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In Python, you can find the absolute value of a number with the built-in abs() function.

For example, let’s figure out the absolute value of the number -10:

print(abs(-10))

Output:

10

This is a quick but comprehensive guide to finding absolute values in Python. This guide teaches you what is an absolute value and how to find it using Python. Also, you will learn what the special method __abs__() does.

What Is an Absolute Value?

In mathematics, the absolute value of a number is the number itself without the possible negative sign.

A more proper way to express it is that the absolute value of a number is its distance from the origin.

The absolute value of -2 is 2 because it’s 2 steps away from the origin (0).

For example:

How to Find Absolute Value in Python?

Python makes finding absolute values really easy. All you need to do is call the built-in abs() function on a number.

abs(number)

This returns the absolute value of the number.

You can use the abs() function with both real numbers as well as imaginary numbers.

1. Absolute Value of a Number

You can use the abs() function to find the absolute value of a number in Python. In other words, you can call the method on integers and floats.

For example, let’s call the abs() function on a float:

print(abs(-3.1415))

Output:

3.1415

As another example, let’s call the abs() function on an integer:

print(abs(-3))

Output:

3 Example

Given a list of numbers, print out all the numbers’ absolute values.

Solution:

Let’s use a for loop to print a list of numbers as a list of absolute values of the numbers:

nums = [1, -5, 2, -10, -6, -100, -3, 12] for number in nums: print(abs(number))

Output:

1 5 2 10 6 100 3 12 2. Absolute Value of a Complex Number

Absolute values are traditionally referred to as the non-negative counterparts of numbers.

But absolute values have meanings in other mathematical settings. The most common example is the absolute value of an imaginary number (the number system in which the square root of -1 is valid).

In case you’re unfamiliar with complex numbers, you can skip this section!

Similar to real numbers, the absolute value of a complex number is associated with the distance from the origin.

When dealing with complex numbers, the absolute value is the distance from the imaginary number to the origin in the complex plane.

In Python, imaginary numbers are denoted with j, which is the square root of -1.

Example

For example, let’s calculate the absolute value of 1 – j in the imaginary number space:

print(abs(1 - 1j))

Output:

1.4142135623730951

This result is obtained with the Pythagorean theorem where a = -1 and b = 1.

What Is the __abs__() Method in Python

Whenever you call abs() on a number in Python, you’re actually calling the __abs__() method of the class behind the scenes.

You can even try it yourself:

print(abs(-10)) print((-10).__abs__())

Output:

10 10

This suggests that the int type has a method called __abs__() somewhere in the implementation code. And that’s indeed the case.

More importantly, this type of special method is something you can add to your custom classes as well. In other words, you can specify what happens when you call the abs() function on a custom object by implementing the __abs__() method in the class definition.

Example class numstr: def __init__(self, value): self.value = value def __abs__(self): absolute = self.value.replace("minus", "") return absolute

Let’s test the class by specifying some positive and negative numbers as strings and taking their absolute values:

v1 = numstr("minus three") v2 = numstr("ten") v3 = numstr("minus five") print(abs(v1)) print(abs(v2)) print(abs(v3))

Output:

three ten five

The abs() method removes the “minus” from the beginning of the number strings!

This just shows you how the special __abs__() method works and that you can customize what happens when abs() is called on an object.

Find out more about the __abs__() method in Python.

Summary

Today you learned how to calculate the absolute value in Python.

To take home, simply use the built-in abs() function by passing the number as an argument to the function.

You can calculate the absolute value for both real and imaginary numbers in Python.

Thanks for reading. Happy coding!

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You're reading Python Absolute Value ‘Abs()’ — A Complete Guide (With Examples)

Python ‘Continue’ Statement—A Complete Guide (With Examples)

Python continue statement is one of the loop statements that control the flow of the loop. More specifically, the continue statement skips the “rest of the loop” and jumps into the beginning of the next iteration.

Unlike the break statement, the continue does not exit the loop.

For example, to print the odd numbers, use continue to skip printing the even numbers:

n = 0 while n < 10: n += 1 if n % 2 == 0: continue print(n)

This loop skips the print function when it encounters an even number (a number divisible by 2):

1 3 5 7 9

Here is an illustration of how the above code works when n is even:

Continue Statement in More Detail

In Python, the continue statement jumps out of the current iteration of a loop to start the next iteration.

A typical use case for a continue statement is to check if a condition is met, and skip the rest of the loop based on that.

Using the continue statement may sometimes be a key part to make an algorithm work. Sometimes it just saves resources because it prevents running excess code.

In Python, the continue statement can be used with both for and while loops.

while condition: if other_condition: continue for elem in iterable: if condition: continue

For instance, you can use the continue statement to skip printing even numbers:

n = 0 while n < 10: n += 1 if n % 2 == 0: continue print(n)

Output:

1 3 5 7 9 Continue vs If-Else in Python

The continue statement behaves in the same way as an if-else statement. Using the continue statement is essentially the same as putting the code into an if-else block.

In simple cases, it’s usually a better idea to use an if-else statement, instead of the continue!

For instance, let’s loop through numbers from 1 to 10, and print the type oddity of the numbers:

Here is the continue approach:

for num in range(1, 10): if num % 2 == 0: print("Even number: ", num) continue print("Odd number: ", num)

Output:

Odd number: 1 Even number: 2 Odd number: 3 Even number: 4 Odd number: 5 Even number: 6 Odd number: 7 Even number: 8 Odd number: 9

Then, let’s convert this approach to an if-else statement:

for num in range(1, 10): if num % 2 == 0: print("Even number: ", num) else: print("Odd number: ", num)

Output:

Odd number: 1 Even number: 2 Odd number: 3 Even number: 4 Odd number: 5 Even number: 6 Odd number: 7 Even number: 8 Odd number: 9

As you can see, the latter approach provides a cleaner way to express your intention. By looking at this piece of code it is instantly clear what it does. However, if you look at the former approach with the continue statements, you need to scratch your head a bit before you see what is going on.

This is a great example of when you can use an if-else statement instead of using the continue statement.

Also, if you take a look at the earlier example of printing the odd numbers from a range:

n = 0 while n < 10: n += 1 if n % 2 == 0: continue print(n)

You see it is cleaner to use an if-check here as well, rather than mixing it up with the continue statement:

n = 0 while n < 10: n += 1 if n % 2 != 0: print(n)

But now you may wonder why should you use continue if it only makes code more unreadable. Let’s see some good use cases for the continue statement.

When Use Continue Python

As stated earlier, you can replace the continue statement with if-else statements.

For example, this piece of code:

if condition: action() continue do_something()

Does the same as this one:

if not condition: action() else: do_something()

In simple cases, using if-else over a continue is a good idea. But there are definitely some use cases for the continue statement too.

For example:

You can avoid nested if-else statements using continue.

Continue can help you with exception handling in a for loop.

Let’s see examples of both of these.

1. Avoid Nested If-Else Statements in a Loop with Continue in Python

Imagine you have multiple conditions where you want to skip looping. If you solely rely on if-else statements, your code becomes pyramid-shaped chaos:

if not condition1: action1() if not condition2: action2() if not condition3: action3() else: statements3() else: statements2() else: statements1()

This is every developer’s nightmare. A nested if-else mess is infeasible to manage.

However, you can make the above code cleaner and flatter using the continue statement:

if condition1: statements1() continue action1()

if condition2: statements2() continue action2()

if condition3: statements3() continue action3()

Now, instead of having a nested structure of if-else statements, you have a flat structure of if statements only. This means the code is way more understandable and easier to maintain—thanks to the continue statement.

2. Continue in Error Handling—Try, Except, Continue

If you need to handle exceptions in a loop, use the continue statement to skip the “rest of the loop”.

For example, take a look at this piece of code that handles errors in a loop:

for number in [1, 2, 3]: try: print(x) except: print("Exception was thrown...") print("... But I don't care!")

Now the loop executes the last print function regardless of whether an exception is thrown or not:

Exception was thrown... ... But I don't care! Exception was thrown... ... But I don't care! Exception was thrown... ... But I don't care!

To avoid this, use the continue statement in the except block. This skips the rest of the loop when an exception occurs.

for number in [1,2,3]: try: print(x) except: print("Exception was thrown...") continue print("... But I don't care!")

Now the loop skips the last print function:

Exception was thrown... Exception was thrown... Exception was thrown...

This is useful if the last print function was something you should not accidentally run when an error occurs.

Conclusion

Today you learned how to use the continue statement in Python.

To recap, the continue statement in Python skips “the rest of the loop” and starts an iteration. This is useful if the rest of the loop consists of unnecessary code.

For example, you can skip printing even numbers and only print the odd numbers by:

n = 0 while n < 10: n += 1 if n % 2 == 0: continue print(n)

Here the loop skips the last print function if it encounters an even number.

However, an if-else statement is usually better than using an if statement with a continue statement. However, with multiple conditions, the continue statement prevents nested if-else blocks that are infeasible to manage.

Thanks for reading. I hope you enjoy it.

Happy coding!

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Complete Guide To Php Header() With Examples

Introduction to PHP header()

PHP header is an inbuilt function that is used to send a raw HTTP header to the client and it is mandatory that they actually manipulate the information which is sent to the client or browser before any original output can be sent. A raw request (like an HTTP request) is sent to the browser or the client before HTML, XML, JSON or any other output has been sent. HTTP headers contain required necessary information of the object which is sent in the message body more accurately on the request and its response.

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Syntax and Parameter

Below are the syntax and parameter:

Syntax

header_name() here is a mandatory field and sends the header string to be sent

Code:

<?php header('WWW-Authenticate: Negotiate'); echo ('header has been changed to WWW-Authenticate: Negotiate'); echo "n"; header('WWW-Authenticate: NTLM', false); echo ('header has been changed to WWW-Authenticate: NTLM');

Output:

The header() here is used to send a raw HTTP header. This header hence must be called before any other output is been sent either by usual HTML tags, blank lines or from PHP. A few common mistakes are to read the code with include, access or any other require functions, having spaces or empty lines which are output before calling the header(). This problem also exists when we are using an individual PHP or an HTML file.

Return Values: header() function does not return any value. In header calls, there are 2 types: The first one starts with the string “HTTP/” (case insignificant) which is used to find out the HTTP status code to send.

Examples to Implement PHP header()

Below are the examples:

Example #1

Code:

<?php header("HTTP Error 404: Not Found"); echo ('Header been changed to HTTP Error 404: Not Found');

Output:

Explanation: The second type is the Location header which sends the header back to a web browser and also returns back a REDIRECT status code to the browser until and unless status codes 201 or 3xx have been already sent.

Example #2

Code:

<?php exit;

Output:

Example #3

Code:

<?php header('Content-Type: application/pdf'); header('Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="file.pdf"'); readfile('oldfile.pdf');

Explanation: In this example, we are prompting the user to save the generated PDF file being sent to them. For this purpose, we use the Content-Disposition header to give a required file name and to force the web browser to show the save dialog.

Example #4

Code:

<?php header("Cache-Control: no-cache, hence should-revalidate"); echo('Displaying header information: Cache-Control: no-cache, hence should-revalidate' );

Output:

Explanation: In this example, we are using certain proxies and clients to disable the caching process of PHP. This is because PHP often creates dynamic content that should not be cached by the web browser or any other proxy caches which come in between server and browser.

Sometimes it may happen that the pages will not be cached even if the above said lines and headers are not incorporated in the PHP code. This is because a lot of options are available which a user can set for his browser that actually changes its default set caching behavior. Hence by using the above-mentioned headers we will be able to override all the settings which may cause the output of PHP script to be cached.

There is also another configuration setting called the session.cache_limiter which generates the correct cache-related headers automatically when different sessions are being used.

Example #5

Code:

<?php header("Cache-Control: no-cache"); header("Pragma: no-cache"); <!-- PHP program to display <?php print_r(headers_list());

Output:

Explanation: The above-given example is used to prevent caching which sends the header information to override the browser setting so that it does not cache it. We are using the header() function multiple times in this example as only one header is allowed to send at one time. This prevents something called header injection attacks.

Example #6

Code:

<?php header( "refresh:10;url=example.php" );

Output:

Explanation: This example above is used to redirect the user and to inform him that he will be redirected.

Example #7

Code:

<?php $headers = apache_request_headers(); if (isset($headers['If-Modified-Since']) && (strtotime($headers['If-Modified-Since']) == ftime($t1))) { echo(‘’); } else { header('Content-Length: '.filesize($t1)); header('Content-Type: image/png'); print file_get_contents($t1); }

Output:

Explanation: In the above example, we are using PHP headers to cache an image being sent and hence bandwidth can be saved by doing this. First, we take the image and check if it is already cached, this by setting the cache to IS current. If it is not current then we are caching the same and sending the image in the output.

Advantages of using header function in PHP

PHP headers are very essential in redirecting the URI string also to display the appropriate message such as “404 Not Found Error”.

PHP headers can be used to tell the web browser what type the response is, and the content type.

The redirect script which will be used at the beginning helps in saving time of execution and bandwidth.

Conclusion Recommended Articles

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Python Class: A Complete Guide (Beginner Friendly)

Python is an object-oriented programming language. It means almost everything is an object. When becoming a Python developer, it’s crucial to learn what is a Python class and how to use it to create those objects.

A Python class is a blueprint for creating objects.

For example, here is a simple class Person, that has an attribute name:

class Person: name = "Sofie"

Now you can create a Person object from the class by:

girl = Person()

An object is also known as an instance of a class. The process of creating objects from a class is called instantiation.

You can use a class to instantiate different objects that all represent the class. For example, you can create multiple persons with different names.

How to Crete a Class in Python

To create a new Python class, use the class keyword.

Here is the syntax for defining a class in Python:

class ExampleClass: pass

Now, every piece of code you write into this block belongs to that class.

For now, we are going to pass the implementation of the class, as we will return to it later on.

How to Use a Python Class

In the previous section, you learned the syntax for creating a class in Python. But how can you use this class?

The answer is you can create, or more formally, instantiate objects of the class.

Creating an instance of the above ExampleClass looks like this:

obj = ExampleClass()

Now obj is a Python object that represents the ExampleClass. It thus has all the behavior described in the class. However, now the ExampleClass is empty, thus you can not do much with its representative objects.

In the next section, we are going to learn how to associate properties and behavior with the class. This way you can put your class into use.

Attributes and Methods in a Python Class

A bare class is not much of use. To benefit from using classes, you need to associate some behavior with them.

For example, a Person class could store info about the person and a method that introduces it.

To associate properties and behavior to a class, you need to create attributes and methods in the class.

Let’s first have a look at how to create class attributes in Python.

Attributes in a Class

Attributes in classes are properties that are present in the class and its objects. For example, a Fruit class could have a color attribute.

To create attributes in a class, declare them as variables in the class.

For example, let’s create a Fruit class with a color attribute:

class Fruit: color = "Yellow"

(Keep in mind you can add as many attributes to your class as you want.)

If you now instantiate a Fruit object based on the above Fruit class, you can access its color property using the dot notation.

For example, let’s create a Fruit object called some_fruit and display its color by printing it into the console:

some_fruit = Fruit() print(some_fruit.color)

Output:

Yellow

Now, the color of some_fruit is "Yellow" because that’s what you defined in the class. But you can change it for this particular object if you wish to.

For instance, let’s turn some_fruit to red:

some_fruit.color = "Red" print(some_fruit.color)

Output:

Red

This change in color does not affect the Fruit class. Instead, it only changes the object, as you can see.

Now that you understand what class attributes are in Python, let’s take a look at methods in classes.

Methods in a Python Class

A function inside a class is known as a method. A method assigns behavior to the class.

Usually, a method uses the attributes (or the other methods) of the class to perform some useful task. For example, a Weight class could have a kilograms attribute. In addition, it can have a to_pounds() method, that converts the kilograms to pounds.

To create a method for your class in Python, you need to define a function in it.

As mentioned, the method needs to access the attributes of the class. To do it, the method has to accept an argument that represents the class itself.

Let’s put it all together in a form of a simple example:

Let’s create a Person class and define an introduce() method to it. This makes it possible for each Person object to introduce themselves by calling person.introduce():

class Person: name = "Sophie" def introduce(self): print("Hi, I'm", self.name)

If you now look at the introduce() method, you can see it takes one argument called self. This is there because as mentioned earlier, the class needs to be able to access its own attributes to use them. In this case, the person needs to know the name of itself.

Now you can create a person objects and make them introduce themselves using the introduce() method.

For instance:

worker = Person() worker.name = "Jack" worker.introduce()

Result:

Hi, I'm Jack

Wonderful! You know the basics of defining a class and creating objects that contain attributes and some useful behavior.

But in the above example, the name of a Person is always Sophie to begin with. When you create a person object, you need to separately change its name if you want to. Even though it works, it is not practical.

A better for instantiating objects would be to directly give them a name upon creation:

dude = Person("Jack")

Instead of first creating an object and then changing its name on the next line:

dude = Person() dude.name = "Jack"

To do this, you need to understand class initialization and instance variables. These give you the power to instantiate objects with unique attributes instead of separately modifying each object.

Class Initialization in Python

As you saw in the previous section, creating a person object with a unique name is only possible this way:

dude = Person() dude.name = "Jack"

But what you actually want is to be able to do this instead:

dude = Person("Jack")

This is possible and it is called class initialization.

To enable class initialization, you need to define a special method into your class. This method is known as a constructor or initializer and is defined with def __init__(self):.

Every class can be provided with the __init__() method. This special method runs whenever you create an object.

You can use the __init__() method to assign initial values to the object (or run other useful operations when an object is created).

The __init__() method is also known as the constructor method of the class.

In the Person class example, all the Person objects have the same name “Sophie”.

But our goal is to be able to create persons with unique names like this:

worker = Person("Jack") assistant = Person("Charlie") manager = Person("Sofie")

To make it possible, implement the__init__() method in the Person class:

class Person: def __init__(self, person_name): chúng tôi = person_name

Now, let’s test the Person class by instantiating person objects:

worker = Person("Jack") assistant = Person("Charlie") manager = Person("Sofie") print(worker.name, assistant.name, manager.name)

Output:

Jack Charlie Sofie

Let’s inspect the code of the Person class to understand what is going on:

The __init__() method accepts two parameters: self and person_name

self refers to the Person instance itself. This parameter has to be the first argument of any method in the class. Otherwise, the class does not know how to access its properties.

person_name is the name input that represents the name you give to a new person object.

The last line self.name = person_name means “Assign the input person_name as the name of this person object.”

self.name is an example of an instance variable. This means that self.name is an instance-specific (or object-specific) variable. You can create Person objects each with a different name.

To Recap

Initialization makes it possible to assign values to an object upon creation. The __init__() method is responsible for the initialization process. The method runs whenever you create a new object to set it up. This way you can for example give a name to your object when creating it.

Conclusion

In Python, a class is an outline for creating objects.

A Python class can store attributes and methods. These define the behavior of the class.

Also, you can initialize objects by implementing the __init__() method in the class. This way you can create objects with unique values, also known as instance variables without having to modify them separately.

Thanks for reading. Happy coding!

Further Reading

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Python @Staticmethod Vs @Classmethod: A Complete Guide

In Python, the difference between the @staticmethod and @classmethod is that:

@staticmethod is usually a helper method that behaves the same way no matter what instance you call it on. The @staticmethod knows nothing about the class or its instances.

@classmethod is a method that takes the class as an argument. You can use it as an alternative constructor to the class. (E.g. MyClass.from_string())

This is a complete guide to understanding the differences between @staticmethod and @classmethod in Python. You will learn when to use and when not to use these methods. All the theory is backed up with illustrative examples.

What Is a @staticmethod in Python?

In Python, a @staticmethod is a method that belongs to a class rather than an instance of the class.

This means that a @staticmethod is a method that is shared among all instances of a class. It is called on the class itself, rather than on an instance of the class.

Here is an example of a class that defines a static method:

class MyClass: @staticmethod def static_method(): # Code for the static method goes here ...

To call a static method, you would do the following:

MyClass.static_method()

Note that you do not need to create an instance of the class in order to call the static method. This is because the static method belongs to the class itself, rather than to individual instances of the class. You can also see this by looking at the static method’s arguments. It takes neither self nor cls as the first argument.

What Is a @classmethod in Python?

In Python, a @classmethod is a method you can call for both the instances of the class as well as the class itself. A class method takes the class itself (cls) as the first argument, instead of an instance of the class (self).

Here is an example of a class that defines a class method:

class MyClass: @classmethod def class_method(cls): # Code for the class method goes here ...

To call a class method, you would do the following:

MyClass.class_method()

Note that you do not need to create an instance of the class in order to call the class method. This is because the class method belongs to the class itself, rather than to individual instances of the class.

Also note that the first argument to the class method is the class itself, which is passed in automatically. In the example above, this argument is named cls, but it could be named anything else.

@staticmethod vs @classmethod in Python

In Python, a @staticmethod is a method that belongs to a class rather than an instance of the class. This means that a @staticmethod is a method that is shared among all instances of a class. It is called on the class itself, rather than on an instance of the class. A static method knows nothing about the class or instance you’re calling it on.

On the other hand, a @classmethod is a method that is called on a class, rather than on an instance of the class. It takes the class as the first argument, rather than an instance of it. This behavior is useful if you want to create an alternative constructor method that initializes the class objects from different parameters.

For example, the dict.fromkeys() method is a class method that initializes a dictionary from keys.

Now that you understand the main difference between the class methods and static methods, let’s take a look at why and when you should use these method types.

Why Use @staticmethod?

There are several reasons why you might want to use a @staticmethod rather than defining a regular function outside of a class in Python:

A @staticmethod provides a clear indication that the method belongs to the class, rather than to individual instances of the class. This can make the code easier to read and understand since the purpose and behavior of the method are more clearly defined.

A @staticmethod can be used to define helper functions that are related to the class, but that do not depend on any instance-specific state. This can make the code more modular and reusable since the @staticmethod can be called from multiple places within the class, as well as from outside of the class.

A @staticmethod can be overridden in subclasses. This allows subclasses to provide their own implementation of @staticmethod, which can be useful in certain scenarios.

Overall, using a @staticmethod instead of a regular function can make the code more organized, reusable, and readable, especially when dealing with classes and subclasses in Python.

When Use @staticmethod in Python?

Use a @staticmethod in Python when you have a method that belongs to a class, rather than to individual instances of the class.

A @staticmethod is typically used to define helper functions that are related to the class, but that does not depend on any instance-specific state. This makes the code modular and reusable as the @staticmethod can be called from multiple places within the class, as well as from outside of the class.

Notice that if you have a function that does not belong to a class, and that does not depend on any class-specific state, just define a regular function outside of the class. A regular function is more flexible and can be called from anywhere, without being tied to classes so unless the behavior is related to a class it’s better to leave it out of the class.

Python @classmethod as an Alternative Constructor

In Python, a classmethod can be used as an alternative constructor for a class. This means that you can use a classmethod to define a method that can be used to create and return instances of the class, in addition to the regular __init__ method that is used as the default constructor.

Here is an example of how you might use a @classmethod as an alternative constructor for a class:

class MyClass: def __init__(self, param1, param2): # Code for the regular constructor goes here ... @classmethod def from_string(cls, string): # Code for the classmethod constructor goes here ...

In the example above, the __init__ method is the regular constructor for the MyClass class, which is called when you create an instance of the class using the MyClass() syntax.

The from_string method is a @classmethod that can be used as an alternative constructor for the class. In other words, if you want to initialize a MyClass object from a string, you can call the from_string method instead of the default initializer.

To use the from_string method as an alternative constructor, you can simply do the following:

my_object = MyClass.from_string('some string')

In this example, the from_string method is called on the MyClass class, rather than on an instance of the class. It is passed the string 'some string' as the argument, and it returns an instance of the MyClass class, which is then assigned to the my_object variable.

Overall, using a @classmethod as an alternative constructor can provide a more convenient and flexible way to create instances of a class in Python. It allows you to define multiple ways of creating instances of a class, and to choose the most appropriate method based on the specific needs of your application.

Summary

In Python, a class method is a method that belongs to a class rather than a particular object. It is marked with the @classmethod decorator. A class method receives the class as an implicit first argument, just like an instance method receives the instance.

A static method is a method that belongs to a class rather than a particular object. It is marked with the @staticmethod decorator. A static method does not receive any additional arguments; it behaves like a regular function but belongs to the class.

Here is an example of how to use these decorators in a Python class:

class MyClass: @classmethod def class_method(cls): # ... @staticmethod def static_method(): # ...

The key difference between a class method and a static method is that a class method can access or modify the class state, while a static method cannot.

Thanks for reading. Happy coding!

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Introduction to Python Pygame

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Syntax and Parameters of Python Pygame

Below are the syntax and parameters:

Syntax

import pygame from pygame.locals import * Parameters

importing pygame module followed by accessing key coordinates easily from locals

From there, you write your game code where you want to insert objects movable, sizeable, etc.

Then initialize the pygame module.

Examples to Implement Python Pygame

Below are the examples:

1. initializing the pygame pygame.init()

This is a function call. Before calling other pygame functions, we always call this first just after importing the pygame module. If you see an error that says font not initialized, go back and check if you forgot pygame.init() insertion at the very start.

2. Surface Object pygame.display.set_mode((500, 500))

This function call returns the pygame.Surface object. The tuple within tells the pixel parameters about width and height. This creates an error if not done properly, which says argument 1 must be 2 items sequences, not int.

Code:

import pygame from pygame.locals import * pygame init() display_window = pygame.display.set_mode((400, 300)) pygame.display.set_caption('Hello World!') while True: for event in pygame.event.get(): if chúng tôi == QUIT: pygame.quit() sys.exit() pygame.display.update()

Code:

#Let’s make a character move on the screen. import pygame pygame.init() win = pygame.display.set_mode((500, 500)) pygame.display.set_mode = ("First game") x = 50 y = 50 width = 40 height = 60 vel = 5 run = True while run: pygame.time.delay(100) for event in pygame.event.get(): if chúng tôi == pygame.QUIT: run = False keys = pygame.key.get_pressed() if keys[pygame.K_LEFT]: x -= vel if keys[pygame.K_RIGHT]: x += vel if keys[pygame.K_UP]: y -= vel if keys[pygame.K_DOWN]: y += vel chúng tôi ((0,0,0)) pygame.draw.rect(win, (255, 0, 0),(x, y, widty, height)) pygame.display.update() pygame.quit()

First, we initialize the pygame module by importing it.

Now, we give the parameters for the window size of the game we are constructing.

Naming the game to the first game, which is the name of the window.

Now, creating a character, it needs parameters. Let’s say we create a rectangle. A rectangle needs height, width, x and y coordinates to be placed in the window, the velocity with which it should move across the window.

Output: This is how the output seems for creating a character, that is, in this case, a rectangle.

Then we need to start writing out the main loop, which considers the character movement. In this program, the main loop is going to check for its collision, its mouse events; it’s also going to check if you hit something. This is one of the simple ways to do it.

Now we make a run variable. In the loop, we are going to check the collision. Giving the loop a time delay is going to help you by delaying the things that happen real quick in the window. This regards kind od a clock in pygame. You cannot normally import the clock in pygame, but this is the easy way to do it.

For checking an event: Events in pygame are anything that the user causes. Like, moving the mouse in general, accessing the computer to create files. So, to check for the events, we happened to create a loop check for events.

Then we draw a rectangle that is movable, which is a surface on the pygame window. All the colors in pygame are in RGB, so 255 is red and the giving in the defined parameters width, height, x, y coordinates. Then we update the window, which displays us a rectangle at those particular coordinates and parameters.

Output:

With the use of keys on the keyboard, one can move the rectangle. The output is shown like this. stop and play are used to play the sounds. The immediate recognition of play gives immediate hear of beep and stops when recognizes stop. We can even play background music time by uploading it. The file can be of type MP3, MIDI or WAV.

Code:

play_sound = pygame.mixer.Sound(‘beeps.wav’) play_sound.play() import time time.sleep(5)#lets the sound play for 5 seconds. play_sound.stop() Conclusion

If one knows the basics of Python programming, he can learn the gaming modules on his own. Using loops, variables, if-else statements, the code interprets how the program behaves. You can make many such changes by inserting objects like fonts, clock object, pixel objects and coordinates, drawings, transparent colors, game loops and states, and many more.

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