords in description meta tag

Show theme less than 200 characters

Keywords in Keyword meta-tag

Show theme less than 10 words

Keyword density in body text

5- 20 % of the content

Keywords in Headlines

Use Hx font style tags appropriately

Word Stemming

Search engine like Google, uses word stemming for search query. Word stemming allows all forms of the word- singular, plural, verb form as well as similar words for a given search query. For example if someone search for “Mountain track” it will retain search result with all variation of that phrase like “Mountain tracking“, “Mountain trackers” and so on.

Ranking and Ranking factors

Meta-tags: one of the earliest method to optimize the website high in result was to offer Meta data to the search engines. Meta data is nothing but the data about the data found on that page.

There are two important meta-tags or meta-data

Meta description

Meta Keyword

Both Meta keyword and Meta description can contribute to your search engine ranking. The meta description tag is intended to be a brief and concise summary of your page’s content. The limitation for meta-description is about 170- 200 characters, writing a unique description for each page of your site. Meta description format would look something like this

Example: Meta-description for website "guru99"

While meta keywords format would look something like this


Meta-keywords for website “guru99”

Link Building On Page & Off page Optimization

SEO optimization is primarily classified into two sections on page optimization and off page optimization.

Positive Off Page Optimization

Off page SEO is the process of boosting your search engine rankings by getting external links pointing back to it. The more and better links you can get to your webpage, better it will rank in search result

A quality backlink is considered good from the search engines point, and has the maximum effect on your off page SEO. A quality backlink has properties like

Incoming links from high page rank web page

Use different anchor texts

Dofollow or Nofollow links

Getting backlink from similar niche blog or website

Avoid black hat SEO

Good Domain Authority

High Trust

High Relevance in the subject matter of the linking and destination domains

Site Age- Shows site stability

What you should NOT do for Negative off page

Link Buying : If you get caught penalty is huge

Cloaking: Try prevent cloaking (representing different page to search engine than your original web page)

Domain Hi-jacking: It is when someone takes your domain away or misuses your domain without your knowledge by changing the registration of the domain name. Never do this , it’s a criminal offence.

Other Black Hat Techniques

Positive On Page Optimization

On page optimization directly deals with the content and structure of the website. On page optimization focuses on

Unique title tags and Headlines

Keyword frequency in the


Body Texts




Adding description to images

Good Internal Navigation

What you should not do for Negative On Page

Avoid negative over optimization penalty (OOP) by not repeating keywords very very frequently

Link to a bad neighbourhood : Do not link to link Farms or any other site with bad page rank

Avoid Poison words: The word “link” is considered poison words or stop words in a title tag. There are many other poison words that you should avoid

Avoid stealing text or images from other domains

Avoid Excessive cross linking

For best SEO result for your site always regularly maintain it, as you won’t rank as high in search engines, if your site is slow or has broken links.

Google Panda

Google panda is a Google’s search results ranking algorithm, it aims to lower the rank of “low quality sites” or “thin sites” and return higher quality sites near the top of the search result. In other words it does the verification of “content” of the websites.

How to escape the Panda’s Claw

Try to avoid link building with those sites which is already ranked as low quality website

Google Penguin

Another algorithm update from Google is “Google Penguin” which penalizes those sites that breach Google’s webmaster guidelines set by the search engines. This programme is specifically designed to target those sites that practice black-hat SEO techniques like keyword stuffing, duplicate content and bulk link building to name a few. Penguin does not damage the site unless spammed for too much keyword.

How to get away from Penguin’s Pecking

Remove all links from guest blogging network

Remove links from spam sites

Remove all exact match anchor links

Remove all optimized anchor links

Nofollow Guest Post links

SEO Audit and Link Removal

SEO Audit and link removal is very important for running your website successfully, as search engine modifies their algorithm from time to time. For success of your website, it is necessary to keep pace with their current guidelines and requirements of search engine. To ignore link audit may put your website at high risk.

For link audits and link removal many online tools are available like, Google webmaster tools, MOZ , Open Site Explorer , Majestic SEO etc. It will scrutinize ‘backlinks’ and provides some helpful metrics like

Specific URLs that link to your site

The pages on your site that each of these URLs link to

Anchor text used by each incoming link

Whether each incoming link is follow or no-follow

While removing low quality links, you have to be careful as some of them may be highly relevant to your website and come from websites on the upswing. In future they might become an important source of traffic.

What are the characteristics of a ‘bad links’

Links with the same anchor text coming from multiple sites

Links from sites that are unrelated to your niche

Links from low traffic and low PR ( Page Rank)

Links from articles directories or sites that look like link farms

Links from link exchanges

Paid links

Links from sites that are not in the Google Index

In case the site owner does not remove bad links from your website, then you can use Google’s disavow tool. This disavow tool will remove bad links.

This disavow tools are applicable in condition like

When you get a manual action

Webmaster won’t remove the bad links to your site or charge you to remove them

When you see links pointing to your site you do not want to be associated with

When you are worried about negative SEO

You see links pointing to your site you do not want to be associated with

You saw a link bomb attack and are afraid it might hurt your site

You are afraid someone will submit a spam report for you

You see your ranking dropped and you think it has to do with an algorithm Google ran, example: Penguin algorithm

👉 Social Media Marketing: Tips and Secret

Social Network Marketing is about using social media sites as marketing tools for the optimization of revenue or increasing brand exposure. Social Media Marketing use strategy like SMO (Social Media Optimization), it can be done in two ways

a) Adding social media links to content such as sharing buttons and RSS feeds

b) Promoting sites through social media by updating tweets, blog post and statuses

Social Media Marketing helps a company get direct feedback from customers, social websites like Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Myspace, Linkedln and Youtube which have had significant contribution in social marketing in last couple of years. The success of social media in marketing is due to very “Personal” interactions between the user and service renderers.

FaceBook Marketing

Face book features are more detailed than other social networking sites. They allow a product to provide photos, videos, longer description option and testimonials as other followers can express their opinion on the product page for others to see. Facebook can link back to the products twitter page as well as send out event reminders. This can be done by connecting to various groups or business groups of your field on Facebook, admin page and direct message to admin for site promotion. You can also create your own personal page where you can upload videos or website information for example, here we have “Guru 99” Facebook page, which has reached many e-learners through Facebook.

Next you can also make a group or join a group of your liking, for example if you are a computer geek and searching for a java computer group then you can join a Java group where you ask questions pertaining to java or share any information related to Java with your group.

To facilitate social media marketing and to manage posting of messages on regular basis on social sites, automated scheduling tools are used. Hootsuite is one such tool, which gives users extended facility for automating and scheduling messages, monitoring conversation and track result across multiple networks. For example, here it is shown how different tutorials are set and scheduled for website Guru99.

Twitter Marketing

It’s a micro blogging service that allows sending and receiving message from customers. This can help business people to contact and communicate with peer group and to their customers. You can create your personal page in twitter as well, and can upload your site and share information related to site on twitter.

Twitter is a great tool to reach out new customers/clients without invading their privacy

LinkedIn Marketing

LinkedIn connects professionals from various backgrounds and provides an opportunity to expand business by connecting business professional. Through the use of widgets, members can promote their product or website directly to their clients. “Company Page” is one such feature in linkedin which acts like a business resume for your client to get a quick overview about your business.

Your personalized webpage on linkedin can also be used as an open platform for discussion with peer group or e-learners. Apart from your personalized page there are option like joining groups, companies or any particular professional groups (Doctors, Real estate & Infrastructure, Job portals, business groups etc.)

Recent research has marked Linkedin on top for social referrals to corporate homepages.

LinkedIn: 64% of social referrals to corporate homepage

Facebook: 17% of social referrals to corporate homepage

Twitter: 14% of social referrals to corporate homepage

Google+ plus

Google plus provides various features which can be used for marketing purposes like

Circles : You can create groups or join circles of your likings

Stream: Gives instant updates on selected contacts or groups

Photos: Upload photos

Sparks: It allows you to specify your area of interest every time you logged in

Plus One: It is like a face book ‘like button’, where you can express your opinion about any particular product

Video Chat and Huddles: All queries can be solved by video chat facility which can be used to facilitate live customer interactions and huddles allow for group chats.

Apart from these you can join communities of your interest, like here guru99 has created community for software testers where they can use these page for discussion for topics of their common interest.

Video Promotion

Video’s are one of the quickest ways to reach your customer. Visual effect has more impact on customer than print or digital text, it enables to explain the product more convincingly than any other medium. Marketing on “Youtube” turns, viewers into fans and, fans into customers. Also with video pages on your site has more chances to get good rating, as there are very less competition for video pages.

To get maximum viewer to your video link, attach the script of your Video. Youtube also provide captioning alternative for videos.

For Intagram Marketing refer this tutorial

👉 Online Paid Advertising: Ultimate Guide

Several aspects important for successful PPC campaign

First Understand the purpose of PPC campaign

Research on your target audience

Keyword Research

Perform A/B Testing

Learn from your competitors Ad copy before you make your own

Keyword grouping and Organization

Keywords in Ad should include keywords of the landing page

Ad groups creation and Management

Managing your PPC campaign

Once you have created your new campaigns, you have to make sure that they remain active and effective and for that you have to manage your PPC campaign properly

Continuously analysing the performance of your account

Add PPC Keywords and expand the reach of your PPC campaign

To improve campaign relevancy, add non-converting terms as negative keywords

Split up your ad groups into smaller and more relevant groups.

Stop the underperforming keywords

Modify the content and call to actions (CTAs) of your landing pages to align with individual search queries in order to boost conversion rates

Don’t send all your traffic to same page

Example for Bad Ad Example for Good Ad

Hob’s black coffee

Selling coffee since 1947

Come and see our selection

Hob’s great organic black coffee

Refreshing and High quality

Special discount on imported black coffee

Facebook Ad

Once you enter your URL to the ad page, the next step will be to upload the image for your ad that you want to display when users look at your ad. Here in the screen shot we had uploaded an image showing “Free Live Selenium Project”.

Once you have uploaded ad image the next step is to identify and target your audience for ad. On ad page you can handle your account as shown in below screen shot and you can target specific audience by narrowing down them according to their location, age, gender, language and so on also you can bid from the same page.

Here, we had chosen country like India, U.S and U.K and we targeted the audience between the age of 19- 24 for our ad and set the rest of category accordingly.

The next step is to set the limit for your ad like how much money you want to spend for your ad and you can set the amount limit accordingly. For instance, we have set the limit Rs 100 per day, then your ad will display on Facebook till your amount becomes nil for the day.

Once everything is set up, you will be proceeded to the most important part and final step of the process, yes you guessed right, money in the bank, as soon as you are done with the payment thing your ad will be reviewed and approved by Facebook group and soon your ad will start displaying on your account.

For the desktop users the ad will display something like this as show in the screen shot below

While for mobile users the ad will display like this, as shown below

Twitter Ad

Twitter’s Ad Types

Twitter has exceptionally shown its potential in online marketing through promoting Ads and product. Some of these ad types are emphasized over-here.

Promoted hashtags , promoted account, promoted tweet:

Twitter Cards

With Twitter cards, you can attach rich photos, videos and media experience to tweets that drive traffic to your website.

👉 Email and Mobile App Marketing

With the use of internet, e-mail marketing has become more prevalent and common method to reach maximum users with minimum costs. It is a form of direct marketing that uses electronic mail as a means of communication. E-mail marketing is an efficient way to stay connected with the clients and at the same time promoting your business and products. With e-mail marketing you can also track how much percentage of people have shown interest in your product or service. Professional e-mail marketing is considered as a better approach for organized marketing strategy. Here are some benefits for e-mail marketing.

Permission based list building: It is a creation of an email list by providing a sign up box for for prospective e-mail contacts and confirming their approval with a follow up email

Campaign creation: The capability to organize and structure large volumes of e-mail messages by branding, theme and schedule

Online reporting: Track the sending of individual email campaigns and at what rates they were opened and which e-mails are not open or bounced

Rich content Integration: Addition of graphics, video, audio and test using templates,drag and drop editor

List Management: The ability to organize, segment, edit, grow and manage a database of customer or client e-mail contact information

How to implement successful e-mail marketing campaign

There are some simple tips for effective e-mail marketing

To grab the attention of your readers, make sure that your subject line or title should stand out. Need to keep message short and to the point

Your logo needs to be highlighted clearly at the top of the e-mail

Stress first two or three lines of your e-mail to make an impact

Provide link for the landing page on your website

Collect e-mail addresses at offline events like trade shows and import them into your database and send them a welcome email

Promote offers and e-mail sign up through Google plus company page

Automate scheduling for e-mail

E-mail schedule can be of great help when one has to mail same document or message to different people on regular basis in bulk. Automation of e-mails are not restricted to sending and receiving mail but also account for other activities like deleting unwanted emails automatically, save e-mail attachments into local folders, e-mail integration with text files or csv and so on. Aweber is one such platform where you can manage and automate your mail and schedule your mail according. As shown in screenshot below, we have schedule each message or tutorial on JavaScript and send to subscribers by scheduling it one after the other.

There are many e-mail service providers which does not have automation scheduling in-built, for them extensions are available and can add on this extension to their mailing system. For example, “Boomerang” which can be used in Google chrome or Firefox for scheduling e-mails. Mail Chimp is another mail manager where you can set data, time , batch delivery and so on for your mail .

Mobile App Marketing

While building your mobile App there are certain things that needs to be work out

Growing your social media presence : Building a steady social media following on Facebook, Twitter, Google+, Tumblr

Driving engagement across the app: Focus your efforts on encouraging ongoing engagement and keep updating fresh content so to prevent users from losing interest in your app

Increasing app store ratings : Try to improve rating of your app, this will drive a lot traffic to your app

Promo video for mobile APP

As a part of viral marketing campaign, a promo video is quite essential.

Create a promo videos which is short and informative.

Highlight all your app’s key features and point out why your app is better than its competitors

Also, include screen shot of your app as well

Once the video is ready you have to be active in marketing or distributing that video over the web. Post it on forums, use social sites like Facebook and twitter to reach out maximum, upload it to youtube and so on.

In the end, if you create a GREAT mobile app, people will do the marketing for you!. Here, we will see a mobile app for company Guru99.

Web Analytics

Web analytics is the study, analyses and reporting of a web data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage. This technique is useful to measure how many people have visited a site, and how frequent they have visited the site or what route they have opted to reach your site. Web analytics is very useful from the point of administrator as they can figure it out which area of the site is popular and which area is not.

Web analytics software can be used to monitor whether your site page are working properly or not. There are various web analytics software available in market, some of them are Google Analytics, Adobe site catalyst, IBM coremetrics web analytics, IBM’s Unica Netsight, yahoo marketing dashboard, Piwik, Moz and so on.

A good analytic tool should meet following criteria

Can you re-analyze data if you decide to change something

Can you re-analyze subsets of your logs for more focused views

How many web pages does the solution track per month

What is the total cost of ownership

Does it integrate easily with other sources of data

The Complete Digital Marketing Course

Types And Criteria With Example

Definition of Non-Controlling Interest

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The portion of the interest is left out after the holding company’s claim. For example, Zee Ltd wants to acquire 60% of the equity shares of B Ltd, so in this case, out of 100% holding of B Ltd, 60% will be given to Zee. Now Zee will be the holding company, and the rest of the shares % which is 40%, will be considered as Non-controlling interest. They will not allow to manage any company affairs and not require interfering in the company’s decisions. Sometimes a situation arises when there are losses in the company, so in that case, the losses which apply to the It is combined subsidiary may exceed the non-controlling interest of the single subsidiary. The non-controlling interest holders get the share as per the confined % of the controlling interest they share in the company.





Holding Company

Controlling Interest (80%)

Non controlling interest ( 20%)

Share Capital    800,000.00                     640,000.00             160,000.00

Reserve      60,000.00                       48,000.00               12,000.00

   860,000.00                     688,000.00             172,000.00


There are two types of non-controlling interest: direct non-controlling interest and another is Indirect non-controlling interest.

In direct non-controlling interest, the minority shareholders, i.e., those who are non-controlling interest bearing in the company, will get the profits to share of pre and post-acquisition. In contrast, in the case of indirect non-controlling interest, only post-acquisition profits are shared with the minority interest holders, and the pre-acquisition profits are not shared. The non-controlling Interest holders get a share of this distribution as per their controlling interest percentage in the company.

Criteria for Non-Controlling Interest Recording of Non-Controlling Interest

First of all, we must find that the acquisition is on which date.

Then find out the company which acquires and the company which is acquiring.

Calculation of Pre-acquisition and Post-acquisition profits are done.

Calculation of Pre-acquisition and Post-acquisition of reserves and surpluses are done.

In the next step, the distribution of profits takes place.

The Minority Interest record is under the head of Equity and Liability.

Minority Interest is separately recorded in the Balance sheet with its own name.


Non-Controlling Interest holders can anyway get access to the company’s financial books.

Taking a small share as a minority interest holder in a very emerging business can help the growth of individual investors.

The Non-Controlling Interest holders can see the business developments and get an insider’s view to plan their investment in such a way.

In most cases, the minority interest holders gain a huge average return on their funds since they know the company’s norms.

The risk also subsides because a huge investment does not require from the minority interest holders, and thus they can enjoy the benefit of the low risk and more gains on returns.

In the case of a business sale, the minority interest holder can sell part of this stake without many legal complications.


It is a very wide term. Minority shareholders of the company are not allowed to participate in the company’s meetings, but sometimes they can make a decision for the board members. If the board’s performance is not satisfactory, then the minority shareholders can ask the board to take action against them. In the corporate, the minority interest holder meeting and voting can be very influential. Non-controlling Interest holder also makes huge profits and returns on their investment in the company. They make very little investment per the company’s emerging business but can gain huge profits. Non Controlling Interest also gets their share in case of an acquisition. It is given emphasis in the Balance Sheet and is shown as a separate item.

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