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The Covid-19 crisis had a disruptive impact on the global economy and accelerated digital transformation. Consequently, it is estimated that at least half of the businesses will own an automation or orchestration cloud automation platform by 2025.

Workload automation has many benefits to businesses, from reducing costs to minimizing human errors. However, just automating tasks or a single task is not enough to meet the needs of today’s businesses. Advanced capabilities such as orchestration can provide a more efficient solution to changing needs of businesses.

Understanding the differences between automation and orchestration can help businesses to choose the right deployment automation solutions for their needs. In this research, we’ll explore the differences between automation and orchestration, use case areas, and guide you to choose the best for your needs.

Orchestration vs. Automation: Differences and Commons

ManagementUsually does not require sophisticated management tools Often requires sophisticated tools to manage different systems and services

Automation and orchestration are two terms that are often used interchangeably, but they represent different concepts in the world of information technology.

Automation can be best defined as making a task to be done by itself. It can be either setting up regular newsletter mail to your customers, saving your orders, or creating invoices for your customers from the e-commerce marketplace. It allows employees and companies to increase their efficiency. It is typically task-oriented, focusing on automating repetitive tasks to increase efficiency and accuracy. For example, automating an email response system or a data backup process is an automated task.

Orchestration takes automation to a higher level by coordinating and managing multiple automated tasks to accomplish a larger workflow or process. It focuses on managing interconnections and interactions among different systems and services. For example, orchestration in a cloud environment could involve coordinating compute resources, databases, and networking configurations to deploy a complex application. Orchestration is a new but an important topic for today’s businesses. It represents automating multiple tasks as a time and cost-effective solution to challenges such as large workflows and processes.

If we consider an orchestra as an analogy, “automation” is the ability of each individual musician to play their instrument without direction or human intervention (automated tasks), while “orchestration” is the role of the conductor in ensuring all the musicians play together in harmony to create a symphony (coordinating and managing the overall process).

Today, new technologies and the developing nature of businesses make handling tasks manually impossible. Thus, businesses aim to accelerate IT processes in order to get the work done in the shortest time possible via automated processes. Automation itself may not be sufficient to address today’s time-consuming challenges in business processes. As covered above, orchestration can coordinate multiple automated tasks and provide a quicker, optimized software and deployment automation solution suitable to today’s business needs.

On the other hand, automation and orchestration offer some common benefits across many areas. Some of the common benefits of automation orchestration include: 

Boosts teamwork and coordination between them, 

Combines multiple automation and accelerates the delivery, 

Helps to reduce costs for resources such as human and IT, 

Ensures quality and transparency for the projects.

ActiveBatch enables businesses to coordinate and manage multiple automation and workflows through data centers, other cloud services, and ERP systems. The tool offers reliable, secure, and timely monitoring across systems and processes. Redwood simplifies to orchestrate processes end-to-end with low-code and ready-to-use templates in over 25 scripting languages.

What are use case areas of automation and orchestration? Automation

Automation use case areas are vast and range from IT infrastructure or cloud automation to HR processes. Some of the use case areas of automation are;

IT processes: Automation helps in many IT processes. Some of the areas that automation can help are:

Data warehouse management,

Extract, transform, and load (ETL),

Hybrid cloud management, etc.

HR processes: Automation can replace manual and repetitive processes such as payroll and employee onboarding.

Accounting processes: Automation can help in profit & loss statement creation and billing processes. It reduces the chance of mistakes and improves the quality of reports.

Software Testing: Automation is widely used to conduct repetitive but necessary tests on software to ensure functionality and identify bugs.

Customer Support: Automated email responses or chatbots can handle basic customer queries, providing instant support and freeing up human staff for more complex issues

Data Analysis: Tasks such as data cleaning, sorting, and basic analysis can be automated to provide real-time insights and save significant time.

Marketing: Email marketing campaigns, social media posts, and other digital marketing tasks can be scheduled and automated.


Orchestration of automated tasks can enable companies to save time and resources and free up employees’ time for more complex tasks. Orchestration has multiple use case areas, such as:

DevOps: Software development and operations teams working in silos can create a lack of coordination. However, effective coordination between the teams is needed to minimize the risks of errors and missing deadlines. Orchestration provides a solution by automating multiple workflows and processes and bridging the gap between the teams.  

IT: IT orchestration helps IT teams configure, manage and coordinate computer systems, applications, and services. Processes such as virtual server provisioning and database management or workflows that can support DevOps can be automated simultaneously by orchestration. 

Cloud: Cloud orchestration coordinates many automated activities across clouds and streamlines the workflows such as scaling, performance monitoring, and policy checks. Thus, cloud orchestration is essential for a sustainable business ecosystem.

Data Center Operations: Orchestration is used in managing the myriad tasks in data centers, such as workload balancing, disaster recovery, network configurations, and more.

IT Service Management (ITSM): Orchestration can help coordinate multiple IT services, ensure smooth service delivery, and quick response to incidents or service requests.

Business Process Management: Orchestration can manage and optimize complex business processes involving multiple organizational systems and departments.

Which one to choose?

All kinds of businesses can benefit from automation and orchestration platforms and simplify their workflows. The steps listed below can guide you in choosing the best solution for your needs.

Do some research and find out your needs. You can get a start by looking for how automation or orchestration can help your business. Do you need an IT or DevOps tool? Also, find out the areas where you can save your resources by automation or orchestration.

Decide between automation and orchestration. While automation can be seen as a first step for starting, orchestration tools can be a further step. Orchestration maintains the coordination of numerous automated tasks. By using an orchestration tool, numerous automated tasks can be managed easily. Therefore, automation will be best for your business if you are a new starter. If you have many automated tasks and struggle to manage them, then orchestration can help you to coordinate them.

Choose a suitable tool for your needs. Also, make sure that the tool has features such as data privacy and compliance with industry requirements. 

Further Reading

To learn more about automation and orchestration, feel free to read our articles:

If you are looking for automation and other orchestration platforms automation tools, you can visit our hub for the automation software landscape.

To gain a more comprehensive overview of workload automation and automation tools, download our whitepaper on the topic:

If you have other questions about automation and orchestration, we can help:

Cem regularly speaks at international technology conferences. He graduated from Bogazici University as a computer engineer and holds an MBA from Columbia Business School.





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Gimp Vs Photoshop – Which Should You Choose?

There have been many months that I’ve questioned why I’m paying the monthly subscription to Photoshop when there are programs like GIMP that seem to do almost the same thing for free. So with the idea of saving a few bucks every month, I tried GIMP to see if it could replace Photoshop in my regular editing workflow. Although there were some pretty great things about GIMP, I can’t say it offered enough to make me jump ship from Photoshop.

However, for some, GIMP could be a perfect option to get started with, depending on what you need out of an editing program. So here’s everything you need to know about GIMP Vs Photoshop, what to consider about each program, and why I’m not going to be canceling my Adobe subscription anytime soon.

What Is GIMP?

GIMP, short for GNU Image Manipulation Program, is a free, open-source raster-based image processor. The program is commonly used for photo editing, manipulation, and retouching, as well as free-form drawing and converting files into different formats.

GIMP was not designed for digital drawing and graphic design. However, the program has tools and features available for these functions, but not on a professional level. The program is well-suited for individuals doing a one-off image editing project for an assignment or showing a mock-up.

The program is also a good starting point for beginners who want to try photo editing and basic graphic design tasks before committing to a subscription-based program. It can also be used to make minor adjustments for clients by a freelancer trying to break into the industry.

However, the downside is that the program may experience glitches and bugs occasionally since it’s open source. You may also find limitations with the software when editing photos as the features, capabilities, and tools are limited compared to other programs such as Photoshop.

GIMP will likely be complex for users who aren’t familiar with any graphics editing programs. However, the interface is clean, and each tool offers a lengthy description to help you learn the various functions.


Free and open-source software

Raster-based editing capabilities

Easy learning curve for beginners

Similar interface to Adobe products


Limited editing tools and features

Capabilities not at an industry-level standard

What Is Photoshop?

Adobe Photoshop is a raster-based photo editing, manipulation, and retouching program that is used by creative professionals worldwide. The software has been labeled the industry-standard leader among photographers and graphic designers.

The program allows you to edit images down to individual pixels while preserving quality. You can also do certain graphic design processes, such as website design, as there are certain vector processing capabilities.

Photoshop is a useful tool for users who want to create professional work in the photography, graphic design, or digital marketing industry, as well as many others. The program is used by interior designers and architects too.

Not only can users use the program to manipulate photos on a high level, such as removing objects, adding objects, or manipulating features, but they can also use Photoshop as a tool for creating mockups, text effects, and so much more.

Photoshop constantly evolves and offers more in-depth tools and features, including many AI functions that speed up your workflow and seamlessly complete complex tasks. The program has several tools, features, and capabilities, and even experts need to consistently learn the new functions and features as the program evolves.

While Photoshop offers several capabilities, it is a steep learning curve for users to get used to the program.


Industry-standard program

High-level editing and graphic design tools and features

Constant updates and bug fixes by a dedicated Adobe team

Regular intuitive AI developments


Subscription-based and costly for beginners

A steep learning curve, especially for users new to editing software

Comparing Features Of GIMP Vs Photoshop

To decide which program is the best for you, it helps to compare the features of both programs head-to-head. I will compare the general photo editing, graphic design, and drawing capabilities and features to show you what each program offers.

Whether you are new to design software or looking to upgrade your programs, the comparisons below will help you see which program is better for you.

General Capabilities

GIMP is primarily a photo editing program, so the general capabilities relate to editing raster-based images. Users can manipulate and edit photos in various ways, such as cropping, resizing, and creating new image compositions.

The program has a crop tool, multiple selection tools, a path tool, a type tool, and various color tools, which provide users with the necessary functions to apply basic edits and create new compositions.

GIMP is limited in vector-based tools as there are no shape tools, so users can’t create logos or vector graphics unless drawing freehand or by using paths.

GIMP offers limited adjustment layers, such as Curves, Levels, Saturation, and more. This enables users to add effects and adjust the colors on images.

The program also has several filters, such as noise, animation, and web filters. You can use these filters on photos to create unique effects.

Users can edit and save files in multiple common formats, including PSD, PNG, JPEG, WebP, PDF, GIF, and more.

The interface is relatively clean and straightforward, which helps beginners learn the program more efficiently. The tools offer a description for new users to know what the tool will accomplish. There is also a large online community with helpful tutorials and experienced users to assist new users.

Photoshop is primarily a photo editing program but offers vector-based tools and other functions that allow for specific graphic design and digital drawing possibilities. This enables users to crop, re-color, and manipulate photos and create digital marketing material, such as social media posts and website banners.

There are currently over 69 tools in Photoshop, and every Photoshop tool has a function to work on photos or new designs. You will find more tools and processes in Photoshop than GIMP, as you also have specific vector tools in Photoshop, such as shape tools.

There are several selection tools in Photoshop, including more tools than GIMP. In addition, many of Photoshop’s selection tools are taking on AI capabilities, such as the Select Subject feature.

Photoshop has a panel of adjustment layers, including Curves, Levels, Black-and-White, Hue/Saturation, and Color Balance. You can use these to correct colors or create unique photo effects.

The program also offers several filters, including Noise, Distort, and Blur. Photoshop offers better filters than GIMP when looking at Neural filters, which use AI to complete complex tasks, such as adding color to a black-and-white or sepia-tone photo when restoring old photos.

Photoshop is compatible with a more extensive range of common file formats than GIMP, which offers the main ones users likely need. You can open and export files as PSD, PDF, GIF, PNG, JPEG, WebP, PSB, TIFF, and more. The main format that stands out is the ability to open and process RAW image files.

Photoshop’s interface is complex and can be daunting to beginners unfamiliar with similar software. The learning curve is steep, but everything makes sense once you learn the program and get used to the interface.

Photoshop also has a fully customizable workspace to save different tools and panels for different workflows.

Both programs use layers to allow for selective edits, and the two programs also have general retouching tools. You can access various brushes in both programs, although Photoshop has more default brush presets available.

Personally, I find that GIMP is not as intuitive, and some of the processes are awkward, such as the text feature where each letter is placed in a separate box while editing it. The adjustment controls are busy and confusing. Photoshop is more straightforward in how you use tools and functions. The panels are cleaner and more straightforward to use and understand.

Photo Editing Capabilities

Since these two programs are designed for photo editing, it is the space where both programs shine. Both programs allow users to edit photos using non-destructive editing techniques. Common image editing processes include exposure edits, object removal, and color grading functions.

In GIMP, you can find exposure edits in the adjustment options, especially the Exposure, Curves, Levels, Shadows/Highlights, and Brightness/Contrast adjustments. You can use any of these features to edit the exposure by darkening, lightening, or changing the image’s contrast.

You can apply these effects to the entire image, a layer, or a selection for more selective edits.

GIMP also offers object removal features, which include the Clone Tool, Perspective Clone, and Healing Tool. These tools can all be used to remove objects or retouch certain areas of the photo.

Using the Levels or Curves adjustments, you can create color grading effects in GIMP. The Levels option works to correct the white balance of an image, while Curves allows you to add creative color grading effects to the photos by using the RGB curves.

In Photoshop, you can access the same adjustment options as GIMP to adjust the exposure of an image. In this regard, the exposure edit capabilities are tied. You can produce similar edits in both programs using the adjustment options.

For instance, you can use the Levels adjustment in Photoshop to adjust the image’s exposure.

Object removal in Photoshop is excellent, and there are several functions to achieve these edits. You have access to the same tools as GIMP, plus more, such as the Patch Tool and Content-Aware Fill.

Photoshop added a new tool in the May 2023 version 24.5 update called the Remove Tool, which uses AI to accurately remove objects by merely brushing over them, simplifying the process of removing objects from photos.

Graphic Design Capabilities

Photo editing and graphic design are often interchangeable practices used by many creative professionals. This is why having a program with certain graphic design capabilities is important.

GIMP offers limited graphic design capabilities and can be used to create basic designs for school, college projects, or once-off designs. However, the program isn’t suited for more complex and professional designs.

GIMP offers a text tool that allows you to add text to the canvas and format the text by changing the color, spacing, font, and more. The tool is relatively easy to use but slightly awkward in how you add and edit text in the design.

GIMP falls short in shape creation as there are no straightforward shape tools to use, which is limiting when designing web assets and posters. There is a workaround where you can use the selection tools or the pen tool to create shapes, but this limits the editing capabilities of the shapes.

Selection tools are essential when creating designs for web and print, as they allow you to cut out and rearrange objects in the layout. GIMP has basic selection tools, such as rectangle and ellipse select, freehand select, and color-based selection tools.

These tools allow for basic selections but make it challenging to create complex selections, such as selecting a subject to cut out of the background. This limits users in the graphic design capabilities.

GIMP only works with the RGB color mode, which limits users from designing artwork for print. Print projects must be in CMYK color mode to print correctly without any color inconsistencies.

Photoshop has vertical and horizontal type tools, which gives users more flexibility when adding text to designs. The Type Tools are straightforward and allow users to customize the text by changing the color, font, size, and other text formatting options, such as kerning and spacing adjustments. Users can also easily add images or patterns to the text.

The program has shape tools, including basic shapes and custom shapes. This allows users to easily draw shapes to add to the design and create logos and other marketing material using vector shapes.

Photoshop has the same selection tools that GIMP has, plus more. The selection tools are more intuitive and allow users to make more selections in designs, such as using the Object Selection Tool to remove the background or isolate objects for edits.

Users can work in a fully CMYK color mode in Photoshop, allowing them to create designs for print that are correctly colored without causing any color deviations on print. This means Photoshop is more suited for digital and print graphic design purposes.

Photoshop is also easy to work in alongside Adobe’s other graphic design programs, such as Illustrator and InDesign, to create cohesive designs on a professional level.

Drawing Features

Neither of these programs is recommended for digital artists if drawing is the primary purpose. These programs weren’t designed for creating artwork. I recommend Adobe Fresco, Procreate, Krita, or Inkscape if you need a dedicated drawing app.

However, GIMP and Photoshop do offer basic drawing tools that you can use on digital projects and images.

GIMP offers a few tools for drawing, including the Paintbrush, Pencil, Airbrush, Ink, and MyPaint Brush tool. These tools all provide different types of drawing capabilities. The Paintbrush tool is similar to the Brush Tool in Photoshop.

Each brush tool offers the same brush presets, which is limited. However, the MyPaint Brush tool provides a more extensive selection of brush presets to create unique drawings on the canvas. The tool is linked to the free program called MyPaint.

When using the other brush tools, there are several settings to customize the brush presets, including Size, Angle, Jitter, Opacity, and more.

You can also change the blending mode of the brush. GIMP offers more blending mode options than Photoshop.

Photoshop also offers limited drawing tools, which include the Brush Tool, Pencil Tool, Color Replacement Tool, and Mixer Brush Tool. The Brush and Pencil tools offer simple brush strokes, but the Color Replacement and Mixer Tools offer more creative drawing functions.

The tools offer several brush presets to choose from, and users can create or load new brush presets.

You can adjust basic settings using the Options bar, such as the Brush Size, Flow, Smoothing, Opacity, and Hardness.

There is also a full Brush Settings panel for more complex setting adjustments, including Spacing, Jitter, Smoothing, and more.

Photoshop also offers several Blending Modes for the brushes.

While neither program offers in-depth tools for digital drawing on the level of creating Manga, Comics, or Animations, there are basic drawing tools in both programs with a decent amount of settings and brush presets to choose from.

Winner: Tied

GIMP Vs Photoshop – Which Is Better Overall?

Photoshop has several high-level photo editing and graphic design capabilities, with a decent range of drawing tools. The program also supports and saves files in multiple common and useful file formats. Photoshop is also a much-needed tool in a professional graphic designer’s toolkit as it works hand-in-hand with Adobe Illustrator and InDesign to offer a complete package.

The program works non-destructively on high-quality RAW images to produce stunning compositions and can also be used to create digital designs from scratch.

If you are looking for a once-off photo editor with a few graphic design and drawing capabilities, a free program such as GIMP is ideal, as you don’t need to commit to a yearly subscription.

GIMP offers all the essential tools and functions a beginner or hobbyist would need without the yearly price tag. The tools and features available in GIMP are impressive and can produce good results. However, the drawbacks prevent the program from being used professionally.

When it all boils down, Photoshop allows users to imagine and create professional-standard photo edits and designs using the almost endless tools, filters, and features available. However, while Photoshop offers a lot, there are instances where it won’t be the right program.

Who Should Use GIMP?

GIMP is an excellent choice for beginners and hobbyists who want to try out photo editing and graphic design to see if it is something they want to pursue. You can also use the program to start as a freelancer and gain some clients before spending money on a paid program.

GIMP is ideal for making quick one-off adjustments when you don’t need an extensive range of tools. For instance, it can be used for basic image adjustments such as cropping, exposure edits, and basic color grading.

This program is an excellent choice to use alongside free graphic design software such as Canva.

Who Should Use Photoshop?

If you are a serious hobbyist or professional needing to create industry-level compositions and designs, you need to have a capable program such as Photoshop. The program allows you to manipulate photos in ways you may not know are possible.

Photoshop also has the capacity to keep images high-quality while adding creative elements. The program is also suited for creating digital and print marketing materials. You can professionally design posters, websites, YouTube banners, and logos in Photoshop.

Photoshop is the best choice for professionals or businesses looking for a high-quality image editor capable of various graphic design tasks. The program is the right choice for anyone able to pay for the software, as Photoshop comes at a monthly fee with an annual commitment in most cases.

Which App Development Platform Should You Choose In 2023?

Mobile program development platforms offer an internet and mobile development company with strong tools for creating and deploying programs. But in the last couple of years the assortment of alternatives for mobile program development platforms has proliferated at an unparalleled speed.

Every one of the numerous platforms differs from every other concerning development tools, kinds of programs supported, lifecycle management attributes, and a multitude of different aspects.

With these mounting quantities of choices and also a fast evolving marketplace, you are going to discover that it’s even more difficult to pick the most acceptable program development platform to your mobile app development in 2023.

The Kind of Apps Supported

You have to pick your platform based on the specifications of your program. Some programs support the evolution of programs for specific operating systems and apparatus. Some programs allow mobile program development businesses to come up with hybrid programs that run on multiple platforms, while some only support only native codes.

The installation options of this program development platform: Many mobile app developers provide cloud solutions for program deployment, but some provide personal cloud or on-premises information centres. Additionally, some programs provide environments and tools that encourage scalability, allowing users to scale their program developments after installation.

The Kind of Development Environment Offered by the Platform

Some programs allow top program developers in the USA to integrate their own integrated development environments (IDE) and control source codes from the development procedures.

When executing a mobile program development using a platform that doesn’t enable the usage of third party script libraries, then you have to make certain the system’s proprietary IDE provides you with all the required tools such as templates, code editors, and compilers necessary to create all of the functionalities required in your program.

The Middleware and Back-End Services Provided by the Framework

The middleware and backend services are as crucial to the overall achievement of this evolution as the programmer tools and skills required for the development. You have to make certain that the program development system you use supplies all of the services required for computation, direction of code implementation, backend data storage, and also the rest of the exceptional requirement of your program’s lifecycle.

The integrations okay on the stage

Your mobile program development will likely need third party integration or will need to discuss info with other databases like a centralized data centre. A superb internet and mobile development agency involve comprehensive research on the integrations supported by the stage that a customer is picking for.

Business Intelligence capacities: You want to guarantee the preferred platform offers you operational and behavioral analytics which offer business insights.

Data Security

Data security must form a part of your own priorities when selecting a development stage. You have to be educated about user authentication, data security and information access management protocols of this development platform of choice.

Its highly expedient to go for an app development platform which supports all of the many phases of a program’s lifecycle, from the layout into the creation, testing and supply. You need to pick a platform which supports the entirety of this development lifecycle in a coherent manner which lets you handle the several phases of this program’s lifecycle via a centralized portal site.

Client Reviews for the Platform

In the last couple of decades, there has been an increasing change in the manners top cellular developers choose app growth platforms. The tendency is shifting from the dominance of major analysts since the go-to supply of information into the rising popularity of business IT review sites as dependable sources for information regarding development platforms.

Content created by hundreds of customers in the kind of consumer reviews and evaluations of program development platforms typically take into consideration a lot of factors aside from the technical capacities available on the platform. These include customer on grooming, consumer training, vendor calling expertise, etc.. Therefore, these reviews generally provide greater insights on a stage out of many verified users of this program.

Top 5 App Development Platforms for 2023

AI Capabilities

AI is a fad that is strengthening from the day, and odds are that you will most likely need to incorporate AI technology into your program development later on. Thus, you have to go for an app development platform which supports the integration of AI at pretty much any period of this program’s lifecycle.

Adobe PhoneGap

With this application, leading cellular developers in the USA can create programs without hardware constraints, and further extend the capacities of programs whenever necessary.

JQuery Mobile

This is just another highly rated cross-platform framework which makes it possible for a net and mobile development company to construct code only once then port it over multiple platforms such as Kindle, iOS, Mac, Nook, and a range of other people. Additionally, it supports scalability and a Wide Variety of third-party integrations

Corona SDK

This frame is famous for expediting the rate of developments. Corona SDK program developments are often ten times quicker than another kind of program development. The platform enables mobile and web development organizations to produce programs quickly without undermining the quality of the program.


Used by over 74 percent of programmers for developing commercial programs, Ionic is a free, exceptionally strong program development system based on easy web languages such as HTML, CSS3 and JavaScript. Top portable developers in the united states get to upload and download templates and jobs intended to be accessible materials throughout the Ionic sector.

There is also the Ionic laboratory which offers a web and program development firm with free testing tools for analyzing cellular app developments.


Still not relying about which internet development platform you’d use in 2023? Reach out to us to get more insights.

N95 Vs P95 Vs R95: Which Air Pollution Face Masks You Should Choose

With increasing Air Pollution levels and the spread of COVID-19 Coronavirus, people are panic buying face masks. However, most people don’t know the mask they are buying and whether those masks will be effective or not. So, in this article, we will compare the most popular face mask types and let you know their features and shortcomings. We will also discuss if these masks can help you during the COVID-19 pandemic. So, here are the different masks-type available in the market and their features.

What Air Pollution Face Masks You Should Buy

Before we begin, let us first discuss what we mean by air pollution masks and how they work.

What are Face Masks and How They Work?

Face Masks as the name suggests are masks that cover your nose and mouth. The masks filter out pollutants when you breathe through them. Thus, ensuring that you are breathing clean and purified air. Most air pollution masks are made of different layers. Each layer is designed for stopping a different pollutant. The three main filters are:

Primary filter – It’s the outer-layer. Its work is to stop all the large particles such as dust and pollen. While it can stop PM10 particulate matter, it cannot remove PM2.5.

Particle filter – The second layer is the particle filter. It’s there to stop the smaller pollutants such as PM2.5.

Carbon filter – Some high-end pollution masks also contain an activated carbon filter that filters out the gaseous pollutants that cannot be trapped by either primary or particle filter.

“PM10 and PM2.5 refer to particulate matters that are 10 micrometers and 2.5 micrometers in size. Since these particulates are so small, they stay in the air for a long time and can easily pass through our nasal cavity and accumulate in our lungs causing breathing problems, asthma, and even prolonged heart and lung diseases.”

Types of Air Pollution Face Masks

Surgery Masks (Face Masks)

Surgery masks are simple face masks most people use (see picture below). Surgery masks are often made in different thicknesses and are designed only to protect you against contact and liquid. They are there to provide a barrier between your mouth and nose and environment. A good quality surgery mask if worn properly can help block droplets, splashes, and splatter that may contain germs.

But that’s all it can do. It cannot stop smaller particles resulting from sneezes or air pollutants like PM particles and gaseous air pollutants. So, it makes no sense to wear these masks. They only bring a false sense of protection. It’s even more true for the over-the-counter masks we buy as they are not put through any standard checks.

N95 Air Masks

N95 air masks are the basic air pollution masks that everyone should wear for protection against air pollution. It can filter 95% of all air pollutants including some part of PM2.5 pollutants. But this cannot protect you against oil-based pollutants. A good thing about these masks is that you can wash them and use them for six months before you need to replace them. N95 masks are available in several designs. When shopping for this mask, choose one with a separate air valve for exhaled air. This will prevent the building of moisture and fogging of spectacles.

N99 and N100 masks

These are premium masks and can filter particles like PM2.5 with 99% and 99.97% efficiency. They are great for people living in highly polluted cities like New Delhi. If you cannot find these masks, buy at least the N95 mask. Also, like N95, these masks are not good against oil-based pollutants, so keep that in mind.

P95 Masks

If you want total protection, you should buy the P95 masks. The major difference between the P-series and N-series masks is that the former can stop the oil-based pollutants while the latter cannot. However, this also means that P95 masks are costly, not readily available, and require replacement after just 40 hours of use. That’s why these masks are meant for industrial usage and are not recommended for everyday use.

R95 Masks

These are the main masks types. If you look at the masks’ name, you might have realized that the numbers and letters stand for specific properties. In the table below, I have concisely explained everything.


NNot Oil Resistant (Only stops Airborne Particulate)

ROil Resistant (Stops Airborne Particulate as well as oil-based pollutants to some extent)

POil Proof (Stops Airborne Particulate as well as oil-based pollutants )

95Stops 95% of Airborne Particles

99Stops 99% of Airborne Particles

100Stops 99.99% of Airborne Particles

So, those are the mask types that you can buy for protecting yourself against air pollution. If you don’t remember the different mask types, just remember the table, and it will help you figure out the mask you are buying.

Can The Face Masks Protect You Against COVID-19

One of the biggest questions that I have seen people ask is whether these masks can protect a person against COVID-19. Well, the short answer is no. As I have mentioned above, the surgery masks cannot stop smaller droplets that people release during sneezing, and hence, you can still inhale and contract COVID-19 while wearing the mask.

So, to be extra careful, use sanitizer or wash hands whenever you touch your mask. That’s why it’s still a better option to isolate yourself if you want to protect yourself. Masks can help you stop spreading COVID-19 to other people if you have already contracted the virus. But again, the best option is to self-quarantine yourself and seek professional medical help.

Choose the Best Air Pollution Mask for You

Ducky One 2 Mini Vs. Razer Huntsman Mini: Which Is Better?

The Ducky One 2 mini and the Razer Huntsman mini are popular 60% mechanical gaming keyboards.

If you’re a mid-range to a pro gamer, you know that your keyboard can significantly affect your gaming action’s consistency, speed, and response. This means that having the right keyboard can be the game-changer you’ve been looking for.

While a gaming keyboard’s design is also critical, it’s less important than features like response, speed, ergonomics, and actuation. A keyboard that ranks well in response and actuation but falls below standards in design will still be a much better gaming keyboard than the one whose design is superior but whose features are subpar.

If you’re in the market for a Tenkeyless (TKL) gaming keyboard, you’ve likely come across recommendations of either the Ducky One 2 mini or the Huntsman mini. This is because they are some of the best mechanical gaming keyboards.

Ducky One 2 Mini


Rating: 4.5 out of 5.

Razer Huntsman Mini


Before diving into the particulars of both keyboards, it’s essential to understand what some terms used in the article mean. Here are a few examples of terms you will encounter in the article:

If you’re hearing key travel distance for the first time, it refers to the distance the keyboard switch requires to send a command after pressing. When defining key travel distance, we circle two terms: low travel keyboard and full travel keyboard. Outside of gaming, optimal key travel distance is a matter of preference. But, where distance can impact the outcome, like in gaming, it becomes an essential distinction.

Low-travel keyboards have a total key distance of 1.0mm to 2.5mm. You require minimal pressure to press the key and give a command. Full-travel keyboards have key travel distances of 3.0mm to 4.0mm. Typically, most mechanical gaming keyboards have full travel distance as they have fewer accidental strokes and are durable.

Actuation distance relates closely to key travel distance but has different meanings. Actuation distance is the distance the key travels to make a signal. This distance isn’t necessarily the entire length of the keystroke which would refer to the key travel distance.

Typically, actuation distance determines the responsiveness of a keyboard. The keyboard’s actuation distance may be insignificant if you’re a casual gamer. But pro gamers know that saving milliseconds in a competitive game is critical to the outcome.

Like any other product, durability is important when considering high-quality keyboards. Keyboards are rated by the number of keystrokes they can accept. Mid-range mechanical keyboards have a lifespan of 20-50 million keystrokes, while high-quality keyboards have a 50-100 million keystrokes lifespan.

Actuation force is the pressure you have to apply for the keys to respond to a command. Keys can have minimal, mid-range, or high actuation force. Keyboards with high actuation force require more pressure to actuate keys than minimal ones.

Now that we have reviewed the basic terms used in this article let’s delve into the actual review of these two keyboards.

Ducky One 2 Mini Keyboard


Rating: 4.5 out of 5.

See Price

Ducky One 2 Mini is one of the most popular mechanical gaming keyboards, and with good reason. It has several useful features, is durable, and has sleek packaging. It is also considered a premium keyboard, meaning you’ll have to dig deeper into your pockets to enjoy this high-quality keyboard.

As stated in the introduction, Ducky One 2 mini is a 60% gaming keyboard. The size is ideal for people with a clean, minimalist look or those with tight desk space. As for the design, the One 2 Mini has a clean, sophisticated look with dual-color backing. The keyboard’s top is black, and the back is black. The backplate is made of high-quality reinforced plastic, so you don’t have to worry about durability.

The keys are low-profile with a floating design. Their design and the dual-color combination complement the RGB backlighting. The entire design and color make the Ducky One 2 Mini one of the most appealing gaming keyboards available today.

Moving on to the connection type, this keyboard uses USB type B and C connections. The USB-A port is at the top-left edge of the keyboard. It also comes with a case to keep the cables clean and to help with packaging when traveling. For ergonomics, the One 2 Mini has two-level adjustable levers with rubber tips. The rubber tips are an excellent addition to ensuring the keyboard remains steady during game time.

One of the features that help any gaming keyboard stand out is the versatility of optical switches. The One 2 Mini does well on this front. It offers several Cherry MX Switch options like Brown, Blue, Speed, and others. All the Cherry MX switch options listed above will work well with this keyboard, but your preference depends on the extent of tactility and feel. This keyboard’s switches are smooth and stable, with no wobble or muffling. The response and feel might make typing with this keyboard your best typing experience yet. For gamers looking for the tactile bump, the Cherry MX Browns, Silent Reds, or the Speeds are ideal.

Away from the switches, the One 2 Mini also outperforms the keycaps front. The keycaps are made of durable PBT plastic that is highly resistant to shine. They also have a laser engraved label on the side and are thicker than other keycaps in the market. The packaging includes special keycaps and a keycap puller. Because the Ducky One 2 Mini is a standard 60% keyboard, it’s relatively easy to find compatible keycaps.

One of the downsides of this keyboard is that it doesn’t have dedicated software. But this shouldn’t be a big challenge because the manual has all the information on key combinations needed to customize the keyboard’s program. The One 2 Mini supports 6 profiles, each with 3-level macros. The manual also details the shortcuts and key combinations to customizing these profiles and macros.

For the RGB backlighting, the One 2 mini has various modes and colors you can utilize. You can assign specific or different colors depending on your preference. It also features playful modes like Gambling and Minesweeper, which you can utilize using the assigned shortcuts.

Overall, the Ducky One 2 Mini’s features, quality, and one-year warranty make it one of the best mechanical gaming keyboards on the market.

Texture high-quality PBT keycaps

Full per-key RGB backlighting

No board flex

Customizable macro support

Mechanical switches

No arrow keys

No dedicated software

Razer Huntsman Mini


Rating: 4.5 out of 5.

See Price

The Razer Huntsman Mini is an ambitious keyboard as it seeks to offer gamers everything they need in a compact keyboard. For its price, users can expect nothing less. From its design and features, the Huntsman mini gets close to being the ultimate gaming keyboard. It has an aluminum top plate and a sturdy plastic base. From the touch, everything feels strong and durable.

As you can tell from the name, it’s a 60% keyboard that works well for minimalist setups and small desk spaces. 60% keyboards are also ideal for travel. It comes in two colors: black and white. Overall the Huntsman Mini has a laid back but sophisticated design.

For connectivity, the Huntsman mini has a detachable type –C cable. It has a cable latch that ensures your cable is secured during gaming. The cable is long enough to ensure comfortable movement and distance during game time. In addition to the detachable cable, the Huntsman Mini ensures maximum comfort by having two-level adjustable feet inclined to 6 or 9 degrees.

For users who prioritize keyboards with dedicated software, the possibilities are endless with the Huntsman Mini’s Synapse software. You can reconfigure the RGB backlighting, remap the keys and save software configuration profiles. This keyboard supports up to 5 individual profiles.

Unfortunately, you can’t remap the 60% specific shortcut because of the secondary input limit.

One of the notable user-friendly features this keyboard has is the printed functions that help you perform basic customizations without downloading the software. These printed functions include the pre=set RGB effects, game mode activation, how to set your PC to sleep, and others.

Overall, the Huntsman Mini comes close to becoming the perfect gaming mechanical keyboard. Everything from the design, optical switches, PBT caps, and all other features is meant to deliver the ultimate gaming experience.

It has light optical switches that are responsive

Shine-free, durable PBT keycaps

Detachable cable

5 onboard memory profiles

Dedicated software

No dedicated arrow keys

Now that you understand the features, capabilities, pros, and cons of the One 2 Mini and Huntsman Mini, we’ll delve into a side-by-side comparison. Because both are top-rated gaming keyboards, it helps to have an in-depth comparison, especially if you’re looking to settle on either.

The design doesn’t significantly affect a keyboard’s capability, but it doesn’t have to have an appealing keyboard with even better features. The Ducky One 2 mini and the Huntsman Mini are 60% keyboards. The former has a dual-color scheme with white at the top and a black backplate. The Huntsman mini has an aluminum top plate and plastic backplate. While both are clean and stylish, the dual-color combination and the RGB backlighting effects have a more appealing look. If design matters to you, the Ducky One 2 mini is the one to go for.

There’s not much difference in the materials used in making both keyboards in terms of quality. The aluminum top plate and the plastic backplate on the Huntsman mini are sturdy and durable. So is the reinforced plastic on the Ducky One 2 Mini.

Both keycaps are made of PBT plastic which is high-quality and resistant to shine. The One 2 Mini’s keycaps are slightly thicker. But this doesn’t speak to the overall quality of the keyboard. None stands out, so it’s a tie on durability.

Both keyboards have high-quality PBT keycaps, but the One 2 Mini stands out with its customization. The One 2 Mini gives you extra keycaps that you can interchange with the ones on the keyboard to get a different color combination. You don’t get extras with the Huntsman Mini. Instead, Razer offers linear replacements purchased separately.

The Huntsman mini has Razer optical switches, while the One 2 Mini comes with Cherry MX Switches. The Cherry MX Switches have a smooth tactile bump. They have a total key travel distance of 4.00mm and a 45g actuation force. These switches score high in sound and weighting, especially for users who like light tactile switches.

Even though the Cherry MX Switches are excellent, they are still not a match for the Huntsman Mini’s optical switches. The optical switches have a 3.5mm total key travel and a 1.5 actuation point. The actuation force is 45g. The specifics of the optical switches mean the Huntsman Mini’s response is faster than the Cherry MX’s.

The difference in response is especially notable in competitive gaming, where seconds can significantly differ. The Cherry MXs feel better in smoothness and stability, but the optical switches respond better.

The ultimate choice depends on your priority, but if you’re willing to compromise on the response, the Ducky One 2 Mini is still a solid choice.

Both keyboards are 60% and similar in height, but the Ducky One is shorter with a slight angle. The One 2 Mini’s angle and height put less strain on the wrist. You don’t have to raise your arm slightly to type like you would with the Huntsman Mini. Both have two-level adjustable kickstands, so they tie on this part.

Both keyboards are standard 60% size with detachable USB-C cables. This makes both easy to pack for travel. The One 2 Mini has a cable storage case which is a plus, while the Huntsman Mini doesn’t. The case, however, doesn’t make a strong case for the One 2 Mini, as portability is the same.

You could argue that One 2 Mini is wider and taller, but the Huntsman Mini is wider, so they are even. The difference comes in at the slight weight difference. The One 2 Mini is slightly heavier than the Huntsman Mini, so if we consider all factors, the Huntsman wins.

On the surface, it can feel like both keyboards have similar RGB backlighting, but there are significant differences when you dig deeper. The main difference is in the customization. The One 2 Mini doesn’t require software for backlighting customization, while the Huntsman mini relies on the software. Comparing both processes, the Huntsman Mini customization process requires an extra step that the One 2 Mini doesn’t.

Additionally, the One 2 Mini’s dual-color concept compliments its RGB backlighting creating a more intense reflection and overall better appeal.

The Huntsman Mini has shorter key travel and actuation point, but the variety of switches the Ducky One 2 Mini offers means that you can find switches that match the Huntsman experience. This factor alone gives the One 2 Mini an edge over the other.

The One 2 Mini also has stabilizers, and the tactile bump and feedback of the switches make typing a breeze. Generally, tactile switches are best for typing because the feedback means better speed and accuracy. The angled floating key design on the One 2 Mini also means better wrist positioning and, consequently, better typing.

While the optical switches have shorter actuation distance, the Cherry MX switches have better tactile feedback and better typing pace features.

Even though the Cherry MX switches are equally good for gaming, the actuation point and the key travel distance on the Huntsman Mini’s optical switches save you seconds of reaction time in gaming. This puts the Huntsman Mini ahead of the One 2 mini in gaming. For users looking for an exclusive gaming keyboard without considering the differences in design and backlighting, the Huntsman Mini is an excellent choice.

While this article is focused on the Ducky One 2 Mini and the Razer Huntsman Mini, there are other things to consider when looking for a gaming keyboard. These include:

There’s no one-size-fits-all keyboard in gaming; some prefer the 60% keyboard, while others prefer the 75% or full-size keyboards. Tenkeyless and 605 keyboards are ideal for gamers with minimal working space or a minimalist and clean gaming setup. The full-size and 75% keyboards work for those with more space.

Like all other devices, quality is critical when buying a mechanical gaming keyboard. First, good quality guarantees longevity. If you’re looking to spend a significant amount on the purchase, you’ll need to feel like you’re getting value for money. Finally, high quality assures you that the keyboard won’t break down after a few months of use and can withstand intense gaming.

High-quality keyboards also offer replacement parts to replace the broken features instead of replacing the complete keyboard.

On the other hand, Membrane keys are popular with heavy-handed users who like to press firmly on the keyboard. They are also low-profile and typically affordable.

While features like key technology, connectivity, and quality are critical considerations, your budget ultimately dictates the gaming keyboard you purchase. Remember that price is not synonymous with quality. Several affordable gaming keyboard options are affordable and have excellent features.

The Ducky One 2 Mini and Razer Huntsman Mini are supreme gaming keyboards. Both aim to offer gamers the ultimate experience with many features targeting user experience, comfort, durability, speed, and response. However, the One 2 Mini scores higher in the design, switch, and ergonomics sectors, while the Huntsman Mini ranks better at gaming and software.

Both are durable and portable as they are 60% with detachable cables. Even though this article reviews the keyboard’s features, it all comes down to preference. Remember to refer to your budget before settling on either.

Most aspects of gaming vary from person to person. Some gamers prefer tactile switches like the Cherry MX switches on the One 2 Mini, while others lean towards the optical switches on the Huntsman mini.

The keyboards’ main differences are switch types, ergonomics, software, and accessories. The One 2 Mini has Cherry MX switches, while the Huntsman Mini has optical switches. The former doesn’t have dedicated software and has an angled floating key design, while the latter has dedicated software and is relatively lower.

How To Choose Data Science Consultants In 2023

According to the U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), data science is among the 10 fastest-growing jobs of the next decade and the expected growth rate through 2030 is 31%. Yet, data science talent is still scarce. That’s why businesses that lack data science talent may need to rely on data science consulting companies.

In this article, we explain how, when and why to choose a data science consultant.

What is data science consulting?

Data science consulting is the activity to effect change by building up the client’s analytics skills, developing competencies, and understanding of the inner workings of their business.

Data science consulting firms provide 4 services to companies. These services are:

Strategy building

Validation of strategy

Model development

Employee training


The strategy part of the consulting explores what’s possible with data and aims to create a plan. This part requires extensive knowledge regarding the use cases. Depending on the client’s industry, the data collection method, regulation, and objectives can be completely different.

For one case, the objective can be optimizing the energy consumption of a plant, which can be achieved through collecting the data through machinery and getting the necessary paperwork from the business owner itself. Whereas, for an FMCG firm, trying to create a data pipeline to maximize the sales, the data collection can be limited by red tape, consumer protection and personal data protection requires considering the legal side of the work.

Collaboration between different departments is the key to success. The nature of data science makes the process more interdisciplinary and interdepartmental.

The strategy usually answers the following questions:

What to do?

What to collect?

How to collect it?

Where to store it?

How to protect it?

How to implement the solution?


The validation step is necessary to validate the identified strategy. While creating the strategy can be completed in hours in urgent cases, implementation can take months. Therefore, it is important to validate the strategy. 

Validation is a natural step in finalizing the strategy. However, this may cause a conflict of interest if the validity of the strategy is evaluated by the same people providing the consultation.

In most consulting projects, in the interest of time, the same team builds and validates the strategy. Having another team for validation would require them to start the analysis from almost scratch, creating significant inefficiencies. Separation of strategy and its validation makes it easier to find and spot the problems in the strategy and clarify how the validation step improved the strategy.

Validation includes answering these questions:

What is the insight behind this strategy?

What is a low-cost way to test this strategy without fully implementing its findings?

What do tests tell about the validity of the strategy?


Development is the activity of designing and building a modern data product or internal tool. This is more like the IT part of data science consulting. Custom-tailored solutions for specific problems require a heavy emphasis on the development process.


Training provided by consultants boosts the data literacy of your teams. Continuous training ensures that your teams are aware of the data science development process built by consultants. This also ensures that internal teams capture the main points and provide a meaningful contribution to the continuous improvement of the entire data science process.

Recommendations for end users: 

Ensure the data science consultancy team follows collaboration best practices and a process that is interdisciplinary and interdepartmental.

Choose a data science consultancy that separates strategy and its validation. This makes it easier to find and spot the problems in the strategy and clarify how the validation step improved the strategy. 

Check developers’ domain expertise by interviewing and asking them domain specific questions.

Reach out to customer references of consultants and check the success of continuous improvement of data science initiatives started by consultants.

How do data science consultants work?

Top management consultants like McKinsey have been putting significant effort into modernizing their data science project management approaches. Their frameworks are similar to the ones we outlined above, but it would be good to look at the areas they emphasize.

Source of Value

Everything starts with the problem definition. The problem of most data science projects is finding a new opportunity that will enforce revenue growth and performance improvement. Consultants can also help in this step by identifying key value creation opportunities powered by analytics/data science. The most common use cases are improving customer-facing activities, optimizing internal processes with data-driven insights, and expanding clients’ portfolio of offerings.

Data Ecosystem

Consultants look for data sources to use in the project to unlock the value of data sources.

Data sources that data science consultants can use are:

Modeling Insights

Data science consultants either build new data models or select from existing models specific to the client’s problem. These models are tested on the client’s data to uncover insights. They can use tools such as AutoML to increase the efficiency in the modeling process.

Turning Insights into Actions

With their models’ results, consultants create a feasible action plan that will include both process and technology changes. These steps can also include rolling out models built during the project to empower operational decisions.

Adoption of Technology

Data science consultants should know that their clients may not have a data-driven culture and be ready to adapt to new data science tools. Consultants spend time on training clients’ employees, ensuring implementation of the prescribed actions, and enabling an effective change management.

Optimization of Organization and Governance

Lastly, consultants help build data governance and IT infrastructure to ensure that organizations can have lasting performance improvement. Performance improvements that do not address governance aspects of change tend to be short-lived.

Necessary Skills for Data Science Consultants

Below image from AltexSoft highlights what skills are required to be a data scientist consultant. Required and preferred skills can be categorized as follows:

Required skills:

Coding languages

Data management skills

Knowledge of pre-existing ML algorithms and models

Business acumen and collaboration

Preferred skills:

Knowledge of frameworks and libraries


TensorFlow for neural networks

Skicit-learn for machine learning

Experience in the industry

Enthusiasm for problem-solving

Cases where hiring a data science consulting agency is a better option

Data science projects can be handled via the following approaches:

Companies can choose either option, yet, each approach has pros and cons depending on the business’ industry, objectives, and budget. 

There is no suitable off-the-shelf solution for your use case: If companies have specific needs and existing off-the-shelf solutions do not meet those expectations, consulting companies can help build customized products so that businesses eliminate or minimize off-the-shelf solution risks such as costly customization projects.

Budget is not enough to build an in-house team: A data science team includes roles such as Chief Data Officer, data analyst, business analyst, data scientist, data architect, data engineer, etc. Building such a team is an expensive approach considering an average salary of a single data scientist working in-house is $94,000. 

Data science projects don’t require unique proprietary data: If your case and data are not unique, then consultants probably worked with similar data before. Their experience can help accelerate your projects faster.

Data set does not contain sensitive information: Companies must be careful before sharing data with third parties due to data privacy regulations. Methods such as synthetic data generation and data masking can help companies make their data ready for sharing.

Your company needs guidance on identifying the business aspects of data science projects: This is why consulting firms are still popular. Most companies are specialized in the market, and their knowledge of strategy and implementation of projects is limited. Consultants help identify business processes where data science projects can be implemented.

For more information on model development approaches, please check our guide on the ideal way to build AI projects.

Data Science Consulting Industry

The industry players can be categorized into four types. These are


Historical Tech Companies,



For more on specific industry players, you can check our article on AI consulting landscape.

3 Factors to Consider When Choosing a Data Science Consultant

3 criteria can help choose the right data consulting partner:


Analytics knowledge

Duration of service they offer

Here are the questions you should be asking:

Do they have enough domain and field experience?

It is important to see that the consultants experienced a project in a similar setting. This shows that the consultant can put meaningful insight and knows the practices in the specific industry. Organizations need to examine consultants’ previous projects to see that they have expertise in the following approaches:




Do they have analytics translators on the team?

A data scientist’s technical capabilities are important for consultants as long as they can turn insights into actionable decisions. Analytics translators work with the data science team and combine their findings with the business domain expertise to create actionable decisions. 

Translators should be able to interpret and translate analytics insights into business benefits and guide the analytics work. These consultants should have domain knowledge, technical fluency, project management skills, and an entrepreneurial spirit to achieve this goal.

Can they provide a long-term plan?

You need to make sure that the consultant’s plan is viable and can be upgraded regularly. Data science is a field experiencing constant improvement, so it would be important to see its potential. Think about it as a long-term investment, you may need consulting again, and updates so make sure they can provide the greater planning horizon.

Salaries of data science consultants

Salaries of data science consultants vary based on experience and location. According to Neuvoo, these are the average data science consultant salaries by country. The top and bottom end of the ranges can help you understand how experience impacts salary:

CountryMedian Salary (per year)Lowest Salary (per year)Highest Salary (per year) United States$122,850$50,000$183,300 United Kingdom£65,000£21,100£90,000 Germany€80,000€27,384€95,000 France€31,992 €20,640€62,740 India₹ 1,287,500₹ 216,000₹ 1,750,000

If you have access to data which you would like to use to build a machine learning model:

If you are looking for a consultant for your data science project, feel free to check our regularly updated list of data science consultants or our list of AI consultants. We can also help you find data science consultants even if you haven’t identified your machine learning problem yet:

Cem regularly speaks at international technology conferences. He graduated from Bogazici University as a computer engineer and holds an MBA from Columbia Business School.





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