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What are Operators?

An operator is a symbol used for performing operations on operands. An operator operates operands. The operations can be mathematical or logical. There are different types of operators in C++ for performing different operations.

Consider the following operation:

a = x + y;

In the above statement, x and y are the operands while + is an addition operator. When the C++ compiler encounters the above statement, it will add x and y and store the result in variable a.

In this C++ Tutorial, you will Learn:

Types Of Operators in C++

There are mainly 6 different types of operators in C++

Arithmetic Operators

Relational Operators

Logical Operators

Bitwise Operators

Assignment Operators

Other Operators

Arithmetic Operators

They are the types of operators used for performing mathematical/arithmetic operations. They include:

Operator Description

+ addition operator Adds to operands.

– subtraction operator Subtracts 2nd operand from 1st operand.

* multiplication operator Multiplies 2 operands.

/ division operator. Divides numerator by denominator.

% modulus operator Returns remainder after division.

++ increment operator Increases an integer value by 1.

— decrement operator. Decreases an integer value by 1.

For example:

using namespace std; int main() { int a = 11; int b = 5; int c;

cout << “a + b is :” << a+b << endl;

cout << “a – b is :” << a-b << endl;

cout << “a * b is :” << a*b << endl;

cout << “a / b is :” << a/b << endl;

cout << “a % b is :” << a%b << endl;

cout << “a++ is :” << a++ << endl;

cout << “a– is :” << a– << endl;

return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring an integer variable a and initializing it to 11.

Declaring an integer variable b and initializing it to 5.

Declaring an integer variable c.

Printing value of operation a+b alongside other text on the console.

Printing value of operation a-b alongside other text on the console.

Printing value of operation a*b alongside other text on the console.

Printing value of operation a/b alongside other text on the console.

Printing value of operation a%b alongside other text on the console.

Printing value of operation a++ alongside other text on the console.

Printing value of operation a– alongside other text on the console.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Relational Operators

These types of operators perform comparisons on operands. For example, you may need to know which operand is greater than the other, or less than the other. They include:

Operator Description

== equal to operator. Checks equality of two operand values.

!= not equal to operator Checks equality of two operand values.

> great than operator Checks whether value of left operand is greater than value of right operand.

< less than operator. Checks whether value of left operand is less than value of right operand.

>= greater than or equal to operator Checks whether value of left operand is greater than or equal to value of right operand.

<= less than or equal to operator. Checks whether value of left operand is less than or equal to value of right operand.

For example:

using namespace std;

int main() { int a = 11; int b = 5;

cout << “a=11, b=5” << endl; if (a == b) { cout << “a == b is true” << endl; } else { cout << ” a == b is false” << endl; }

if (a < b) { cout << “a < b is true” << endl; } else { cout << “a < b is false” << endl; }

} else { }

return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring an integer variable a and initializing it to 11.

Declaring an integer variable b and initializing it to 5.

Printing some text on the console stating the values of variables a and b.

Performing the arithmetic operation, a==b in an if decision making statement to know whether it’s true or false. The { marks the beginning of the body of the if statement.

Text to print on the console if the operation a==b is true. The endl is a C++ keyword for end line. It pushes the cursor to start printing in the next line. The } marks the end of the body of the if statement.

The else part of the above if statement. It states what to do if the operation a==b is false.

Text to print on the console if the operation a==b is false. The endl is a C++ keyword for end line. It pushes the cursor to start printing in the next line. The } marks the end of the body of the else statement.

Performing the arithmetic operation, a<b in an if decision making statement to know whether it’s true or false. The { marks the beginning of the body of the if statement.

Text to print on the console if the operation a<b is true. The endl is a C++ keyword for end line. It pushes the cursor to start printing in the next line. The } marks the end of the body of the if statement.

The else part of the above if statement. It states what to do if the operation a<b is false.

Text to print on the console if the operation a<b is false. The endl is a C++ keyword for end line. It pushes the cursor to start printing in the next line. The } marks the end of the body of the else statement.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Logical Operators

The logical operators combine two/more constraints/conditions. Logical operators also complement evaluation of original condition under consideration. They include:

Operator Description

&& logical AND operator. The condition is true if both operands are not zero.

|| logical OR operator. The condition is true if one of the operands is non-zero.

! logical NOT operator. It reverses operand’s logical state. If the operand is true, the ! operator makes it false.

For example:

using namespace std; int main() { int a = 5, b = 2, c = 6, d = 4; cout << “a equals to b AND c is greater than dn”; else cout << “AND operation returned falsen”;

cout << “a equals to b OR c is greater than dn”; else cout << “Neither a is equal to b nor c is greater than dn”;

if (!b) cout << “b is zeron”; else cout << “b is not zero”;

return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added.

The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring 4 integer variables a, b, c and d and assigning them different values.

Using the && (AND) operator inside the if statement. It joins two conditions, value of a equals to value of b and, value of a is greater than value of b. First condition is false, second condition is true. False&&true is False, hence, the outcome of if is false.

Text to print on console if the above if statement is true. This won’t be executed.

Part to be executed if the above if statement is false.

Text to print on the console if the if statement is false. This will be executed.

Text to print on console if the above if statement is true. This will be executed.

Part to be executed if the above if statement is false.

Text to print on the console if the if statement is false. This will not be executed.

Checking whether value of variable is 0.

Text to print on console if the above if statement is true. This will not be executed.

Part to be executed if the above if statement is false.

Text to print on the console if the if statement is false. This will be executed.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators perform bit-level operations on operands. First, operators are converted to bit level then operations are performed on the operands. When arithmetic operations like addition and subtraction are done at bit level, results can be achieved faster. They include:

Operator Description

& (bitwise AND). It takes 2 numbers (operands) then performs AND on each bit of two numbers. If both are 1, AND returns 1, otherwise 0.

| (bitwise OR) Takes 2 numbers (operands) then performs OR on every bit of two numbers. It returns 1 if one of the bits is 1.

^ (the bitwise XOR) Takes 2 numbers (operands) then performs XOR on every bit of 2 numbers. It returns 1 if both bits are different.

<< (left shift) Takes two numbers then left shifts the bits of the first operand. The second operand determines total places to shift.

>> (right shift) Takes two numbers then right shifts the bits of the first operand. The second operand determines number of places to shift.

~ (bitwise NOT). Takes number then inverts all its bits.

using namespace std;

int main() { unsigned int p = 60; unsigned int q = 13; int z = 0;

z = p & q; cout << “p&q is : ” << z << endl;

z = p ^ q; cout << “p^q is : ” << z << endl;

z = ~p; cout << “~p is : ” << z << endl;

z = p << 2; cout << “p<<2 is: ” << z << endl;

return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring an unsigned integer variables p and assigning it a value of 60, which is, 0011 1100 in binary.

Declaring an unsigned integer variables q and assigning it a value of 13, which is, 0000 1101 in binary.

Declaring an integer variable z and initializing it to 0.

Performing the bitwise & (AND) operation on variables p and q and storing the result in variable z.

Printing the result of the above operation on the console alongside other text.

Printing the result of the above operation on the console alongside other text.

Performing the bitwise ^ (XOR) operation on variables p and q and storing the result in variable z.

Printing the result of the above operation on the console alongside other text.

Performing the bitwise ~ (NOT) operation on variables p and q and storing the result in variable z.

Printing the result of the above operation on the console alongside other text.

Performing the left shift operation on variable p and storing the result in variable z.

Printing the result of the above operation on the console alongside other text.

Performing the right shift operation on variable p and storing the result in variable z.

Printing the result of the above operation on the console alongside other text.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Assignment Operators

For example:

x = 5;

In the above example, x is the variable/operand, = is the assignment operator while 5 is the value. Here are the popular assignment operators in C++:

Operator Description

= (simple assignment operator) It assigns value on the right to variable on the left.

+= (Add AND assignment operator) It first adds value of left operand to value of right operand then assigns result to variable on the left.

-= (Subtract AND assignment operator) It first subtracts value of right operand from value of left operand then assigns result to variable on the left.

*= (Multiply AND assignment operator) It first multiplies value of left operand with value of right operand then assigns result to variable on the left.

/= (Division AND assignment operator) It first divides value of left operand by value of right operand then assigns result to variable on the left.

For example:

using namespace std; int main() { int x = 5; cout << “Initial value of x is ” << x << “n”;

x += 5; cout << “x += 5 gives :” << x << “n”;

x -= 5; cout << “x -= 5 gives : ” << x << “n”;

x *= 5; cout << “x *= 5 gives :” << x << “n”;

x /= 5; cout << “x /= 5 gives : ” << x << “n”;

return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added.

The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring an integer variables x and assigning it a value of 5.

Printing value of variable x alongside other text on the console. The n is a new line character. It moves the cursor to the next line when printing.

Adding 5 to value of variable x and assigning result to variable x.

Printing value of variable x on the console alongside other text.

Subtracting 5 from value of x and assigning result to variable x.

Printing value of variable x on the console alongside other text.

Multiplying value of variable x with 5 and assigning result to variable x.

Printing value of variable x on the console alongside other text.

Dividing value of variable x by 5 and assigning result to variable x.

Printing value of variable x on the console alongside other text.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Other Operators

Let us discuss other operators supported by C++:

sizeof operator

This operator determines a variable’s size. Use sizeof operator to determine the size of a data type.

For example:

using namespace std; int main() { cout<<“Size of int : “<< sizeof(int) << “n”;

cout<<“Size of char : ” << sizeof(char) << “n”;

cout<<“Size of float : ” << sizeof(float) << “n”;

cout<<“Size of double : ” << sizeof(double) << “n”;

return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Determining the size of integer data type using sizeof operator and printing it alongside other text on the console.

Determining the size of character data type using sizeof operator and printing it alongside other text on the console.

Determining the size of float data type using sizeof operator and printing it alongside other text on the console.

Determining the size of float data type using sizeof operator and printing it alongside other text on the console.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Comma Operator

The comma operator (,) triggers the performance of a sequence of operations. It expresses first operand and discards the result. Next, it evaluates the second operand and returns the value and type.

using namespace std; int main() { int x, y; y = 100; x = (y++, y + 10, 99 + y); cout << x; return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring two integer variables x and y.

Assigning the variable y a value of 100.

Incrementing value of y and assigning result to variable x. It start with y at 100, then increments it to 101 (y++). Next, y is added to 10. Finally, y, still at 101, is added to 99, giving 200. x is now 200.

Printing value of variable x on the console.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Conditional Operator

This operator evaluates a condition and acts based on the outcome of the evaluation.

Syntax:

Condition ? Expression2 : Expression3;

Parameters:

The Condition is the condition that is to be evaluated.

Expression1 is the expression to be executed if condition is true.

Expression3 is the expression to be executed if condition is false.

For example:

using namespace std; int main() { int a = 1, b; b = (a < 10) ? 2 : 5; cout << “value of b: ” << b << endl; return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring two integer variables a and b. Variable a has been assigned a value of 1.

Assigning value to variable b. If variable a is less than 10, b will be assigned the value 2, otherwise, b will be assigned a value of 5.

Printing value of variable b on the console alongside other text.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Operators Precedence

A single operation may have more than one operator. In that case, operator precedence determines the one evaluated first.

The following list shows the precedence of operators in C++, with decreasing precedence from left to right:

Summary:

Operators are symbols for performing logical and arithmetic operations.

Arithmetic operators help us perform various arithmetic operations on operands.

Relational operators help us perform various comparison operations on operands.

Logical operators help us perform various logical operations on operands.

Bitwise operators help us perform bitwise operations on operands.

Assignment operators help us perform various arithmetic operations on operands.

The sizeof operator returns the size of a variable or data type.

The comma operator executes a sequence of operations.

The conditional operator evaluates a condition and acts based on the outcome.

You're reading Operators In C++ With Example: What Is, Types And Programs

Types And Criteria With Example

Definition of Non-Controlling Interest

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Explanation

The portion of the interest is left out after the holding company’s claim. For example, Zee Ltd wants to acquire 60% of the equity shares of B Ltd, so in this case, out of 100% holding of B Ltd, 60% will be given to Zee. Now Zee will be the holding company, and the rest of the shares % which is 40%, will be considered as Non-controlling interest. They will not allow to manage any company affairs and not require interfering in the company’s decisions. Sometimes a situation arises when there are losses in the company, so in that case, the losses which apply to the It is combined subsidiary may exceed the non-controlling interest of the single subsidiary. The non-controlling interest holders get the share as per the confined % of the controlling interest they share in the company.

Example

Solution:

Particulars

Total

Holding Company

Controlling Interest (80%)

Non controlling interest ( 20%)

Share Capital    800,000.00                     640,000.00             160,000.00

Reserve      60,000.00                       48,000.00               12,000.00

   860,000.00                     688,000.00             172,000.00

Types

There are two types of non-controlling interest: direct non-controlling interest and another is Indirect non-controlling interest.

In direct non-controlling interest, the minority shareholders, i.e., those who are non-controlling interest bearing in the company, will get the profits to share of pre and post-acquisition. In contrast, in the case of indirect non-controlling interest, only post-acquisition profits are shared with the minority interest holders, and the pre-acquisition profits are not shared. The non-controlling Interest holders get a share of this distribution as per their controlling interest percentage in the company.

Criteria for Non-Controlling Interest Recording of Non-Controlling Interest

First of all, we must find that the acquisition is on which date.

Then find out the company which acquires and the company which is acquiring.

Calculation of Pre-acquisition and Post-acquisition profits are done.

Calculation of Pre-acquisition and Post-acquisition of reserves and surpluses are done.

In the next step, the distribution of profits takes place.

The Minority Interest record is under the head of Equity and Liability.

Minority Interest is separately recorded in the Balance sheet with its own name.

Advantages

Non-Controlling Interest holders can anyway get access to the company’s financial books.

Taking a small share as a minority interest holder in a very emerging business can help the growth of individual investors.

The Non-Controlling Interest holders can see the business developments and get an insider’s view to plan their investment in such a way.

In most cases, the minority interest holders gain a huge average return on their funds since they know the company’s norms.

The risk also subsides because a huge investment does not require from the minority interest holders, and thus they can enjoy the benefit of the low risk and more gains on returns.

In the case of a business sale, the minority interest holder can sell part of this stake without many legal complications.

Conclusion

It is a very wide term. Minority shareholders of the company are not allowed to participate in the company’s meetings, but sometimes they can make a decision for the board members. If the board’s performance is not satisfactory, then the minority shareholders can ask the board to take action against them. In the corporate, the minority interest holder meeting and voting can be very influential. Non-controlling Interest holder also makes huge profits and returns on their investment in the company. They make very little investment per the company’s emerging business but can gain huge profits. Non Controlling Interest also gets their share in case of an acquisition. It is given emphasis in the Balance Sheet and is shown as a separate item.

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Types And Benefits Of Recourse Loan With Example

What is a Recourse Loan?

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Key Takeaways

Some of the key takeaways of the article are:

A recourse loan is a financing instrument in which the lender can seize the collateral and any other assets in the defaulter’s name to recover the debt money.

Examples of other assets include other bank deposits, income sources, etc.

A recourse loan is backed by collateral and the borrower’s liability. Hence, the lender has to assume significantly lower risk in this type of loan.

Although there are many different recourse loans, the two most common types are hard money loans and auto loans. Not all mortgages are recourse loans, but the hard money loans in real estate purchases are recourse loans.

Examples of Recourse Loan

Let us now look at the following example to understand the concept of recourse loans.

Four years back, John got a stable job in a multinational company with an annual package of $75,000. Three months after joining the job, he purchased a house worth $300,000 in the countryside. However, when he checked his savings account, he realized that he had a savings of $60,000, which he decided to use as equity in this real estate purchase. So, he approached a bank for a housing loan of $240,000.

Unfortunately, today John defaulted on the bullet payment, and the lender immediately seized his house for foreclosure and subsequent recovery of the debt from the sale, resulting in proceeds of $75,000. So, the remaining $75,000 (= $150,000 – $75,000) plus the interest cost will be recovered through garnishment, wherein the outstanding loan balance will be directly deducted from his monthly paycheck until the entire loss amount is settled.

In this way, the recovery of losses occurs in a recourse loan when the borrower defaults.

Types of Recourse Loan

Hard money loans: In the case of a real estate acquisition, a hard money loan is considered a recourse loan because its terms give the lender the right to take possession of the borrower’s property after default and then resell it for a more significant gain.

Auto loans: Since the value of automobile cars depreciates over a period, which exposes the lenders to the risk of adequate recovery in the event of a default. Hence, most auto loans are recourse loans in nature.

Benefits of Recourse Loan

Some of the significant benefits of a recourse loan are as follows:

Some assets adequately back it in the form of collateral. Besides, there is the total liability of the borrower, which means that the lender doesn’t need to bear too much risk.

Borrowers get recourse loans as per their credit profile and financial position. People with good credit histories are offered favorable interest rates, while those with poor credit histories can get the loan on the back of their unlimited liability.

With such flexibility in lending terms, these loans result in the maximum flow of money in an economy through more frequent and easy lending.

First, the borrowers who default on a recourse loan may lose much more than the collateral provided because the lender invariably goes after the borrower’s other assets and income stream to recover the outstanding loan balance.

Further, the borrower who fails to repay a recourse loan loses not just the money, but such an event can be a very traumatic experience for them. It can get tricky for them to cope psychologically.

Conclusion

So, it can be seen that a recourse loan is a binding debt financing instrument that secures the lenders and makes their life much easier. But, on the other hand, it is not so favorable for the borrowers as they may be exposed to severe consequences in the event of a default. Hence, borrowers should consider all the aspects of the loans before signing up for any recourse loan.

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What Is Reliability Testing? (Example)

What is Reliability Testing?

Reliability Testing is a software testing process that checks whether the software can perform a failure-free operation in a particular environment for a specified time period. The purpose of Reliability testing is to assure that the software product is bug-free and reliable enough for its expected purpose.

Reliability means “yielding the same,” in other terms, the word “reliable” means something is dependable and that it will give the same outcome every time. The same is true for Reliability testing.

Reliability Testing Example

The probability that a PC in a store is up and running for eight hours without crashing is 99%; this is referred to as reliability.

Reliability Testing can be categorized into three segments,

Modeling

Measurement

Improvement

The following formula is for calculating the probability of failure.

Probability = Number of failing cases/ Total number of cases under consideration Factors Influencing Software Reliability

The number of faults present in the software

The way users operate the system

Reliability Testing is one of the keys to better software quality. This testing helps discover many problems in the software design and functionality.

The main purpose of reliability testing is to check whether the software meets the requirement of customer reliability.

Reliability testing will be performed at several levels. Complex systems will be tested at the unit, assembly, subsystem, and system levels.

Why do Reliability Testing?

Reliability testing is done to test the software performance under the given conditions.

The objective behind performing reliability testing are,

To find the structure of repeating failures.

To find the number of failures occurring is the specified amount of time.

To discover the main cause of failure.

To conduct Performance Testing of various modules of software applications after fixing a defect.

After the release of the product too, we can minimize the possibility of the occurrence of defects and thereby improve the software reliability. Some of the tools useful for this are- Trend Analysis, Orthogonal Defect Classification, and formal methods, etc.

Types of reliability Testing

Software reliability testing includes Feature Testing, Load Testing, and Regression Testing

Feature Testing:-

Featured Testing checks the feature provided by the software and is conducted in the following steps:-

Each operation in the software is executed at least once.

Interaction between the two operations is reduced.

Each operation has to be checked for its proper execution.

Load Testing:-

Usually, the software will perform better at the beginning of the process, and after that, it will start degrading. Load Testing is conducted to check the performance of the software under the maximum workload.

Regression Test:-

Regression testing is mainly used to check whether any new bugs have been introduced because of fixing previous bugs. Regression Testing is conducted after every change or update of the software features and their functionalities.

How to do Reliability Testing

Reliability Testing is costly compared to other types of testing. So Proper planning and management is required while doing reliability testing. This includes the testing process to be implemented, data for the test environment, test schedule, test points, etc.

To begin with reliability testing, the tester has to keep following things,

Establish reliability goals

Develop operational profile

Plan and execute tests

Use test results to drive decisions

As we discussed earlier, there are three categories in which we can perform Reliability Testing,- Modeling, Measurement, and Improvement.

The key parameters involved in Reliability Testing are:-

Probability of failure-free operation

Length of time of failure-free operation

The environment in which it is executed

Step 1) Modeling

Software Modeling Technique can be divided into two subcategories:

1. Prediction Modeling

2. Estimation Modeling

Meaningful results can be obtained by applying suitable models.

Assumptions and abstractions can be made to simplify the problems, and no single model will be suitable for all situations. The major differences between the two models are:-

Issues Prediction Models Estimation Models

Data Reference It uses historical data It uses current data from software development.

When used in Development Cycle It will usually be created before the development or testing phases. It will usually be used later in the Software Development Life Cycle.

Time Frame It will predict reliability in the future. It will predict the reliability either for the present time or in the future time.

Step 2) Measurement

Software reliability cannot be measured directly; hence, other related factors are considered to estimate software reliability. The current practices of Software Reliability Measurement are divided into four categories:-

Mesurement 1: Product Metrics

Product metrics are the combination of 4 types of metrics:

Function point Metric:- Function Pont Metric is the method for measuring the functionality of Software Development. It will consider the count of inputs, outputs, master files, etc. It measures the functionality delivered to the user and is independent of the programming language.

Complexity is directly related to software reliability, so representing complexity is important. The complexity-oriented metric determines the complexity of a program’s control structure by simplifying the code into a graphical representation.

Test Coverage Metrics:- It is a way of estimating fault and reliability by completing software product tests. Software reliability means it is the function of determining that the system has been completely verified and tested.

Measurement 2: Project Management Metrics

Researchers have realized that good management can result in better products.

Good management can achieve higher reliability by using better development, risk management,and configuration management processes.

Measurement 3: Process Metrics

The quality of the product is directly related to the process. Process metrics can be used to estimate, monitor, and improve the reliability and quality of software.

Measurement 4: Fault and Failure Metrics

Fault and Failure Metrics are mainly used to check whether the system is completely failure-free. Both the types of faults found during the testing process (i.e. before delivery) as well as the failure reported by users after delivery are collected, summarized, and analyzed to achieve this goal.

Software reliability is measured in terms of the mean time between failures (MTBF). MTBF consists of

Mean to failure (MTTF): It is the time difference between two consecutive failures.

Mean time to repair (MTTR): It is the time required to fix the failure.

MTBF = MTTF + MTTR

Reliability for good software is a number between 0 and 1.

Reliability increases when errors or bugs from the program are removed.

Step 3) Improvement

Improvement completely depends upon the problems occurred in the application or system, or else the characteristics of the software. According to the complexity of the software module, the way of improvement will also differ. Two main constraints, time and budget will limit the efforts put into software reliability improvement.

Example Methods for Reliability Testing

Testing for reliability is about exercising an application to discover and remove failures before the system is deployed.

There are mainly three approaches used for Reliability Testing

Test-Retest Reliability

Parallel Forms Reliability

Decision Consistency

Below we tried to explain all these with an example.

Test-Retest Reliability

To estimate test-retest reliability, a single group of examinees will perform the testing process only a few days or weeks apart. The time should be short enough so that the examinee’s skills in the area can be assessed. The relationship between the examinee’s scores from two different administrations is estimated through statistical correlation. This type of reliability demonstrates the extent to which a test is able to produce stable, consistent scores across time.

Parallel Forms Reliability

Many exams have multiple formats of question papers, these parallel forms of exam provide Security. Parallel forms reliability is estimated by administrating both forms of the exam to the same group of examinees. The examinee’s scores on the two test forms are correlated in order to determine how similar the two test forms function. This reliability estimate is a measure of how consistent examinees’ scores can be expected across test forms.

Decision Consistency

After doing Test-Retest Reliability and Parallel Form Reliability, we will get a result of examinees either passing or failing. The reliability of this classification decision is estimated in decision consistency reliability.

Importance of Reliability Testing

A thorough assessment of reliability is required to improve the performance of software products and processes. Testing software reliability will help software managers and practitioners to a great extent.

To check the reliability of the software via testing:-

A large number of test cases should be executed for an extended period to determine how long the software will execute without failure.

The test case distribution should match the software’s actual or planned operational profile. The more often a function of the software is executed, the greater the percentage of test cases that should be allocated to that function or subset.

Some of the Reliability testing tools used for Software Reliability are:

1. WEIBULL++:- Reliability Life Data Analysis

2. RGA:- Reliability Growth Analysis

3. RCM:-Reliability Centered Maintenance

Summary:

Reliability Testing is an important part of a reliability engineering program. More correctly, it is the soul of a reliability engineering program. Furthermore, reliability tests are mainly designed to uncover particular failure modes and other problems during software testing.

In Software Engineering, Reliability Testing can be categorized into three segments,

Modeling

Measurement

Improvement

Factors Influencing Software Reliability

The number of faults present in the software

The way users operate the system

What Is Adhoc Testing? (Types, Examples)

Adhoc testing is frequently carried out to break the system in unusual ways. Adhoc testing’s most remarkable aspect is that it lacks any test design approach for creating test cases.

The procedure is generally used to identify software flaws. Because adhoc testing lacks test cases, it is often carried out without documentation.

Take a closer look at the procedure. Ad-Hoc testing is a kind of testing that comes under the category of ‘Unstructured Testing.’

Structured Testing Vs. Unstructured Testing

StructuredTesting − Everything that happens throughout the testing method, from the development of test cases to their sequential execution, is written in this technique. This script is followed by the testers while doing tests.

Unstructured Testing − Testing is typically done by error guessing in this technique, where the testers construct the test cases throughout the testing process.

Adhoc Testing

Adhoc testing is a term that refers to testing that is done on the fly. It is a form of unstructured testing technique, as described above, in which no systematic strategy is made before the testing process begins. As a result, no requirement specification or test case preparation and design is done prior to testing.

Ad-hoc testing is generally carried out by a tester who is well-versed in the program under test, both in terms of what it does and how it works. This testing is carried out by constructing test cases at random using error guessing and running them without regard for any test criteria.

Finding possible regions of the program where mistakes may exist is an important aspect of this testing. Because of this, it’s also known as Monkey Testing or Random Testing. As a result, only those testers with a thorough understanding of the product should execute this test.

Ad-Hoc testing has the benefit of saving time that would otherwise be spent on documents such as test requirements, test case planning, design, and so on. It is also often done after the structured testing has been completed. This is done in order to uncover software problems that would not have been found by following the previously prepared test cases.

Adhoc Testing Types

Following are some of the types of Adhoc Testing −

Buddy Testing

Monkey Testing

Pair Testing

Buddy Testing

In this sort of Ad-Hoc testing, at least two individuals work together to conduct the tests. At least one software tester and one software developer normally make up this team.

This sort of testing occurs after the unit testing of a module has been finished.

On that module, the two ‘buddies’ collaborate to develop legitimate test cases.

This is done to ensure that the tester does not report problems caused by incorrect test cases. This form of testing may also be thought of as a hybrid of unit and system testing.

Monkey Testing

The term ‘monkey testing’ refers to the unpredictability of the technique utilized in this testing.

Random inputs are presented to the program under test, and their associated outputs are monitored.

Any occurrences of errors, inconsistencies, or system failures are identified based on the acquired outputs.

Pair Testing

This kind of testing is similar to buddy testing. In this case, however, just a couple of testers collaborate on the modules for testing.

They collaborate to uncover faults and problems by sharing ideas, views, and expertise on the same computer.

To acquire a distinct perspective on each issue, testers are partnered according to their knowledge levels and experience.

Adhoc Testing Characteristics

This testing occurs after the program has been subjected to formal testing methodologies. The reason for this is because ad-hoc tests are performed to discover application abnormalities that cannot be foreseen prior to testing.

This testing can only be carried out by testers who have a deep understanding of how the program works. Because good ‘error guessing’ can only be done when the tester understands what the program does and how it operates, this is the case.

The Ad-hoc testing approach is best for detecting defects and inconsistencies in an application that lead to serious gaps. Errors like this are often difficult to spot.

This kind of testing requires less time than other types of testing. This is due to the fact that it is carried out without any previous planning, design, or structure.

Ad-hoc testing is done just once since any faults discovered need retesting.

Adhoc Tests Examples

Testing an application’s functionality when the browser settings are altered. Identifying faults that occur when the JavaScript option is deactivated in various browsers, for example.

Putting the app through its paces on several platforms. It’s critical to test if the produced application runs smoothly across a variety of operating systems and browsers.

Providing inputs to the system that are outside of the valid-inputs range in order to see whether the application’s response is adequate.

Copying and modifying the application’s URL to make it run in a different browser. This is done to ensure that unauthenticated access to the system is not granted to any unauthorized users.

Going through a series of random actions or traveling around the program at random in order to verify the outcomes achieved by using a certain combination of odd inputs.

When Should Adhoc Testing Be Conducted?

When there isn’t enough time to complete extensive and thorough testing, which involves producing test requirements documents, test cases, and test case designs, ad-hoc testing is usually used. Following the completion of formal testing methodologies is the ideal time to undertake this sort of testing.

Ad-hoc testing, on the other hand, may be carried out in the midst of software development. It may be done after the program has been completely created, or even after just a few modules have been produced. It may also be carried out as part of the official testing procedure. However, there are a few instances in which this testing is not required. As a result, every tester must be aware of when to avoid this kind of testing.

The following are some examples of why ad-hoc testing should not be done −

When Beta testing is in progress, no ad hoc testing should be done. This is due to the fact that beta testing entails customers evaluating the generated software in order to make ideas for new features that should be included or to modify the requirements for it.

It is also recommended that this testing not be carried out in test cases that already include problems. Before the mistakes can be deleted from the system, they must first be properly recorded. The test cases must be retested once they have been fixed to confirm that they are operating properly.

What Benefits Does Adhoc Testing Offer?

Many mistakes that go undiscovered when just formal testing techniques are employed may be uncovered by randomly testing the program, which is one benefit of ad-hoc testing.

The testers are allowed to explore the program as they see fit, based on their intuition and comprehension of it. They may then run the tests as they proceed, assisting them in identifying mistakes as they go.

The application can be simply tested by both testers and developers since no test cases need to be prepared and built. This makes it easier for developers to write more effective and error-free code.

This testing may also aid in the construction of one-of-a-kind test scenarios that can discover problems ineffectively. As a result, such test cases may be combined with other scheduled test cases in formal testing.

Because there is no formal method for ad-hoc testing, it may be done at any point throughout the software development lifecycle.

It may be used in conjunction with other testing methods to create more informed and effective findings.

Drawbacks of Ad hoc Testing

It’s difficult for the tester to recreate an issue since the testing method isn’t defined and no specific test case is performed. This is because the tester must recall the precise procedures he took to get the mistake, which is not always achievable.

Erroneous errors are sometimes reported as a result of the tester randomly executing invalid test cases, which causes a problem in the following error correcting operations.

Ad-hoc testing will not be able to find any mistakes if the testers do not have previous knowledge of the workings of the application under test. This is due to the fact that testers must work through error guessing and construct and run test cases on the fly.

Ad-hoc testing does not guarantee that faults will be discovered. Proactive error guessing for testing is entirely dependent on the tester’s competence and expertise.

The amount of time and effort that goes into this testing is unknown since there are no previously established and documented test cases. Finding even a single mistake might take a long time in certain cases.

Conducting Adhoc Testing: Best Practices

It’s critical to understand the most effective and efficient methods to use the Ad-Hoc testing methodology in order to perform it properly. This is because if tests are not completed properly, the time and effort invested in them would be squandered. As a result, in order to undertake this sort of testing, one must be aware of the best practices that may aid in a more complete testing approach −

Expertise in Software

Ascertain that the tester assigned to the application’s ad-hoc testing has a thorough understanding of the application.

To support better ‘error guessing’ on the application, the tester must be conversant with all of the program’s capabilities.

Finding more mistakes, flaws, and inconsistencies becomes simpler with enough information to back up the tester’s testing method.

Identify Potentially Error-Prone Areas

If testers are unfamiliar with the program, the best approach is for them to begin their testing by looking for the section of the application where the most of the mistakes occur.

Selecting such sensitive locations for ad-hoc testing may aid in the detection of problems.

Determine which areas of the test should be prioritized.

It is best to begin testing with the portions of the program that are most often utilized by end-users or customers. This aids in the protection of critical features and the early detection of any bugs.

Make a rough plan for the test.

Although adhoc testing does not need any previous preparation or documentation, a basic strategy may be highly beneficial and efficient. Simply noting the important points and locations that need to be tested will assist the testers in covering most of the program in the shortest period of time.

Tools

To make testing easier, you’ll need the necessary tools such as debuggers, task monitors, and profilers.

Example And Explanation With Excel Template

What is CAPE Ratio?

CAPE Ratio, abbreviated form for Cyclically-Adjusted Price to Earnings Ratio, is used as a valuation tool to measure the relationship between the company’s earnings per share over a period of 10 years and company’s stock price flushing out all the fluctuations which may occur in the company’s profits during various business cycles and different periods and seasons.

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Formula

The formula for CAPE ratio is:

CAPE Ratio = Stock Price / 10-Years Average Earnings Per Share Adjusted for Inflation

Explanation

CAPE ratio is considered to be a valuation measure which takes into consideration the effect of a company’s earning over a period of a decade post considering the effect of inflation and its simultaneous relation with that company’s stock price in the market. The utmost important point here is that the CAPE ratio can be also applied to any type of indices to get an idea about whether the market is over-valued or under-valued.

This is also referred to as the Shiller P/E ratio, as it was largely popularized by a professor of Yale University, namely, Robert Shiller.

Example of CAPE Ratio (With Excel Template)

Let’s take an example to understand the calculation in a better manner.

You can download this CAPE Ratio Excel Template here – CAPE Ratio Excel Template

Example #1

Carivacous Ltd is listed in a stock exchange currently trading at $1500 per share. The current year EPS of the company is $125. Below given table provides details of earnings per share (EPS) of the past 10 years pertaining to the stock of Carivacous Ltd. Along with EPS, inflation rates are provided pertaining to the specified years respectively. Calculate the CAPE ratio for Carivacous Ltd.

Solution:

PE Ratio is calculated using the formula given below

PE Ratio = 1500 / 125

PE Ratio = 12

10-Years Average Earnings Per Share Adjusted for Inflation is calculated as

CAPE Ratio is calculated using the formula given below

CAPE Ratio = Stock Price / 10-Years Average Earnings Per Share Adjusted for Inflation

CAPE Ratio = 1500 / 49.73

CAPE Ratio = 30.16

Thus, it can be seen that although the PE for the stock for the current year is 12, its CAPE ratio is at 30. Alternatively, you can also say that the stock is overvalued.

Example #2

Let us take a different example to understand the valuation aspect of a stock or index. Now, consider that an Index has a PE ratio of, say 20 with a historical PE ratio of 24. Now, post computing the CAPE ratio (as explained in the earlier example), the CAPE ratio for the index stands at 34. Please give an explanation of the valuation of the index.

In the case at hand, it is pertinent to note that the current PE of the Index, 20, is very similar or nearby to its historical PE, which is at 24.

Now, you may note that the historical PE is a formula to calculate average PE of the stock or index over the period of 10 years as a simple average. On the other hand, the CAPE ratio stands at 34, which takes into consideration the inflation and cyclical impact of the EPS over a period of 10 years. Even after such adjusted, the CAPE ratio is fairly higher than the current PE and historical PE, which makes the index quite overvalued and risky to be invested in.

Uses of CAPE Ratio

It is mainly used as a financial tool to analyze the PE ratio of a company or index post considers the impact of cyclical changes in the economy over a period of 10 years.

Apart from being used as a financial tool, the CAPE ratio is used to determine whether the stock of a listed company is over-valued or under-valued, as it is quite similar to the PE ratio.

A consistent analysis of the CAPE ratio will be useful as a tool for analyzing the future trends and patterns of the stock or index, as the case may be.

Below we will learn about the limitation and benefits of CAPE ratio:

Advantages

Given below are the main benefits of CAPE ratio:

It is a very simple mathematical formula and thus easy to calculate by anyone having a basic knowledge of finance;

Due to the fact that this ratio considers the average value of EPS over a period of time, it balances out the effect of any cyclical returns the company may generate and thus gives a better picture of the earnings by the company;

It takes into consideration the impact of inflation on the economy.

The main concern is that the ratio considers an average of earnings for a period of 10 years. In a practical scenario, there are various changes that a business may undergo in such a long timeframe and thus affecting the way business is being carried on for over the years. In such a situation, it may not be right to compare a business today with what it was a decade ago;

In addition to the above point, it needs to be noted that the law governing the business changes massively over such long timeframe and making an impact of the way business is being carried on;

It may be noted that there are various companies that declare and pay dividends to their shareholders. Ratio is completely independent of this and does not take into account any dividend numbers;

Another point that is important and yet not considered while computing the ratio is that the market keeps fluctuating and so does the demand market of a particular stock.

Conclusion

To conclude the whole discussion, it shall be right to say that the CAPE ratio is a tool or method to measure the valuation aspect of any stock or index. It provides an answer in the form of whether the stock or index is over-valued or under-valued. It takes into consideration the impact from an economics point of view and also of the fact of any cyclical changes which may affect stock or index and thus it a better measure to get an insight about future returns of the stock or index in question.

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This is a guide to the CAPE Ratio. Here we discuss how to calculate the cape ratio along with practical examples. We also provide a downloadable excel template. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

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