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The two most commonly used methods to gain access to unauthorized accounts are (a) Brute Force Attack, and (b) Password Spray Attack. We have explained Brute Force Attacks earlier. This article focuses on Password Spray Attack – what it is and how to protect yourself from such attacks.

Password Spray Attack Definition

Password Spray Attack is quite the opposite of Brute Force Attack. In Brute Force attacks, hackers choose a vulnerable ID and enter passwords one after another hoping some password might let them in. Basically, Brute Force is many passwords applied to just one ID.

Coming to Password Spray attacks, there is one password applied to multiple user IDs so that at least one of the user ID is compromised. For Password Spray attacks, hackers collect multiple user IDs using social engineering or other phishing methods. It often happens that at least one of those users is using a simple password like 12345678 or even [email protected]. This vulnerability (or lack of info on how to create strong passwords) is exploited in Password Spray Attacks.

In a Password Spray Attack, the hacker would apply a carefully constructed password for all the user IDs he or she has collected. If lucky, the hacker might gain access to one account from where s/he can further penetrate into the computer network.

Password Spray Attack can thus be defined as applying the same password to multiple user accounts in an organization to secure unauthorized access to one of those accounts.

Brute Force Attack vs Password Spray Attack

The problem with Brute Force Attacks is that systems can be locked down after a certain number of attempts with different passwords. For example, if you set up the server to accept only three attempts otherwise lock down the system where login is taking place, the system will lock down for just three invalid password entries. Some organizations allow three while others allow up to ten invalid attempts. Many websites use this locking method these days. This precaution is a problem with Brute Force Attacks as the system lockdown will alert the administrators about the attack.

To circumvent that, the idea of collecting user IDs and applying probable passwords to them was created. With Password Spray Attack too, certain precautions are practiced by the hackers. For example, if they tried to apply password1 to all the user accounts, they will not start applying password2 to those accounts soon after finishing the first round. They’ll leave a period of at least 30 minutes among hacking attempts.

Protecting against Password Spray Attacks

Both Brute Force Attack and Password Spray attacks can be stopped midway provided that there are related security policies in place. The 30 min gap if left out, the system will again lock down if a provision is made for that. Certain other things also can be applied, like adding time difference between logins on two user accounts. If it is a fraction of a second, increase timing for two user accounts to log in. Such policies help in alerting the administers who can then shut down the servers or lock them down so that no read-write operation happens on databases.

The first thing to protect your organization from Password Spray Attacks is to educate your employees about the types of social engineering attacks, phishing attacks, and the importance of passwords. That way employees won’t use any predictable passwords for their accounts. Another method is admins providing the users with strong passwords, explaining the need to be cautious so that they don’t note down the passwords and stick it to their computers.

There are some methods that help in identifying the vulnerabilities in your organizational systems. For example, if you are using Office 365 Enterprise, you can run Attack Simulator to know if any of your employees are using a weak password.

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Human Intelligence: Meaning And Definition

Meaning of Human Intelligence

Human intelligence is the intellectual capability of an individual, which is manifested by complex cognitive achievements and varying levels of motivation as per the given situation and self-awareness. Usually. the degree of intelligence decides the work efficiency of a person.

Definition of Human Intelligence

Many Psychologists tried to define human intelligence in different ways; so, here we will discuss some of the important definitions:

Stern (1914) defines:

“Intelligence is a general capacity of an individual consciously to adjust his thinking to new requirements. It is general mental adaptability to new problems and conditions of life.”

Wechsler (1944) defines:

“Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with his environment.”

Woodworth and Marquis (1948) define:

“Intelligence means intellect put to use. It is the use of intellectual abilities for handling a situation or accomplishing any task.”

Through different scholars defined in different ways, but common points among them are:

Intelligence must be understood as the mental capacity or energy of an individual at a particular time and in a particular situation.

This mental ability facilitates a person to manipulate things, objects, or events present in one’s surroundings and also to adapt or successfully deal with new difficulties and issues of come into life.

Judgment about one’s capacity or fund of mental energy available to him can only be considered in terms of the quality of his behavior or performance.

It is the capacity of abstraction management.

It is the ability to adjust or adapt in a new situation.

It is the ability or power to respond appropriately to certain stimuli in a given situation.

All of these can be used to form a comprehensive definition of intelligence. Intelligence may be viewed as a kind of mental energy (in the form of mental or cognitive talents) accessible to a person and facilitates him to manage his environment in terms of adaptability and address unexpected situations as successfully as possible.

Nature of Intelligence

Researches have shown the following characteristics of human intelligence:

The effect of heredity and environment on intelligence: Intelligence is the product of heredity and environment. Both are essential elements for an individual’s intellectual growth, and one cannot be considered as more important than the other.

Distribution of Intelligence: Intelligence is not identical rather varies person to person. Given that the distribution is normal, the vast majority of the population is average, with a small number of exceptionally brilliant and poor individuals.

Individual difference in intelligence: Different people have different intelligence. The level of intellect fluctuates from person to person, age to age, and circumstance to circumstance.

Intelligence and Changes in Age: Intelligence grows with age, but up to a certain point. The age of cessation of mental growth also varies from individual to individual. Normally, intelligence reaches its maximum, somewhat at the age of 16 to 20 in the individual, when vertical growth ceases. However, the horizontal growth-accumulation of knowledge and acquisition of skills continues throughout an individual’s lifespan.

Intelligence and Sex Differences: Various researches have shown that difference in sex does not contribute to the difference in intelligence.

Intelligence and Racial or Cultural Differences: Various researches have also proved no significant difference among races or groups. The ‘bright’ and ‘dull’ can be found in any race, caste, or cultural group, and the differences found can be explained in terms of environmental influence.

Approaches to Intelligence Theories

There are two approaches to study the intelligence theories:

Information Processing Approach This approach describes people’s intellectual reasoning and problem-solving process. The concept is based on the presumption that people process the information they are presented with rather than just reacting to stimuli.

Theories of Intelligence

Uni-factor Theory: This theory was given by Alfred Binet, who believed that intelligence consists of one factor, which is universal for all individual activities. He developed the concept of IQ based on this theory.

Two-factor Theory: Proposed by Charles Spearman, this theory divides intellectual abilities into two factors: one general ability or common ability known as the ‘G’ factor and the other group of specific abilities known as the ‘S’ factor. General intelligence is mental energy measured through different tasks, and specific abilities enable an individual to deal with a particular kind of problem.

Theory of Primary Mental Abilities: This theory postulates that certain mental operations have a ‘primary’ factor in common that gives them psychological and functional unity and differentiates them from other mental operations. These mental operations then constitute a group.

Hierarchical Model of Intelligence: Aurther Jensen, after testing the learning abilities of school students, concluded that there are two levels of abilities, level I and level II. Retention of input and rote memorization of basic skills and knowledge are examples of Level I, or associative, learning. Level II, or conceptual learning, is akin to the capacity to change and manipulate inputs, or the capacity to resolve issues.

Structure of Intellect Model: JP Guilford presented this theory. The theory postulates that every intellectual activity revolves around three dimensions: operations, content, and products, comprising 180 different intellectual abilities (latest research) in total.

Theory of Multiple Intelligence: This theory was given by Howard Gardner in 1983. He proposed that the presence of various abilities defines intelligence that works in combination, as opposed to just one general ability. Initially, he described seven different types of intelligence, defined in terms of abilities, but later added two more in the list.

Triarchic Theory of Intelligence: Given by Robert Sternberg, the theory presents three (i.e., triarchic) types of intelligences: Componential, experiential, and contextual. This theory was based on information processing.

PASS Model of Intelligence: This model was first proposed in 1975 by JP Das, J. R. Kirby, and R. F. Jarman and later developed by Das, Naglieri, and Kirby in 1994. Its full form is the Planning, Attention-Arousal, Simultaneous and Successive (PASS) theory of intelligence.

Conclusion

There are multiple definitions of intelligence and it is largely understood as a complex cognitive ability that allows humans to learn and solve problems. There are many different theories of intelligence, but most agree that it is a combination of cognitive abilities, including problem-solving, learning, reasoning, and memory.

Reference

How To Focus On Yourself

When was the last time you stopped to consider your needs, without also taking into account what someone else wanted for you?

There’s nothing wrong with putting energy into relationships with loved ones or turning your attention toward finding a romantic partner or new friend. People need love, intimacy, and companionship, so you are focusing on yourself and personal development by pursuing those needs.

Additionally, it is fairly safe to say if you never cease to think about other people, your relationships likely won’t flourish.

The same, neglecting your dreams and desires can hold you back. A life lived only in the pursuit of the joy of others might not bring you far private pleasure. As time passes, you may start feeling drained even somewhat lost.

Focusing on yourself isn’t selfish. It’s an act of self-love. But when you’ve been in the habit of focusing on others, it can be hard to shift gears.

These 7 tips can help Get better acquainted with yourself

Building a strong self-relationship is a great way to return your focus to yourself.

Feeling unsure about your individuality can make it hard to find clarity about what you need out of life. With no familiarity with that which you are as a individual, you can not do much to realize your objectives, live based on your worth, or get your needs fulfilled.

Significant occasions — split , career change, childbirth, and private catastrophe –can prompt expansion and cast a spotlight on manners you have already transformed. This lighting may call into consideration things you thought you knew about your self as fresh areas of your individuality emerge for the first time.

You might not instantly welcome this fresh self-knowledge, particularly if it contradicts your current understanding of who you are. But neglecting to admit your expansion could leave you feeling bloated and unfulfilled.

This doubt can start to affect trusted Source your psychological well-being, feel of self-growth, and your relationships with other people. Approaching these modifications in yourself with fascination is able to help you acclimate more readily.

Getting to know you

Think of yourself as a fascinating person you want to befriend, but instead of striking up a conversation with yourself. try:

keeping a daily journal of your routine, conversations with friends, emotions, hobbies, personal frustrations — anything that comes to mind.

making a list of experiences you’d like to have

challenging yourself to try something new each day

identifying, through lists or journaling, your key likes and dislikes

identifying strengths and areas where you’d like to grow

Make sure you’re seeking what you really want

Many people care about the opinions of their loved ones. Yes, you don’t automatically do everything your family or friends suggest, but you do carefully weigh their guidance when trying to make a decision.

Your nearest and dearest assure you that eventually you will come across the appropriate person and invite you to continue trying, because getting married and having children are important components of life, right?

Well, not if you do not need them to be. Societal ideals around relationships and dating frequently suggest single men and women are imperfect and lonely. In fact, a lot of men and women find permanent singlehood much more satisfying than chasing relationships that they do not really desire.

Create a self-care plan

In its most literal sense, focusing on yourself revolves around self-care practices that meet your needs.

Self-care permits you to turn your focus toward yourself at a basic way. Everybody has basic needs which play a significant role in general well-being, such as sleep, nourishment , physical exercise, and comfort.

If you fail these demands, you are likely not getting enough time to recharge from life’s different sources of anxiety. You may not detect much of an effect initially, but finally, you may observe some undesirable changes on your physical and mental wellbeing.

To get started with self-care:

Make time for physical activity.

Add mood-boosting foods to your diet.

Give meditation a try.

Write or draw in a mood journal.

Read a book.

Aim to spend 2 hours in nature each week.

Practice self-compassion

Don’t make mistake, caring for others is a positive trait. Focusing on your loved ones and offering emotional support when they struggle shows your compassion and strengthens your relationships.

Prosocial behaviour, such as practicing kindness supporting other people, can also help improve well-being by fostering feelings of pleasure.

Just do not forget to treat yourself using the exact same kindness and empathy you provide others.

Perhaps you’re always prepared when a friend wants type words, a hug, or even a diversion, but what about if you want those items? You may, like many other people, hold to stricter criteria and drop to routines of negative self-talk.

Show yourself some love

These are easy ways to tap into self-compassion:

Instead of pushing yourself to keep going and try harder when you need to finish an assignment, take a break and give yourself time to recharge.

Rather than criticizing yourself for failure, encourage yourself with a gentle reminder, “You did your best, and you’ll do better next time.”

Give yourself a hug.

Know when you need a break.

Spend time doing things you love

People in relationships tend to spend plenty of time with their partners. This might work perfectly well for a while, but lacking time for the things you enjoy can result in your losing touch with those interests over time.

This will leave you feeling frustrated, frustrated, and resentful.

Everybody needs the time to pursue their own hobbies, and it is pretty rare two individuals will want to perform the exact same thing all of the time. Even if you’re very near, spending some time by yourself and along with other loved ones may still enhance the wellbeing of your connection.

If life gets busy, hobbies could be the very first things you fall out of your regular as you browse more immediate struggles. But this may backfire. It becomes more difficult to weather problems and rebound straight back from stress whenever you don’t have enough time to recharge.

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Avoid the comparison trap

Most people compare themselves to others on occasion. Perhaps you feel a little envious of a particular friend who always seems happy.

“If I had their own brains (or spouse, or personality, or wealth( or whatever else), I would be very happy, too,” you believe.

However, you don’t really understand how they find fulfillment in life. Even if their enjoyment will not stem from the items they have, people are different, and there is still no guarantee the very same possessions will bring you the exact same joy.

Comparing yourself to someone else can inspire you to target for similar objectives, like a great home, your dream automobile, or even a loving spouse. That is not always a bad thing, provided that these new ideals do not overshadow your current values.

Comparisons can become problematic when they divert you from what really matters for you. You could wind up working toward something that you do not necessarily need, only because you believe may solve your dissatisfaction.

Rather than comparing yourself to other people, examine the items you currently have. What should you really feel thankful for? What would you enjoy more of? Less of?

Examine your values

It’s not uncommon to lose sight of your personal values, especially when you find yourself in a rough patch or find yourself single after a long relationship.

Taking a while to reconsider the particular qualities that you appreciate most will help you refocus your focus on that which you are and that you need to become. If you appreciate community, as an instance, you may search for ways to talk about resources or time with your neighborhood.

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Final thoughts

The idea of focusing on yourself isn’t as self-centered as it sounds. In fact, it’s one of the best things you can do for your well-being.

If you struggle to give yourself the attention you deserve, a therapist can offer guidance with turning your focus inward and help you explore more strategies for self-care.

Procedure Established By Law: Definition And Meaning

Procedure Established by Law means a law adopted by the legislature or the relevant authority is valid if it has followed the proper procedure. Article 21 of the Indian Constitution states that “no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty unless in accordance with the procedure established by law.” That is, a person’s life or personal liberty might be taken away according to the procedure established by law. 

What is Procedure Established by Law?

Procedure Established by Law indicates that a law that has been lawfully adopted by the legislature or the related authority is legitimate if it has followed the correct procedure. Following this idea entails that a person may be deprived of his or her life or personal freedom in accordance with the legal process. The life or personal liberty of a person can therefore be taken away in accordance with the terms and processes of legislation passed by Parliament.

A law that has been legally passed is legitimate even if it contradicts notions of justice and equity. Strict adherence to legal procedure may increase the risk of endangering an individual’s life and personal liberty as a result of unjust legislation enacted by the legislative authority.

Protection of Life and Personal Liberty (Article 21)

Article 21 is established as a basic right in Part III of the Constitution. It is recognized as one of the most important and forward-thinking provisions in our country’s constitution. It can be used only when the “state,” as defined in Article 12, deprives a person of his or her life or personal liberty. As a result, a violation of the right by a private individual falls beyond the scope of Article 21.

The Indian Constitution protects two Fundamental Rights in Article 21 −

The right to life

The right to personal libert

The significance of Article 21 is that the two rights mentioned above cannot be revoked without the proper procedure. This means that the rights indicated above, notably life and personal liberty, can be removed if the legislature follows the proper procedure

The decision in Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India (1978) significantly enlarged the reach of Article 21 and realized the Preamble’s purpose of transforming our country into a welfare state.

The Court determined that the judicial process must be fair, just, and reasonable. According to the Court, the legal method for depriving someone of their right to life and personal liberty must be valid, reasonable, and fair, rather than discretionary and arbitrary.

Role of the judiciary

The Judiciary will assess whether the Legislature is competent to approve the law and if correct legislative procedure was followed, but it will not determine the bill’s objective.

When compared to “due process of law,” it has a limited reach since it does not evaluate whether the legislation contradicts principles of fairness and equity.

When deciding whether a statute is constitutional, the Supreme Court only addresses the substantive question of whether the conduct is within the authority’s powers or not.

A rigorous and inflexible commitment to legal procedure may enhance the chance that individuals’ lives and personal liberties will be jeopardized as a result of unjust laws passed by the law-making authorities.

As a result, the mechanisms established by law safeguard individuals against the executive’s arbitrary acts.

Judicial Pronouncement Maneka Gandhi vs. Union of India case (1978)

Maneka Gandhi vs. Union of India was a major Supreme Court of India case in which the Court considerably broadened the meaning of Indian Constitution Article 21. According to the court, the expression “personal liberty” should be interpreted flexibly and liberally rather than strictly and rigorously.

ADM Jabalpur vs. Shavian Shukla

The ADM Jabalpur case is a significant Supreme Court of India habeas corpus decision. During the 1975–1977 Emergency, PN. Bhagwati gave a disputed judgment in which he said that a person’s right not to be unfairly detained might be revoked.

The Court reversed its own decision when a national emergency was proclaimed in 1975. The Court upheld the sentence under the 1971 Maintenance of Internal Security Act (MISA), while dismissing Article 21 fully. The court declared that Article 21 is suspended during an emergency. As a result, the court will only evaluate the actual meaning of the Procedure Established by Law in this matter. The Court made no ruling on whether or not the government act (MISA, 1971) was just, fair, or reasonable.

A.K. Gopalan vs. State of Madras

In Gopalan v. State of Madras, the Supreme Court of India rendered a significant ruling, concluding that Article 21 of the Constitution did not require Indian courts to use a due process of law standard. The constitutional bench of six judges on the Supreme Court decided this issue by a 5:1 majority.

Conclusion

Although the Procedure Established by Law has a very limited reach, it is recognized as a law under the Indian Constitution. “Legislation-enforced procedure” states that a law that has been legitimately adopted is valid, even if it breaches fairness and equitable standards. Strict adherence to legal procedure may increase the likelihood that people’s lives and personal liberties will be jeopardized as a result of unjust laws issued by the legislative body.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is the distinction between legal procedure and due process of law?

Ans. It provides the courts with minimal authority. It puts more authority in the hands of the judges. Individuals are protected by law against the arbitrary actions of merely the executive. Individuals are protected by due process of law from both arbitrary executive and legislative action.

Q2. From which country’s constitution did the Indian Constitution borrow the feature of procedure established by law?

Ans. Article 31 of the Japanese Constitution inspired the Indian Constitution’s feature of procedures established by law.

Q3. What are the features of the procedure established by law?

Ans. The procedure established by law denotes that a law that has been lawfully adopted by the legislature or the body in issue is legal if the technique for establishing a law has been followed appropriately. The Judiciary will assess whether the Legislature is competent to approve the law and if correct legislative procedure was followed, but it will not determine the bill’s objective. When compared to “due process of law,” it has a limited reach since it does not evaluate whether the legislation contradicts principles of fairness and equity.

Q4. What do you mean by Due process of law?

Ans. Due process requires that legal concerns be dealt with in line with established norms and principles and that everyone be treated fairly. Due process applies to both civil and criminal actions.

Edge Computing: Definition, Characteristics, And Use Cases

Traditional cloud computing networks are significantly brought together, with data being collected on the fringe edges and sent back to the essential servers for taking care.

This plan grew out of the way that most of the devices arranged near the edge came up short on computational power and limited capacity to separate and then again process the data they accumulated.

How much data is ceaselessly being made at the edge is turning out to be decisively speedier than the limit of associations to manage it.

As opposed to sending data to a cloud or a distant server homestead to achieve the work, endpoints should send data to an Edge Enrolling contraption that cycles or separates that data.

What is Edge Computing?

Edge Computing is closer to data source and limit, and figuring tasks should be possible in the edge enrolling center point, which diminishes the center data transmission process.

Carrying this handling ability to the edge of the association helps address the data trial by creating, generally, shut IoT structures.

A conclusive goal is to restrict cost and lethargy while controlling association bandwidth.

A huge benefit Edge Figuring offers that would be helpful is the reduction of data ready to be sent and taken care of in the cloud.

It underlines closeness to clients and outfits clients with better shrewd organizations, thus further creating data transmission execution, ensuring consistent taking care, and decreasing conceded time.

Benefits of Edge Computing

Edge registering has arisen as one of the best answers for network issues related to moving gigantic volumes of information created today. Here are the absolute most significant benefits of edge processing −

Reduces Latency − Inactivity alludes to the time expected to move information between two organizational focuses. Huge distances between these two focuses and network clogs can create setbacks. As edge figuring carries the focuses nearer to one another, idleness issues are nonexistent for all intents and purposes.

Saves Bandwidth − Transmission capacity alludes to the rate at which information is moved in an organization. As all organizations have a restricted transmission capacity, the volume of information that can be moved and the number of gadgets that can cycle this is restricted too. By sending the information servers to the places where information is created, edge registering permits numerous gadgets to work over much more modest and effective data transmission.

Execution Expenses − The expenses of executing an edge foundation in an association can be complicated and costly. It requires a reasonable degree and reason before the organization and extra gear and assets to work.

Inadequate Information − Edge figuring can handle incomplete data arrangements that should be characterized during execution. Because of this, organizations might wind up losing important information and data.

Security − Since edge registering is a circulated framework, guaranteeing sufficient security can be challenging. There are takes a chance engaged with handling information outside the edge of the organization. The expansion of new IoT gadgets can likewise build the chance for the aggressors to invade the gadget.

Edge Computing Use-Cases

Edge figuring draws information handling closer to business activities. It has numerous varieties, with numerous IT experts seeing it as a development of the conveyed ‘lights out’ server farm idea. Regardless of how savvy the end-point is; all Edge approaches share similar engineering.

Center information center(s) with satellite areas store and cycle information and cooperate with end-focuses.

Edge comprises organization doors, server farms, and everything IoT.

The motivation behind the Edge is to convey dispersed application administrations, give knowledge to the end-point, speed up execution from the center data frameworks or gather and forward data from the Edge end-point sensors and regulators.

The shortfall of a concurred and acknowledged Edge processing definition requested we make our own subsequent in three distinct kinds of purpose cases −

Remote ‘Lights Out’ Edge Server, farms can be a little hardware rack in different far-off areas or numerous enormous server farms. It is the most different, non-standard Edge climate. It requires new hierarchical models, modern programming application designs, and a high degree of reflection to the picture, conveying low touch control and the capacity to scale and deal with a heterogenous blend of gear.

Holder IT Edges, is where combined frameworks reside. This climate comprises an answering stack including at least one of the accompanying; servers, operating system, stockpiling, organization, and improved power and cooling to help all the hardware in the contained climate. The compartments are exceptionally normalized notwithstanding, customization is accessible to suit explicit Edge prerequisites with choices for extra parts.

Internet of Things (IoT), where profoundly accessible processors empower constant investigation for applications that can hardly hold on to decide. IoT end-directs go on toward getting more brilliant with a more remarkable capacity to work freely and settle on choices without routine correspondence with center stage.

Conclusion

With edge computing, things have become fundamentally more successful. Accordingly, the idea of business assignments has become higher. Edge figuring is a sensible solution for data-driven undertakings that require lightning-fast results and a raised level of flexibility, dependent upon the current status of things.

Electrical Resistance And Resistivity – Definition, Formula, Unit And Measurement

According to the electron theory of matter, we know that all matter (solid, liquid, or gas) is made of tiny particles called molecules. A molecule in turn is made up of atoms. Thus, atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter.

An atom consists of a central part called the nucleus, and a space around the nucleus called the extranucleus. The nucleus of an atom contains two particles namely a proton and neutron, while the extra-nucleus contains electrons that revolve around the nucleus in a certain path called the orbit.

The electrons in the last orbit are called the free electrons because they are quite loosely bound to the nucleus, and therefore can be detached easily.

From elementary physics, we know that electric current in a conductor is due to the directed flow of free electrons. When an electric field is applied to the conductor, the free electrons are accelerated in a direction opposite to the electric field. But when these free electrons flow, they collide with the positive atoms of the conductor material. Therefore, there is an opposition in the flow of free electrons. This opposition is referred to as electrical resistance. The property of conductor material by which it opposes the flow of electrons and hence the current is known as resistivity.

In this article, we will discuss electrical resistance and resistivity, their definition, unit, formula, and methods of measurement.

What is Electric Resistance?

When free electrons flow through a conducting material under the influence of an electric field, they collide with positive atoms of the material. Each collision destroys the kinetic energy of electrons. Therefore, electrons face opposition when they flow through the material.

The measure of opposition in the flow of free electrons offered by the material is known as electrical resistance or simply resistance. The resistance is represented by the symbol R.

The circuit component that is used to introduce the electrical resistance in an electrical or electronic circuit is known as a resistor. The resistor is a passive circuit component that only absorbs energy, but does not deliver. The standard circuit symbols of the resistor of resistance R are shown in figure-1.

Formula of Resistance

The following expression gives the empirical formula of electrical resistance −

$$mathrm{Resistance,, R=rho frac{l}{a}: : cdot cdot cdot left ( 1 right )}$$

Where, l is the length of the conductor, a is the area of cross-section, and ρ is a constant known as resistivity (or specific resistance) of the conductor material.

The resistance of a conductor can also be determined by Ohm’s law,

$$mathrm{Resistance,, R= frac{V}{I}: : cdot cdot cdot left ( 2 right )}$$

Where, V is the voltage across the conductor and I is the current through it.

Unit of Resistance

From equation (2), we have,

$$mathrm{Unit: of: resistance= frac{Volt, (V)}{Ampere, (A)}}$$

Thus, the base unit of electrical resistance is volt per ampere (V/A). Although, the practical unit of resistance is Ohm, denoted by the Greek letter Omega (Ω). The unit of resistance was named the Ohm in the honor of Georg Simon Ohm, a German physicist.

We may define the unit of resistance ‘ohm’ as under −

If a voltage of 1 volt across the ends of a conductor wire causes an electric current of 1 ampere to flow through it, then the wire is said to have a resistance of 1 ohm.

Factors Affecting the Resistance

From Equation (1), we can state factors that affect the resistance of a conductor. These factors are as follows−

The resistance R of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (l) which means if the length of the conductor is increased its resistance will also increase, and vice-versa.

The resistance R of a conductor is inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (a). Thus, a thick wire (having a larger cross-sectional area) has less resistance compared to a relatively thin wire.

The resistance R of a conductor depends upon the nature of the material of which it is made up of. Thus, a conductor with a large value of ρ will have a higher resistance, and vice-versa.

The resistance R of a conductor also depends upon temperature.

What is Resistivity?

The property of a material by which it opposes the flow of electric current (or electric charge) is known as resistivity. It is also called specific resistance. It is represented by the Greek letter rho (ρ).

From equation (1), the expression of resistivity is given by,

$$mathrm{Resistivity,, rho = frac{Ra}{l}: : cdot cdot cdot left ( 3 right )}$$

Thus, the unit of resistivity will be,

$$mathrm{Unit: of: rho = frac{Omega m^{2}}{m}=Omega m}$$

Hence, the SI unit of resistivity is Ohm-meter (Ω-m).

Therefore, we may also define resistivity as under −

The resistance offered by 1 meter length of wire of a material having a cross-sectional area of 1 m2 is known as resistivity or specific resistance of the material.

The resistivity of the conductor depends upon the nature of the material of the conductor, and its temperature. But it is independent of the physical dimension of the conductor.

Measurement of Resistance

The following methods can be used to determine the resistance of a conductor −

The resistance of a conductor can be measured by using an analog multimeter.

The resistance of a conductor can also be measured using a digital multimeter.

The resistance of a conductor can also be determined by Ohm’s law formula. In this method, first, we need to measure the voltage across and current through the conductor. Then, the ratio of two gives the resistance of the wire.

A device called an ohmmeter can also be used to determine the resistance of a conductor.

Conclusion

In this article, we discussed about the electric resistance and resistivity of a conductor. Resistance is the measure of opposition that a conductor offers in the flow of current, whereas Resistivity is the property of the material of the conductor by which it opposes the flow of current or the movement of electrons. Electrical resistance is one of the most important parameters of an electrical or electronic circuit.

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