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If you recently got a new pair of headphones or speakers, you’re likely searching for the correct audio ports on your computer. While it is possible to directly connect them to a monitor, using the integrated ones on the motherboard would be the best option.

Well, there are different types of audio interfaces, and modern circuit boards can have six or more embedded in them. However, this depends on the model, and you may even find comparatively fewer ones on yours. Likewise, a laptop motherboard mostly comes with just one audio port, which can work as both input and output.

Since different audio devices require different connections, it’s essential that you have proper knowledge about these interfaces. In this article, you will learn about all the audio ports found on a motherboard, along with their location and color.

Basically, an audio interface allows the connection and communication of any audio device with a computer. Although the number differs on every motherboard, most modern ones adopt the PC System Design Guide and come with five or six ports.

Before we dive into the details of specific ports, the table below includes everything that should help you distinguish different audio ports on a motherboard. 

Audio PortsColorSignalCableFunctionMic-InPinkAnalog3.5 mm audio jackTo plug-in microphoneLine-OutGreenAnalog3.5 or 6.35 mm audio jackTo connect audio output devicesLine-InLight BlueAnalog3.5 mm audio jackTo connect amplifiers, CD/DVD players, etc.CS-OutOrange or LimeAnalog3.5 mm audio jackTo connect subwoofers or central speakers in a surround systemRS-OutBlackAnalog3.5 mm audio jackTo connect rear speakers in a surround systemSS-OutWhite/Silver/GreyAnalog3.5 mm audio jackTo connect side speakers in a surround systemS/PDIF-OutDigitalDigital optical cableDirect connection of digital audio devicesCoaxial-OutDigitalCoaxial cableDirect connection of digital audio devices with greater bandwidthUSB1.0 and (white), 3.0 (blue), 3.1 (teal blue)DigitalUSB 1.x, 2.0, 3.x, 4 Direct connection of USB audio devices (no need for input or output port)HDMIDigitalHDMI 1.x,2.0, 2.1Direct connection of HDMI speakers (requires HDMI ARC)DisplayPortDigitalDisplayPort 1.x, 2.0, 2.1Direct connection of DisplayPort audio devices (no need for input or output port)Different Motherboard Audio Ports

Moving on, the location of audio ports on most motherboards remains identical. Well, they are all grouped together on the back I/O panel.

Audio Port Location in Motherboard

However, you may also notice audio ports on the front panel of a PC casing. But you need to note that they are not embedded in your motherboard. Instead, they require a connection with the audio headers, which we’ll save to discuss some other day.

Like any other computer port, the audio interface is primarily categorized into two – input and output. While the former fetches audio signals into the computer (for example, the input of your voice using a microphone), the latter sends an audio signal out of the PC (for example, sound coming from a speaker).

Indeed, choosing the correct port is quite essential. This is because if you do not connect your audio devices to the right port, you may experience problems like the speaker not working, the computer not detecting the microphone, etc.

However, this case doesn’t apply to those motherboards (mainly laptops) with only one dedicated audio interface that can function as both ports. Once you connect the peripheral, the necessary driver is automatically installed and performs as required.

Well, most motherboard manufacturers use standard colors to distinguish the input from output ports. Nonetheless, some do not apply this to their models and instead have just the black ones. Therefore, icons or labels are the best way to identify the interface.

Regarding the same, this section includes everything you should know about the different types of motherboard audio ports, along with their colors and labels.

Mic-In Port in Motherboard

Microphone-In or Mic-in is the dedicated input audio port for plugging microphones. This port is present in almost every motherboard and is generally recognized by its pink color. To connect a microphone to the motherboard, you require a 3.5 mm audio jack, which usually comes attached to the audio device. 

Usually, the Mic-In ports come with a pictogram of a mic or, in some models, labeled as MIC. Hence, even if yours doesn’t have this audio interface, you should recognize it without any fuss.

Moreover, you will likely not find the pink port on your laptop’s motherboard. Instead, it has one audio interface that can take in both input (microphone) and output (headphone/speaker).

Line-Out Port in Motherboard

The Line-Out, also recognized as the Headphone-Out or Audio-Out, is an output port that transfers a PC’s audio to speakers and headphones. Usually, it is recognized by its green color and also with a headphone or outgoing sound wave icon. In some motherboards, it may also be labeled “AUX”.

Well, this type of port is suitable for a 2.0-channel system, meaning you can connect any stereo device (headphones or speakers). To connect these audio peripherals, all you need is a 3.5 mm audio cable. 

Interestingly, a few motherboards are equipped with a 6.35 mm, drawing more power to the headphones. Thus, a 6.35 mm audio cable provides comparatively lower resistance and capacitance to support high-end audio equipment.

Line-In Port in Motherboard

Another primary port that comes embedded in most motherboards is the Line-In port. If you’re trying to get audio input signals from an external audio device to record, play, or modify their sound, this should be the one you’re looking for.

Basically, you can connect any audio input peripheral here, like amplifiers, CD/DVD players, MIDI instruments, and many more. In fact, plugging in a microphone will also make it work completely fine. However, we recommend using the above-mentioned Mic-In port for this device as the amplification is much better there.

Moving on, the Line-In port is light blue in color, and you may also recognize this by an incoming sound wave icon beneath it. However, such a port is absent on laptop motherboards, and you’ll need regular audio ports to connect the input audio devices.

CS-Out Port in Motherboard

Center Speaker-Out, or simply CS-Out, is an audio output port found in high-end motherboards that support the connection of surround sound systems. Well, they are orange or lime-colored and can be recognized by the label “c/sub” or a pictogram of a speaker.

To be precise, this is the dedicated interface for connecting a subwoofer, center/front speaker, or soundbar to your TV or even computer. Hence, these devices provide extra bass to your sound system and are perfect for music lovers.

RS-Out Port in Motherboard

Rear Speaker-Out or RS-Out is the audio output port for the speakers behind you or the back of the center speakers. Like the CS-Out, you can use this for connecting surround sound systems.

Moreover, identification of the port is also easy, like the other audio interfaces. All you have to look for is the black port. But in those motherboards that do not follow the color standards, you should check the label “rear” accompanied by a speaker symbol.

SS-Out Port in Motherboard

Another audio output port on the motherboard dedicated to the surrounding sound system is the Side Speakers-Out or SS-Out. In fact, the presence of this interface allows for the setting up a 7.1 audio channel system.

Furthermore, SS-Out can be of different colors – white, silver, or grey. But if your motherboard has no colors in the audio ports, you can check the label that indicates “side” and a speaker icon.

S/PDIF-Out Port in Motherboard

Until now, we’ve only covered the audio ports that work on analog signals. Now, let’s focus on the interface that outputs digital signals, the S/PDIF-Out (Sony/Philips Digital Interconnect Format), which is present in most modern motherboards.

Unlike the regular ones, these optical ports are square-shaped and may even illuminate lights out of them. Moreover, they require digital optical cables for transmitting digital signals from a PC to an audio output device.

Depending on the model, you may find different types of optical ports on a motherboard. These can be identified using the labels “Digital Audio Out”, “TOSLINK”, “S/PDIF”, etc.

Coaxial-Out Port in Motherboard

Coaxial-Out is another digital output port on a motherboard. Basically, it works very similarly to the S/PDIF-Out port, and the only difference is that it requires a copper or RCA cable to establish a connection with your speaker.

Apart from just the dedicated audio ports, you can also use other motherboard ports that can carry audio and digital signals. These include USB, HDMI, and DisplayPort.

Indeed, USB headphones are getting popular these days, and they even have a microphone attached. In such a case, you do not have to look for dedicated input or audio port; you can simply connect the device to a USB port. 

Likewise, HDMI speakers have also gained popularity in the past few years. Thus, if you’re looking to connect such a device to your motherboard, the correct port you should look for is the HDMI ARC. Unfortunately, this port might be absent on some models.

Connecting your speakers and headphones (open-back or close-back) to the appropriate port isn’t as challenging as one might think. If you already have stereo headphones, you can directly plug the device into the dedicated headphone out port on the motherboard.

Likewise, if you’re trying to connect a home theatre system to your PC, you can use either the optical/coaxial or the standard 3.5 mm ports. In the case of the latter one, you can utilize all the Line-Out, CS-Out, RS-Out, and SS-Out ports.

Suppose you have a 7.1-channel setup (two rear speakers, two front speakers, two side speakers, and a subwoofer). Here, you need to connect the front speakers to the Line-Out, the rear speakers to RS-Out, the side speakers to SS-Out, and the subwoofer or central speakers to CS-Out. You can follow a similar technique to connect 3.1, 5.1, or 6.1 surround systems to the motherboard ports.

Note: The ‘.1’ after each speaker system refers to the inclusion of a subwoofer, which itself is not a speaker but still holds great value in the surround system.

You're reading Motherboard Audio Ports – A Complete Guide

Python Class: A Complete Guide (Beginner Friendly)

Python is an object-oriented programming language. It means almost everything is an object. When becoming a Python developer, it’s crucial to learn what is a Python class and how to use it to create those objects.

A Python class is a blueprint for creating objects.

For example, here is a simple class Person, that has an attribute name:

class Person: name = "Sofie"

Now you can create a Person object from the class by:

girl = Person()

An object is also known as an instance of a class. The process of creating objects from a class is called instantiation.

You can use a class to instantiate different objects that all represent the class. For example, you can create multiple persons with different names.

How to Crete a Class in Python

To create a new Python class, use the class keyword.

Here is the syntax for defining a class in Python:

class ExampleClass: pass

Now, every piece of code you write into this block belongs to that class.

For now, we are going to pass the implementation of the class, as we will return to it later on.

How to Use a Python Class

In the previous section, you learned the syntax for creating a class in Python. But how can you use this class?

The answer is you can create, or more formally, instantiate objects of the class.

Creating an instance of the above ExampleClass looks like this:

obj = ExampleClass()

Now obj is a Python object that represents the ExampleClass. It thus has all the behavior described in the class. However, now the ExampleClass is empty, thus you can not do much with its representative objects.

In the next section, we are going to learn how to associate properties and behavior with the class. This way you can put your class into use.

Attributes and Methods in a Python Class

A bare class is not much of use. To benefit from using classes, you need to associate some behavior with them.

For example, a Person class could store info about the person and a method that introduces it.

To associate properties and behavior to a class, you need to create attributes and methods in the class.

Let’s first have a look at how to create class attributes in Python.

Attributes in a Class

Attributes in classes are properties that are present in the class and its objects. For example, a Fruit class could have a color attribute.

To create attributes in a class, declare them as variables in the class.

For example, let’s create a Fruit class with a color attribute:

class Fruit: color = "Yellow"

(Keep in mind you can add as many attributes to your class as you want.)

If you now instantiate a Fruit object based on the above Fruit class, you can access its color property using the dot notation.

For example, let’s create a Fruit object called some_fruit and display its color by printing it into the console:

some_fruit = Fruit() print(some_fruit.color)



Now, the color of some_fruit is "Yellow" because that’s what you defined in the class. But you can change it for this particular object if you wish to.

For instance, let’s turn some_fruit to red:

some_fruit.color = "Red" print(some_fruit.color)



This change in color does not affect the Fruit class. Instead, it only changes the object, as you can see.

Now that you understand what class attributes are in Python, let’s take a look at methods in classes.

Methods in a Python Class

A function inside a class is known as a method. A method assigns behavior to the class.

Usually, a method uses the attributes (or the other methods) of the class to perform some useful task. For example, a Weight class could have a kilograms attribute. In addition, it can have a to_pounds() method, that converts the kilograms to pounds.

To create a method for your class in Python, you need to define a function in it.

As mentioned, the method needs to access the attributes of the class. To do it, the method has to accept an argument that represents the class itself.

Let’s put it all together in a form of a simple example:

Let’s create a Person class and define an introduce() method to it. This makes it possible for each Person object to introduce themselves by calling person.introduce():

class Person: name = "Sophie" def introduce(self): print("Hi, I'm",

If you now look at the introduce() method, you can see it takes one argument called self. This is there because as mentioned earlier, the class needs to be able to access its own attributes to use them. In this case, the person needs to know the name of itself.

Now you can create a person objects and make them introduce themselves using the introduce() method.

For instance:

worker = Person() = "Jack" worker.introduce()


Hi, I'm Jack

Wonderful! You know the basics of defining a class and creating objects that contain attributes and some useful behavior.

But in the above example, the name of a Person is always Sophie to begin with. When you create a person object, you need to separately change its name if you want to. Even though it works, it is not practical.

A better for instantiating objects would be to directly give them a name upon creation:

dude = Person("Jack")

Instead of first creating an object and then changing its name on the next line:

dude = Person() = "Jack"

To do this, you need to understand class initialization and instance variables. These give you the power to instantiate objects with unique attributes instead of separately modifying each object.

Class Initialization in Python

As you saw in the previous section, creating a person object with a unique name is only possible this way:

dude = Person() = "Jack"

But what you actually want is to be able to do this instead:

dude = Person("Jack")

This is possible and it is called class initialization.

To enable class initialization, you need to define a special method into your class. This method is known as a constructor or initializer and is defined with def __init__(self):.

Every class can be provided with the __init__() method. This special method runs whenever you create an object.

You can use the __init__() method to assign initial values to the object (or run other useful operations when an object is created).

The __init__() method is also known as the constructor method of the class.

In the Person class example, all the Person objects have the same name “Sophie”.

But our goal is to be able to create persons with unique names like this:

worker = Person("Jack") assistant = Person("Charlie") manager = Person("Sofie")

To make it possible, implement the__init__() method in the Person class:

class Person: def __init__(self, person_name): chúng tôi = person_name

Now, let’s test the Person class by instantiating person objects:

worker = Person("Jack") assistant = Person("Charlie") manager = Person("Sofie") print(,,


Jack Charlie Sofie

Let’s inspect the code of the Person class to understand what is going on:

The __init__() method accepts two parameters: self and person_name

self refers to the Person instance itself. This parameter has to be the first argument of any method in the class. Otherwise, the class does not know how to access its properties.

person_name is the name input that represents the name you give to a new person object.

The last line = person_name means “Assign the input person_name as the name of this person object.” is an example of an instance variable. This means that is an instance-specific (or object-specific) variable. You can create Person objects each with a different name.

To Recap

Initialization makes it possible to assign values to an object upon creation. The __init__() method is responsible for the initialization process. The method runs whenever you create a new object to set it up. This way you can for example give a name to your object when creating it.


In Python, a class is an outline for creating objects.

A Python class can store attributes and methods. These define the behavior of the class.

Also, you can initialize objects by implementing the __init__() method in the class. This way you can create objects with unique values, also known as instance variables without having to modify them separately.

Thanks for reading. Happy coding!

Further Reading

50 Python Interview Questions

Python @Staticmethod Vs @Classmethod: A Complete Guide

In Python, the difference between the @staticmethod and @classmethod is that:

@staticmethod is usually a helper method that behaves the same way no matter what instance you call it on. The @staticmethod knows nothing about the class or its instances.

@classmethod is a method that takes the class as an argument. You can use it as an alternative constructor to the class. (E.g. MyClass.from_string())

This is a complete guide to understanding the differences between @staticmethod and @classmethod in Python. You will learn when to use and when not to use these methods. All the theory is backed up with illustrative examples.

What Is a @staticmethod in Python?

In Python, a @staticmethod is a method that belongs to a class rather than an instance of the class.

This means that a @staticmethod is a method that is shared among all instances of a class. It is called on the class itself, rather than on an instance of the class.

Here is an example of a class that defines a static method:

class MyClass: @staticmethod def static_method(): # Code for the static method goes here ...

To call a static method, you would do the following:


Note that you do not need to create an instance of the class in order to call the static method. This is because the static method belongs to the class itself, rather than to individual instances of the class. You can also see this by looking at the static method’s arguments. It takes neither self nor cls as the first argument.

What Is a @classmethod in Python?

In Python, a @classmethod is a method you can call for both the instances of the class as well as the class itself. A class method takes the class itself (cls) as the first argument, instead of an instance of the class (self).

Here is an example of a class that defines a class method:

class MyClass: @classmethod def class_method(cls): # Code for the class method goes here ...

To call a class method, you would do the following:


Note that you do not need to create an instance of the class in order to call the class method. This is because the class method belongs to the class itself, rather than to individual instances of the class.

Also note that the first argument to the class method is the class itself, which is passed in automatically. In the example above, this argument is named cls, but it could be named anything else.

@staticmethod vs @classmethod in Python

In Python, a @staticmethod is a method that belongs to a class rather than an instance of the class. This means that a @staticmethod is a method that is shared among all instances of a class. It is called on the class itself, rather than on an instance of the class. A static method knows nothing about the class or instance you’re calling it on.

On the other hand, a @classmethod is a method that is called on a class, rather than on an instance of the class. It takes the class as the first argument, rather than an instance of it. This behavior is useful if you want to create an alternative constructor method that initializes the class objects from different parameters.

For example, the dict.fromkeys() method is a class method that initializes a dictionary from keys.

Now that you understand the main difference between the class methods and static methods, let’s take a look at why and when you should use these method types.

Why Use @staticmethod?

There are several reasons why you might want to use a @staticmethod rather than defining a regular function outside of a class in Python:

A @staticmethod provides a clear indication that the method belongs to the class, rather than to individual instances of the class. This can make the code easier to read and understand since the purpose and behavior of the method are more clearly defined.

A @staticmethod can be used to define helper functions that are related to the class, but that do not depend on any instance-specific state. This can make the code more modular and reusable since the @staticmethod can be called from multiple places within the class, as well as from outside of the class.

A @staticmethod can be overridden in subclasses. This allows subclasses to provide their own implementation of @staticmethod, which can be useful in certain scenarios.

Overall, using a @staticmethod instead of a regular function can make the code more organized, reusable, and readable, especially when dealing with classes and subclasses in Python.

When Use @staticmethod in Python?

Use a @staticmethod in Python when you have a method that belongs to a class, rather than to individual instances of the class.

A @staticmethod is typically used to define helper functions that are related to the class, but that does not depend on any instance-specific state. This makes the code modular and reusable as the @staticmethod can be called from multiple places within the class, as well as from outside of the class.

Notice that if you have a function that does not belong to a class, and that does not depend on any class-specific state, just define a regular function outside of the class. A regular function is more flexible and can be called from anywhere, without being tied to classes so unless the behavior is related to a class it’s better to leave it out of the class.

Python @classmethod as an Alternative Constructor

In Python, a classmethod can be used as an alternative constructor for a class. This means that you can use a classmethod to define a method that can be used to create and return instances of the class, in addition to the regular __init__ method that is used as the default constructor.

Here is an example of how you might use a @classmethod as an alternative constructor for a class:

class MyClass: def __init__(self, param1, param2): # Code for the regular constructor goes here ... @classmethod def from_string(cls, string): # Code for the classmethod constructor goes here ...

In the example above, the __init__ method is the regular constructor for the MyClass class, which is called when you create an instance of the class using the MyClass() syntax.

The from_string method is a @classmethod that can be used as an alternative constructor for the class. In other words, if you want to initialize a MyClass object from a string, you can call the from_string method instead of the default initializer.

To use the from_string method as an alternative constructor, you can simply do the following:

my_object = MyClass.from_string('some string')

In this example, the from_string method is called on the MyClass class, rather than on an instance of the class. It is passed the string 'some string' as the argument, and it returns an instance of the MyClass class, which is then assigned to the my_object variable.

Overall, using a @classmethod as an alternative constructor can provide a more convenient and flexible way to create instances of a class in Python. It allows you to define multiple ways of creating instances of a class, and to choose the most appropriate method based on the specific needs of your application.


In Python, a class method is a method that belongs to a class rather than a particular object. It is marked with the @classmethod decorator. A class method receives the class as an implicit first argument, just like an instance method receives the instance.

A static method is a method that belongs to a class rather than a particular object. It is marked with the @staticmethod decorator. A static method does not receive any additional arguments; it behaves like a regular function but belongs to the class.

Here is an example of how to use these decorators in a Python class:

class MyClass: @classmethod def class_method(cls): # ... @staticmethod def static_method(): # ...

The key difference between a class method and a static method is that a class method can access or modify the class state, while a static method cannot.

Thanks for reading. Happy coding!

Read Also

Decorators in Python

Fix: Motherboard Audio Is Not Working In Windows 11

Fix: Motherboard Audio is Not Working in Windows 11 Updating the audio driver and changing some settings will do the trick




If your computer is not producing sound during an online meeting, it could be caused by the motherboard audio not working. 

Some reasons behind the sound problem include outdated drivers, incorrectly placed audio/speaker cables, or the volume being set to mute. 

You may also encounter motherboard sound problems due to incorrect sound settings in the BIOS or the device itself. 



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readers this month.

Sometimes, you may encounter an issue where the motherboard audio may not work on your Windows 11 PC.

A Windows 11 PC producing no sound during an online presentation while listening to music or watching a video can be frustrating and is undoubtedly a matter of worry.

Why is my motherboard audio not working in Windows 11?

There could be different reasons why the motherboard audio of your Windows 11 PC may not be working, such as:

The audio cable is not correctly inserted – The motherboard audio may not work if the audio wire is not in the right slot on your motherboard.

Speaker wires are not in the correct slot – Sometimes, the laptop speaker plugs are not in the correct audio slot on the back of the motherboard.

Outdated audio drivers – If your system is not running the latest versions of the audio drivers, it can cause the audio components in the motherboard to malfunction.

Incorrect audio settings in BIOS – Chances are that the audio settings in the BIOS are incorrect.

Sound is set to mute – It could be possible that you accidentally set the PC volume to mute; hence, the motherboard audio is not working.

How do I fix it when the motherboard audio is not working?

Before you proceed with the primary methods, make sure to run the preliminary checks below to see if it helps fix the issue:

Reboot your PC.

Check if you have selected the correct speaker output.

Ensure the audio and speaker cables sit in the correct slots on your motherboard.

Check if the volume is set to a minimum or is not set to mute.

You must confirm if you have installed all the recent Windows updates.

If the above steps do not help you fix the motherboard audio problem, and if it’s still not working, you can continue to try the workarounds below.

Once done, close Device Manager and restart your PC. Now, check if the motherboard sound problem is resolved.

If the Windows Update service is not running, we recommend a few practical methods to fix the issue.


Moreover, you can also try a specialized tool like Outbyte Driver Updater to automatically find the latest updates for your outdated or missing drivers.

Alternatively, you can visit the manufacturer’s website for the motherboard and manually download and install the latest driver version.Moreover, you can also try a specialized tool liketo automatically find the latest updates for your outdated or missing drivers.

2. Run the Windows audio troubleshooter

Now, close the Settings app, restart your PC, and check whether the motherboard audio is working. However, if there is still a problem with the audio device, here’s what you can do.

3. Set the audio device as the default

Expert tip:

4. Disable audio enhancements

Once done, close the dialog box, reboot your device and check if the motherboard sound problem is fixed or persists.

5. Restart audio services

Now, exit the Services window, and restart your PC. The motherboard audio is not working issue should be fixed now.

If the audio services are not responding in Windows 11, here’s an expert guide on what you can do to fix the issue.

How do I know if my motherboard sound is working?

To check if your motherboard sound is working or if it has a problem, follow the below instructions:

This indicates that your computer successfully detects the audio card, and the motherboard sound is working fine.

You must also check the sound settings, for example, if your Lenovo laptop (or any other device) is set to mute or if it has been disabled.

Alternatively, you can try different audio formats to check if that helps fix the mother sound problem.

Still experiencing troubles? Fix them with this tool:


Some driver-related issues can be solved faster by using a tailored driver solution. If you’re still having problems with your drivers, simply install OutByte Driver Updater and get it up and running immediately. Thus, let it update all drivers and fix other PC issues in no time!

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Excel Autocorrect: A Complete Guide + Time Saving Examples

What happens when you type the word ‘Drnik’ instead of ‘Drink’ in Excel?

You would notice that Excel will autocorrect that misspelled word to Drink (as shown below).

Somehow, Excel knew that this is not the correct spelling and autocorrected it to the right one.

Now, it won’t autocorrect all the misspelled words.

Just a few!

For example, try the word ‘dirnk’.

It would not be auto-corrected.

The reason some words are autocorrected and others aren’t is because there is already a fix list of words that are prefilled in Excel to autocorrect.

Note: Autocorrect is enabled by default in Excel.

In this tutorial, I will explain what Autocorrect options are and then show you some examples where you can use it to save time. I will also cover how you can disable it (i.e., turn off autocorrect)

It also allows you to get some more control when using Excel (as we will see in the examples later in this tutorial).

But let’s first understand where are the autocorrect options and what is available by default.

This will open the Autocorrect Options dialog box.

Let me explain the different tabs in the Autocorrect dialog box and the options in these.

Autocorrect Options Tab

In the Autocorrect Options tab, there are some options that are enabled by default and take care of some common issues.

Show Autocorrect Options buttons: This one is not relevant for Excel but it is for other MS applications. When this option is enabled, you see the autocorrect options in MS Word or MS PowerPoint (as shown below).

Correct two initial capitals: This option when enabled will automatically correct the two capital initials in Excel. For example, if you type ‘HEllo’, it will automatically change it to ‘Hello’

Capitalize first letter of sentences: When enabled, this option ensures that a new sentence starts with a capital letter. For example, if you type, ‘Hello. how are you?’, it will be autocorrected to ‘Hello. How are you?’

Capitalize names of days: This will automatically change the first letter of the day name if you enter in lowercase. For example, wednesday would be changed to Wednesday.

Correct accidental use of Caps lock key: In case you have the Caps lock on and you write a sentence, it will automatically correct the text and disable the Caps lock. For example, if you enter hELLO, it will automatically change it to Hello.

Replace text as you type: This is where Excel already has some commonly misspelled words (or shortcodes for some symbols). For example, if you type (c), it automatically gets converted into the copyright symbol. That is because it has been specified in the list in this option. You can add or remove words from the list (more on this in an example below).

Autocorrect Exceptions

While these autocorrect options are amazing, sometimes you may want it to not act super smart and correct these automatically.

For example, if you have the brand name ATs (where the ‘s’ is in lower case), Excel would automatically convert it into ‘Ats’.

While you like the autocorrect happening in all other cases, if you want to exclude this particular case, you can do that.

In the Autocorrect Exceptions dialog box, you can have two types of exception:

First Letter: By default, Excel capitalizes the alphabet after the period (dot). You can provide some exceptions here (there is already a list for common exceptions).

Initial Caps: If you don’t want ATs to be converted to Ats, you can specify that here.

Autoformat As You Type Tab

This tab has three options (all of which are enabled). I find all these three options useful.

Apply as you work: This will automatically add new rows and columns in an Excel Table when you enter anything in the cell adjacent to the one in the table.

Automatically as your work: When you enter a formula in a column in an Excel Table, this option will enter the same formula (with cell references adjusted) into all the cells in the column.

Actions Tab

In Microsoft applications, you can create an action based on a specific word or text.

In Excel, there is only one type of action available – which is date action.

This could be useful if you have a list of dates and want to quickly save some in your calendar or want to schedule a meeting (using Outlook).

This option is disabled by default and you have to enable it to be able to use it in Excel.

Math Autocorrect Tab

Just like you can insert symbols in an Excel cell (such as Delta, Degree, or Checkmark), you can also insert math symbols in an equation.

This tab has some text that automatically converts into the specified math symbol. For example, if you type sigma, it will replace it with the σ symbol.

Note that this will not work in the cells in the worksheet. It only works with equations.

Wish there were some words that were a part of autocorrect?

For example, let’s say you want to add the word ‘drikn’ to autocorrect so that it corrects it to ‘drink’.

You can use the below steps to add a word to autocorrect:

In the Options dialog box, select Proofing.

In the Autocorrect dialog box, enter the following:

Replace: drikn

With: drink

Now, when you type ‘drikn’ in Excel, it will autocorrect it to ‘drink’.

Before I show you some cool examples to use this, here are a few things you need to know about Autocorrect in Excel:

Autocorrect list is case sensitive. This means that you have added the word ‘drikn’ to be replaced by ‘drink’, it would only work with the lower case word. If you enter ‘Drikn’ or ‘DRIKN’, it will not be corrected.

This change is saved in Excel and would exist even if you close the workbook and open again. If you no longer want this, you need to go and delete it manually.

The change happens only when the exact word is used. For example, if you use ‘drikns’, it will not be autocorrected. For it to work, the word must not have characters just before or after it.

When you specify an autocorrect in Excel, it automatically gets activated in other MS applications such as MS Word or MS PowerPoint.

Autocorrect was created as a way to correct common spelling errors. But you can also use it in some awesome ways to save time.

Related: Spell Check in Excel.

Below are some useful examples to use Autocorrect (other than correcting a misspelled word).

Imagine you work for a company ‘ABC Technology Corporation Limited’.

No matter how fast you type, this would feel like a waste of time.

Wouldn’t you wish there was a way where you can just enter ABC (or whatever you want), and excel replaces it with the company’s name?

This is where the awesomeness of Autocorrect can help.

You can specify an abbreviation in Autocorrect, and whenever you use that abbreviation, Excel would automatically convert that into the specified text.

For example, you can specify that whenever you type ABC, Excel should automatically replace it with ‘ABC Technology Corporation Limited’.

Something as shown below:

This happens when you add an autocorrect in Excel where ABC should be corrected to ” (as shown below in the autocorrect dialog box).

What if you want to insert ABC and not the full name?

In case you don’t want the autocorrect to change ABC to the full name, simply hit Control + Z to get back ABC.

While using Control + Z works, it’s best to choose an abbreviation which you’re unlikely to use in your work. This ensures there is no chance of you getting the full name by mistake (when all you wanted was the abbreviation text).

Below are some scenarios where this autocorrect trick can save a lot of time:

You can enter file names or folder names quickly (instead of copy-pasting it every time).

If you have a list of team members, you can use their initials to enter their names quickly.

A word of caution: Any autocorrect option you specify in Excel also get activates in other MS applications such as MS Word or MS PowerPoint. In such cases, it’s best to use abbreviations that you’re not likely to use anywhere else.

There are some symbols that are hard to insert/type in Excel as these are not already available on the keyboard (such as the degree symbol or the delta symbol or bullet points).

You either need to know the keyboard shortcut (which are often long and complicated) or need to use the Insert Symbol dialog box (which is time taking).

If there are some symbols you need to use quite often, you can use the Autocorrect feature to give these symbols a code name or abbreviation.

Now when you have to enter that symbol, you can simply use the code name and it will get autocorrected to that symbol.

Below is an example where I am using the code DEGSYM to get the degree symbol in Excel.

To do this, make the following change in the Excel Autocorrect dialog box:

This trick (which I learned from this blog) is a little far-fetched, but if you work with a lot of long formulas, this can save you some time.

Below is a formula that will combine the text of the three cells that are left to the cell in which this formula is used.:

Now if you often need to create a formula such as this, it’s better to create a simple code for it and use it in Autocorrect.

In this case, I have used the code ‘com3’ in autocorrect to get the formula.

Now, you can use the code ‘com3’ to get the entire formula in a few keystrokes (as shown below):

Note: As I mentioned, this is something most of you would never have to use, but it’s still a good trick to know (just in case). The above example is a real-life case where I am currently using this in one of my projects to save time.

While I believe autocorrect is a great feature, it may not be relevant for everyone.

And in some cases, it may actually be an irritation. For example, if you type (c) or (r) or ™, Excel autocorrect is going to change the text automatically (into © or ® or ™)

In such cases, it’s best to turn off autocorrect, or at least delete the terms that you don’t want to be autocorrected.

Below are the steps to turn off autocorrect:

In the Options dialog box, select Proofing.

In the Autocorrect dialog box, within the Autocorrect tab, uncheck the ‘Replace text as you type’ option.

Note: The above steps would completely turn off the autocomplete feature where it replaces some text with the specified text. This may also mean that those commonly misspelled words will no longer be corrected.

If you want to keep the overall ‘Replace text as you type’ feature but want some exceptions, you can find the word in the list and delete it manually (or edit it).

Below are the steps to do this:

In the Options dialog box, select Proofing.

In the Autocorrect dialog box, within the Autocorrect tab, select the word that you want to delete.

You can also replace a word in Autocorrect. For example, instead of (c) turning into the copyright symbol, you can use it to be converted into the word – copyright.

If you write something and Excel changes it because of autocorrecting, you can get back the original text by hitting Control + Z.

For example, as soon as you type (c) in a cell in Excel and press the space key, it will instantly be converted into the copyright symbol.

But if you now use Control + Z, it will go back to being (c) and would remain that way.

While Autocorrect is a feature which most of the Excel users will never have to tweak, it’s good to know some ways you can use it to save time (as shown in the examples).

I have lately started using it for some formulas that are quite huge but I use these often (as shown in example 3).

You May Also Like the Following Excel Tutorials:

Python ‘Continue’ Statement—A Complete Guide (With Examples)

Python continue statement is one of the loop statements that control the flow of the loop. More specifically, the continue statement skips the “rest of the loop” and jumps into the beginning of the next iteration.

Unlike the break statement, the continue does not exit the loop.

For example, to print the odd numbers, use continue to skip printing the even numbers:

n = 0 while n < 10: n += 1 if n % 2 == 0: continue print(n)

This loop skips the print function when it encounters an even number (a number divisible by 2):

1 3 5 7 9

Here is an illustration of how the above code works when n is even:

Continue Statement in More Detail

In Python, the continue statement jumps out of the current iteration of a loop to start the next iteration.

A typical use case for a continue statement is to check if a condition is met, and skip the rest of the loop based on that.

Using the continue statement may sometimes be a key part to make an algorithm work. Sometimes it just saves resources because it prevents running excess code.

In Python, the continue statement can be used with both for and while loops.

while condition: if other_condition: continue for elem in iterable: if condition: continue

For instance, you can use the continue statement to skip printing even numbers:

n = 0 while n < 10: n += 1 if n % 2 == 0: continue print(n)


1 3 5 7 9 Continue vs If-Else in Python

The continue statement behaves in the same way as an if-else statement. Using the continue statement is essentially the same as putting the code into an if-else block.

In simple cases, it’s usually a better idea to use an if-else statement, instead of the continue!

For instance, let’s loop through numbers from 1 to 10, and print the type oddity of the numbers:

Here is the continue approach:

for num in range(1, 10): if num % 2 == 0: print("Even number: ", num) continue print("Odd number: ", num)


Odd number: 1 Even number: 2 Odd number: 3 Even number: 4 Odd number: 5 Even number: 6 Odd number: 7 Even number: 8 Odd number: 9

Then, let’s convert this approach to an if-else statement:

for num in range(1, 10): if num % 2 == 0: print("Even number: ", num) else: print("Odd number: ", num)


Odd number: 1 Even number: 2 Odd number: 3 Even number: 4 Odd number: 5 Even number: 6 Odd number: 7 Even number: 8 Odd number: 9

As you can see, the latter approach provides a cleaner way to express your intention. By looking at this piece of code it is instantly clear what it does. However, if you look at the former approach with the continue statements, you need to scratch your head a bit before you see what is going on.

This is a great example of when you can use an if-else statement instead of using the continue statement.

Also, if you take a look at the earlier example of printing the odd numbers from a range:

n = 0 while n < 10: n += 1 if n % 2 == 0: continue print(n)

You see it is cleaner to use an if-check here as well, rather than mixing it up with the continue statement:

n = 0 while n < 10: n += 1 if n % 2 != 0: print(n)

But now you may wonder why should you use continue if it only makes code more unreadable. Let’s see some good use cases for the continue statement.

When Use Continue Python

As stated earlier, you can replace the continue statement with if-else statements.

For example, this piece of code:

if condition: action() continue do_something()

Does the same as this one:

if not condition: action() else: do_something()

In simple cases, using if-else over a continue is a good idea. But there are definitely some use cases for the continue statement too.

For example:

You can avoid nested if-else statements using continue.

Continue can help you with exception handling in a for loop.

Let’s see examples of both of these.

1. Avoid Nested If-Else Statements in a Loop with Continue in Python

Imagine you have multiple conditions where you want to skip looping. If you solely rely on if-else statements, your code becomes pyramid-shaped chaos:

if not condition1: action1() if not condition2: action2() if not condition3: action3() else: statements3() else: statements2() else: statements1()

This is every developer’s nightmare. A nested if-else mess is infeasible to manage.

However, you can make the above code cleaner and flatter using the continue statement:

if condition1: statements1() continue action1()

if condition2: statements2() continue action2()

if condition3: statements3() continue action3()

Now, instead of having a nested structure of if-else statements, you have a flat structure of if statements only. This means the code is way more understandable and easier to maintain—thanks to the continue statement.

2. Continue in Error Handling—Try, Except, Continue

If you need to handle exceptions in a loop, use the continue statement to skip the “rest of the loop”.

For example, take a look at this piece of code that handles errors in a loop:

for number in [1, 2, 3]: try: print(x) except: print("Exception was thrown...") print("... But I don't care!")

Now the loop executes the last print function regardless of whether an exception is thrown or not:

Exception was thrown... ... But I don't care! Exception was thrown... ... But I don't care! Exception was thrown... ... But I don't care!

To avoid this, use the continue statement in the except block. This skips the rest of the loop when an exception occurs.

for number in [1,2,3]: try: print(x) except: print("Exception was thrown...") continue print("... But I don't care!")

Now the loop skips the last print function:

Exception was thrown... Exception was thrown... Exception was thrown...

This is useful if the last print function was something you should not accidentally run when an error occurs.


Today you learned how to use the continue statement in Python.

To recap, the continue statement in Python skips “the rest of the loop” and starts an iteration. This is useful if the rest of the loop consists of unnecessary code.

For example, you can skip printing even numbers and only print the odd numbers by:

n = 0 while n < 10: n += 1 if n % 2 == 0: continue print(n)

Here the loop skips the last print function if it encounters an even number.

However, an if-else statement is usually better than using an if statement with a continue statement. However, with multiple conditions, the continue statement prevents nested if-else blocks that are infeasible to manage.

Thanks for reading. I hope you enjoy it.

Happy coding!

Further Reading

50 Python Interview Questions with Answers

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