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In this tutorial you will learn about

Characteristics Settings – Display Name:

By default, when a characteristic is added to the query, it displays the description specified in SAP BW. It is possible to replace this with customized text as follows.

Select the General tab

Enter Description

Characteristics Settings – Display Properties:

Select the Display tab of the properties window of the selected characteristic.

The “Display as” option is used to display either only the Key or only Text or both Key & Text.

If a characteristic has 2 or more of Short / Medium / Long Text populated, “Text View” is used to display corresponding text.

It is possible to sort data ascending / descending either by the characteristic or any of its attributes.

The “Result Rows” option is used to show or hide sub-total for underlying characteristic.

Characteristics Settings – Display Records:

The display option is used to define what data is viewed by user during data selection (in filters) and after report execution.

Select the Advanced tab of the properties window of the selected characteristic.

Access Type for Result Values. Choose one of these values.

“Posted values” is used to show only records that have got some transactions associated with them

“Master Data” displays all master data records irrespective of whether a transaction exists for them or not. It is ineffective if used with zero suppression.

    Filter Value Selection. Choose one of these values.

    Only Values in InfoProvider: The system displays only values contained in the InfoProvider.

    Values in Master Data Table: It is faster, but may result in zero records matching selection criteria.

    Key Figure Settings – Display Name:

    By default, when a Key Figure is added to the query, it displays the description specified in SAP BW. It is possible to replace this with customized text as follows.

    Select the General tab

    Enter Description

    Key Figure Settings – Display Properties:

    Select the Display tab of the properties window of the selected Key Figure.


    The options “Always Show” and “Always Hide” are self explanatory.

    Hide (Can be Shown) option is used to keep a key figure hidden in default output of the report. However, the user can later display this field by using filters.

      Number of Decimals places can be used to restrict the decimal places displayed in report.

      Scaling factor is used to show data in thousands / hundreds / etc.

      The sign of key figures can be reversed if required. e.g. Sales Quantity is negative movement from Inventory perspective, but positive from sales perspective and we can reverse sign based on user.

      Key Figure Settings – Currency Or Unit Conversion:

      BW does not allow cumulating amount in different units e.g. one rupee to one dollar or one kilogram to one yard. When data exists in multiple currencies / unit, all records must be converted to single currency / unit using Currency Translation / Unit Conversion. The translation can be dynamic (by using selection screen variable) or static (with target currency / unit hardcoded in adjacent screens). Advantage of doing this in SAP BW is that it directly imports the conversion factors available in SAP ERP to SAP BW.

      Select the Conversions tab.

      For currency translation, this option can be used.

      For unit conversion, this option can be used.

      Key Figure Settings – Aggregation:

      Query Designer gives the flexibility of calculating aggregates as average, summation, minimum,

      etc. Similar calculations can also be performed on row-level data.

      Select the Calculations tab.

      Select from the Different options available under the drop-down of “Calculate Results As”.

      Key Figures – Local Formula:

      BW, allows use of formulae, on data coming from InfoProvider, to provide calculated values to user.

      e.g. Subtracting Cost from Revenue to calculate Profit

      Steps to create Formula:

      Step 1)

      Step 2)

      Step 3)

      Some of the common operators used in BW include:

      Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division

      NODIM is used to display key figures without their corresponding unit

      NOERR is used to display zero instead of error message (e.g. zero instead of mentioning that division by zero error)

      %GT is used to show the value of key figure as a percentage of total value

      In the “Detail View” box, enter the formula

      Use the operators from the “Operators” box.

      Key Figures – Calculated Key Figure:

      If same calculation is required for multiple reports, it can be mapped to the InfoProvider instead of creating it individually in each query. Such key figure is called “Calculated Key Figure” or CKF.

      Steps to create a Calculated Key Figure:

      Navigate to the Infoprovider section

      Choose the option “New Calculated Key Figure”.

      Key Figures – Restricted Key Figure:

      Restricted Key Figures (RKF) can be used to selectively apply filters only to a specific KPI in the report, but not to the entire report e.g. split sales into columns like YTD (Year To Date) Sales, PYTD (Previous Year To Date) Sales, etc.

      Step 1)

      Navigate to the Infoprovider section

      Choose the option “New Restricted Key Figure”.

      Step 2)

      Step 3)

      In the subsequent screen, at least one key figure and one characteristic must be entered to make a meaningful RKF.

      Key Figure which is to be restricted.

      The characteristic may be restricted by a selection screen variable to make it “Dynamic” RKF.

      It may also be restricted by a constant e.g. year = 2008. In the below screen shot, version is restricted with constant value “1”.

      Like CKF, RKFs are also global to the InfoProvider and can be reused in multiple queries using the same InfoProvider.

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      Google Discover: 10 Characteristics Of Top

      Google Discover curates a personalized feed of content for users based on their interests, search history, location, and activity in other apps.

      Native to Android devices, it is currently only available on mobile devices or accessible via the Chrome or Google apps on iOS.

      The feeds of articles displayed on Google Discover are entirely customized for each user, making it difficult to monitor the average ranking of a given article.

      To add to that, reporting on Google Discover presents many challenges. Right now, there is no dedicated referral source in Google Analytics to see traffic from Discover. Traffic shows up as coming in through a variety of organic, direct, and referral sources.

      So how can you optimize content for Google Discover?

      In this column, you’ll see what tends to do best on Google Discover, based on our analysis of over 7,200 URLs. You’ll also find takeaways to help with your own optimization strategy.

      What Makes Google Discover Optimization So Challenging?

      Google Search Console has a dedicated Performance report for Discover, which is triggered only if the property receives traffic from Google Discover.

      Even so, the criteria for ranking and driving traffic can feel elusive.

      SEO tool providers are still trying to figure out how to be able to collect data and share meaningful Discover insights due to the limitations of collecting data.

      Furthermore, while Google has published several documents related to ranking in Google Discover, the lack of publicly available performance data coupled with the highly personalized nature of content within Google Discover can make it hard for SEO professionals to try to reverse-engineer what it takes to rank well there.

      A Word of Gratitude to Other SEOs Also Obsessed with Google Discover

      The lack of SEO tools for Google Discover is not due to a lack of trying.

      Props to great SEO experts like Valentin Pletzer, John Shehata, and Abby Hamilton, who have been working hard to try to make sense of Discover data!

      Why SEO Pros Should Care About Google Discover

      If you’re like many SEO professionals, you may be thinking Google Discover doesn’t apply to you or the sites you work on.

      This is a common line of thinking that usually stems from SEO pros thinking their sites don’t qualify as ‘publisher’ websites and are therefore not eligible.

      This thinking may also be tied to how difficult it has historically been to get sites approved to appear in Google News (a separate product from Discover), especially when this process required manual approval by Google before 2023.

      If you have these thoughts about Google Discover, think again.

      Our team works on dozens of clients, and it is always surprising to see which types of sites and content see success in Discover.

      For some sites, Google Discover sends more organic traffic than regular organic results. For this reason alone, Discover shouldn’t be ignored!

      Beyond that, Google’s core updates can impact Discover performance. You may not even realize you’ve begun to receive (or lose) traffic from Discover after a core update, unless you’re paying attention to that report in Google Search Console.

      Below is an example of a client of ours who started to see signs of life on Google Discover during a recent core update.

      Google Discover provides another opportunity to earn organic traffic, but it’s a different animal than regular SEO and should be treated accordingly.

      Your Discover SEO strategy should be unique from your regular SEO strategy, and the below insights will indicate why.

      Methodology and Important Disclaimers

      In the below section, I will outline 10 key takeaways I have observed by analyzing 7,274 URLs receiving traffic in Discover from 23 different domains in the following categories (as classified by Similarweb):

      Arts and Entertainment.

      Home and Garden.

      News and Media.

      Pets and Animals.



      I pulled in Buzzsumo social media and link metrics to cross-reference with article performance to see whether there were correlations between performance on social media and Discover.

      In fact, these are some of the very tactics that appear to work best for our clients, as you’ll see below.

      With that said, it’s important to preface these findings by saying this analysis was done using a relatively small subset of URLs, and that violating Google’s guidelines in any form always comes with substantial risk. 

      Also, for the sake of client confidentiality, no actual headlines or URLs will be shared below, but the content will be described in detail.

      10 Attributes of Ranking Well in Discover 1. Emotionally Charged Headlines

      – Get on Discover, Google Search Central

      “this heartbreaking moment”

      “stuns the world”

      “cursed out”

      “fans call out”

      “under this 1 condition”

      “was floored”

      “violated 1 of the biggest unwritten rules”

      “just took this massive step”

      “confirms the rumor”

      “fans couldn’t handle it”

      “will happen and here’s why”

      “this 1 piece of jewelry”

      2. Posing Questions in Headlines (with the Answer in the Content)

      While these types of headlines might not pass muster with Google’s SEO algorithms, their enticing nature still appears to resonate with many users in Google Discover, leading to high CTRs.

      3. Ranking for COVID Content in Discover, but Not Search

      Another observation that came from this analysis was that sites were able to receive traffic from Google Discover from articles and topics where they have never seen significant traffic from regular Search.

      Google states front and center that E-A-T (expertise authoritativeness, and trustworthiness) is a crucial factor in determining which sites get to rank in Discover.

      Even so (and this is pure speculation), there appears to be a discrepancy in how E-A-T may be calculated across Discover and regular Search.

      This was particularly true on the topic of COVID-19, where authority appears to be one of the most important factors for ranking in SEO since the onset of the pandemic.

      It is clear that almost all of these URLs saw more traffic from Discover than from regular SEO.

      4. Recency is Good, But Some Evergreen Topics Sustain Discover Performance

      One of the most interesting aspects of Google Discover that sets it apart from Google’s more time-sensitive news surfaces such as Top Stories, Google News, and Web Stories, is that Google Discover can sometimes surface content from several years back, even if the content was not edited.

      This provides a huge opportunity for sites that aren’t able to consistently publish new content – old content can still appear in Discover if it meets all the other criteria.

      To illustrate these, I pulled in the “date modified” among top-performing articles.

      For several of these articles, they continue to receive traffic from Google Discover every day.

      5. Content That Performs Well in Discover May Not Perform Well in Search (and Vice Versa)

      It is important to remember that Google Discover and Google Search use entirely different ranking criteria and the strategy used to rank in either feature should be customized accordingly.

      In recent years, with the rise of E-A-T in SEO, it has become more important than ever to ensure content demonstrates the highest possible levels of quality. It’s essential to meet the following criteria laid out in Google’s core update guidelines:

      “Does the content present information in a way that makes you want to trust it, such as clear sourcing, evidence of the expertise involved, background about the author or the site that publishes it, such as through links to an author page or a site’s About page?

      Would you feel comfortable trusting this content for issues relating to your money or your life?

      Is the content free from spelling or stylistic issues?

      Does the headline and/or page title avoid being exaggerating or shocking in nature?”

      (… and many more questions where these came from.)

      However, this criteria appears to be measured somewhat differently for content that performs well in Google Discover.

      Perhaps this is due to the unique behaviors of Discover users and the desire to read fun or lighthearted content in their feeds that is not as focused on E-A-T.

      In many ways, Discover behaves more like a social media platform than a search engine.

      6. Consistent with the Users’ Beliefs or Political Views

      Another obvious observation from this analysis is that some of the top-performing content in Google Discover tends to feed into the existing political or social beliefs of its readers.

      For example, articles that may promote outrage or adoration about the behaviors of political figures, celebrities, or the royal family.

      7. Discover Topics Can Work Better Than Search When the User Didn’t Know They Were Looking for It

      Google Discover is unique from SEO in the sense that SEO only works if and when the user is searching for that topic.

      Much like the content displayed on social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, Google Discover content is often successful even when the user didn’t realize they were looking for it.

      For this reason, traditional SEO keyword research methods that work for SEO may not work for Google Discover.

      Focusing on topics that actually resonate with the site’s target audience and appeal to their emotions may result in stronger Discover performance.

      For example, pet content that tells the personal stories of pets that recovered from obscure illnesses might not present a lot of search volume or potential in Google Search. But we observed that that type of content performs best in Discover for some of our pet clients.

      8. Death, Marriage, Divorce

      Topics that tend to generate emotion, controversy, and/or empathy do very well in Google Discover.

      Deaths, marriages, divorces, interpersonal drama, and gossip are just some examples of this.

      Emotionally charged content significantly outperforms all other content in our analysis.

      9. Celebrity Gossip

      Celebrity gossip as a category receives the lion’s share of Discover traffic in our analysis. This is an interesting trend to consider, especially in light of the organic traffic and visibility declines that many of these types of sites have seen in Google Search, News, and Top Stories in recent years.

      — Lily Ray 😏 (@lilyraynyc) February 25, 2023

      10. Listicles (Numbers in Headlines)

      The feasibility of “listicles” as an SEO strategy tends to be a controversial topic among the SEO community.

      Even so, listicle content performs well in our Discover research. Some of the articles that have seen evergreen traffic from Discover in the past 16 months follow this format.

      Headlines include phrases such as:

      15 reasons why…

      10 things you should buy…

      10 cars that…

      These 5 things…

      Takeaway From Our Google Discover Analysis

      The most important takeaway from this analysis is to realize that Google Discover should form part of your SEO strategy.

      The tactics required to perform well in Google Discover may be entirely different from that of your regular SEO content strategy.

      Performing well in Google Discover will likely stem from a content strategy mimicking that used on other social platforms, rather than a keyword-research-driven, E-A-T focused SEO strategy.

      Tactics that once worked well on Google but are no longer as effective may still work well on Google Discover, despite the suggestions laid out in Google’s own documentation.

      More Resources:

      Image Credits

      All screenshots taken by author, July 2023

      Purpose And Characteristics Of Profit Center

      Definition of Profit Center

      Download Corporate Valuation, Investment Banking, Accounting, CFA Calculator & others


      There are many divisions in any entity, while some divisions act as a support system for others such as accounting, others such as thesales department is capable of earning revenues through their activities. Based on the fact whether a department is capable of generating revenues through its activities, a department can be classified as a profit center or a cost center.

      A department is said to be a profit center if its activities lead to the generation of revenue for the entity by the usage of resources of the company. On the other hand, a department or a division is said to be a cost center if it doesn’t contribute to the revenue of the entity.

      Purpose of Profit Center

      After identifying profitable and low-profit units in the organization accountants or management decides the allocation of resources and it lays down its future strategy to increase the revenue of theleast profitable unit. Also, management decides ceasing of certain activities altogether based on profitability and other factors.

      Characteristics of Profit Center

      The Profit center is treated as a separate unit or reporting segment in the organization.

      As a separate reporting segment, it has its own accounting and calculation of profit and losses.

      They are responsible for revenue generation in the organization.

      They help in management decision making regarding fund allocation and devising of strategies.

      How Does It Work?

      The management is responsible for managing a profit center and they do have decision- making authority regarding their management. This work involves a lot of pressure as management needs to ensure that sales of products and services are always more than the cost. They make sure that the unit is profitable in each period either by increasing the revenue or optimizing expenses and sometimes using both the techniques simultaneously.

      As mentioned earlier as well, the identification of profit centers is done basically to determine which divisions are most profitable in an organization which helps in root cause analysis behind the least profitable unit, funding allocation, and cutting out some activities forever.

      Example of Profit Center

      Let us take an example of a departmental store wherein different products can be categorized into different sub-units and thus different profit centers. Let us say the store had the following units:



      Electronics goods

      Seasonal goods like gardening kits or festivity related goods

      Accounting unit

      Therefore, the store can create profit centers for each unit separately, excluding the accounting unit, which will help the management in determining the contribution of each profit center to the revenue at the end of the period. The accounting unit is a cost center and not a profit center since it doesn’t generate revenues for the store.

      Types of Profit Center

      As a Department Within the Organization: These are profit centers that are small departments in the organization like sales division, investment division, etc.

      As a Strategic Unit in a Big Organization: In a big organization with different sub-areas, profit centers serve as different strategic units and are used for segmental reporting purposes. For example, in bank different products like retail banking, wealth management, loans, and mortgages can be reported as separate units and are identified with different profit centers group.

      Uses of Profit Center

      Profit centers help in determining profits or losses as a separate unit of the organization.

      They help in a further analysis like calculation of different financial ratios like return on investment, profitability ratios of the particular unit.

      They facilitate management decision making regarding funding allocation, devising strategy for low-performing units, etc.

      They help in determining the variances between the budgeted and actual cost thus help in budgetary control.


      Advantages of the profit centers are as follows:

      The profit center helps in devising strategies for low performing units by allocating resources, increasing or increasing revenues.

      Profit centers reduce the burden of an organization by categorizing the units in most profitable, least profitable, and cost centers.

      They help in segmental reporting wherever it is required and also helps in understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the particular unit.

      The process of the fund and other resources allocation and indirect cost to profit centers is very complex and not highly accurate.

      Sometimes decisions taken based on the performance of one profit center or unit may not be in the best interest of the organization as a whole.

      It encourages unhealthy cross-unit rivalry or competition within the organization.


      Profit center helps in the creation of a framework in the organization which helps in fair resources and funding allocation and increase profitability. But when an organization is looking out for converting its business units into profit centers, it should be careful while allotting the upper management, because if management is right the profitability of a unit will increase for sure.

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      Edge Computing: Definition, Characteristics, And Use Cases

      Traditional cloud computing networks are significantly brought together, with data being collected on the fringe edges and sent back to the essential servers for taking care.

      This plan grew out of the way that most of the devices arranged near the edge came up short on computational power and limited capacity to separate and then again process the data they accumulated.

      How much data is ceaselessly being made at the edge is turning out to be decisively speedier than the limit of associations to manage it.

      As opposed to sending data to a cloud or a distant server homestead to achieve the work, endpoints should send data to an Edge Enrolling contraption that cycles or separates that data.

      What is Edge Computing?

      Edge Computing is closer to data source and limit, and figuring tasks should be possible in the edge enrolling center point, which diminishes the center data transmission process.

      Carrying this handling ability to the edge of the association helps address the data trial by creating, generally, shut IoT structures.

      A conclusive goal is to restrict cost and lethargy while controlling association bandwidth.

      A huge benefit Edge Figuring offers that would be helpful is the reduction of data ready to be sent and taken care of in the cloud.

      It underlines closeness to clients and outfits clients with better shrewd organizations, thus further creating data transmission execution, ensuring consistent taking care, and decreasing conceded time.

      Benefits of Edge Computing

      Edge registering has arisen as one of the best answers for network issues related to moving gigantic volumes of information created today. Here are the absolute most significant benefits of edge processing −

      Reduces Latency − Inactivity alludes to the time expected to move information between two organizational focuses. Huge distances between these two focuses and network clogs can create setbacks. As edge figuring carries the focuses nearer to one another, idleness issues are nonexistent for all intents and purposes.

      Saves Bandwidth − Transmission capacity alludes to the rate at which information is moved in an organization. As all organizations have a restricted transmission capacity, the volume of information that can be moved and the number of gadgets that can cycle this is restricted too. By sending the information servers to the places where information is created, edge registering permits numerous gadgets to work over much more modest and effective data transmission.

      Execution Expenses − The expenses of executing an edge foundation in an association can be complicated and costly. It requires a reasonable degree and reason before the organization and extra gear and assets to work.

      Inadequate Information − Edge figuring can handle incomplete data arrangements that should be characterized during execution. Because of this, organizations might wind up losing important information and data.

      Security − Since edge registering is a circulated framework, guaranteeing sufficient security can be challenging. There are takes a chance engaged with handling information outside the edge of the organization. The expansion of new IoT gadgets can likewise build the chance for the aggressors to invade the gadget.

      Edge Computing Use-Cases

      Edge figuring draws information handling closer to business activities. It has numerous varieties, with numerous IT experts seeing it as a development of the conveyed ‘lights out’ server farm idea. Regardless of how savvy the end-point is; all Edge approaches share similar engineering.

      Center information center(s) with satellite areas store and cycle information and cooperate with end-focuses.

      Edge comprises organization doors, server farms, and everything IoT.

      The motivation behind the Edge is to convey dispersed application administrations, give knowledge to the end-point, speed up execution from the center data frameworks or gather and forward data from the Edge end-point sensors and regulators.

      The shortfall of a concurred and acknowledged Edge processing definition requested we make our own subsequent in three distinct kinds of purpose cases −

      Remote ‘Lights Out’ Edge Server, farms can be a little hardware rack in different far-off areas or numerous enormous server farms. It is the most different, non-standard Edge climate. It requires new hierarchical models, modern programming application designs, and a high degree of reflection to the picture, conveying low touch control and the capacity to scale and deal with a heterogenous blend of gear.

      Holder IT Edges, is where combined frameworks reside. This climate comprises an answering stack including at least one of the accompanying; servers, operating system, stockpiling, organization, and improved power and cooling to help all the hardware in the contained climate. The compartments are exceptionally normalized notwithstanding, customization is accessible to suit explicit Edge prerequisites with choices for extra parts.

      Internet of Things (IoT), where profoundly accessible processors empower constant investigation for applications that can hardly hold on to decide. IoT end-directs go on toward getting more brilliant with a more remarkable capacity to work freely and settle on choices without routine correspondence with center stage.


      With edge computing, things have become fundamentally more successful. Accordingly, the idea of business assignments has become higher. Edge figuring is a sensible solution for data-driven undertakings that require lightning-fast results and a raised level of flexibility, dependent upon the current status of things.

      Release Strategy In Sap Mm – Procedure For Purchase Order

      Releasing a purchasing document means approving it. For this, our MM consultant can create release procedures to be used. There is a vast number of options that can be used for controlling the release of the documents.

      Important information to know is that a purchasing document cannot be changed after it is released. That means that only the final version should be released. Unreleased documents (RFQ – request for quotation, PO – purchase order, scheduling agreement, contract) cannot be processed further (convert RFQ to quotation, PO to goods receipt, invoice verification). Process flow:

      Release strategy

      We can have a lot of different strategies for different situations. For example, you can define a release strategy that is dependent on document type, you can define a release strategy based on the purchasing organization, purchasing group, or any other crucial information for a purchasing document.

      In most of the cases, one of the most used release strategy is based on the value of the purchase document.

      Defining a Release Strategy

      Step 1) Lets define a release strategy such that will only request a manual release for purchasing documents with value greater than 100 Eur. For example if we have a PO of the value of 50 Eur, it will be autoreleased (will not require a release to be processed further). A purchase order for more than 100 Eur would require a release.

      For this, in the background, there needs to be specified a characteristic.

      We can do this in CT04 transaction.

      NETVALUE characteristic is defined.

      It’s Value to be more than 100 Eur.

      Step 2) Assigning fields to a characteristic on the additional data tab. We are assigning field CEKKO-GNETW to the characteristic, because that field is a purchase document value.

      Step 3) There also needs to be specified a class that holds the characteristic.

      T-code to accomplish that is CL02.

      For this class, we need to set a class name, class type,

      Description and Status,

      Validity period,

      Same classification.

      Step 4) Assigning a characteristic to a class. Afterwards, we can assign NETVALUE to a class called REL_PUR.

      Step 5) Following steps need to be done in customizing.

      Create release groups (you assign them a class – in our case REL_PUR).

      Create release codes (assigning them release groups).

      Create release indicators (e.g. 1-Blocked, 2-Released).

      Creating a release strategy.

      Assigning a release group and release code to a release strategy.

      Defining release statuses for the strategy (blocked and released).

      You can also perform a release strategy simulation to see if it works correctly (optional).

      Afterwards, your strategy is set and ready for live system tryout.

      Step 6) We can see that our purchase order is created to a value of more than 100 Eur. If we create a PO for less than 100 Eur, it will be autoreleased.

      These two statuses mean that our PO is in release (it’s subject to release process indicating that it should be approved before further processing can be possible). The other indicates the current status – Blocked means that it isn’t released yet.

      Value is 24,000 Eur, which is more than 100 Eur.

      Now we have a purchase order that needs to be released (approved) to be valid for further processing.

      Releasing purchase order

      For the actual release of the purchasing document, we can use t-code ME28.

      Step 1)

      Execute the transaction code.

      Enter release code (mandatory) and release group (optional).

      Options – keep it as default like on the below screen.

      You can choose the appropriate scope of the list and purchasing document category (if we only want to see the purchase orders available for release we will choose “F“).


      Step 2) On the next screen, we can see the purchase orders selected by our criteria.

      Status of the purchase order has changed to released.

      Step 3) You can see in the ME23N or ME22N transaction that our purchase order has altered statuses. “Release completed” and “Released” statuses are now shown in the PO header data.

      Process flow is the same for all of the purchase documents (RFQ, PR, quotation etc).

      Cancelling a release

      Step 1) Purchasing document release has to be reversed in order for already released document to be changed.

      You can do that from the same transaction ME28.

      Choose the Cancel release check box and execute the transaction.

      Step 2) You will see the list of purchase documents available for release cancelation.

      Choose the appropriate document.

      Save and you are done.

      Cancelling a release isn’t possible if your release strategy doesn’t allow the release to be reversed. This is a setting maintained on the release indicator and release strategy level.

      Sap Crm Sales Process, Management, Quotation & Product Determination

      With SAP CRM Sales the complete sales cycle could be managed across different sales channels, i.e. direct sales, channel sales, telesales and e-selling.

      SAP CRM Sales Business Role

      SAP CRM offers predefined Business Role [Sales Professional – SALESPRO] for the sales representatives of an organization

      With this role SAP standard functionalities related to the Account Management, Activities, Sales Cycle, Pipeline Management and Sales Management can be performed by the Sales representatives.

      SAP CRM sales also offers Sales Assistant which could be used by the sales representative to plan sales activities within sales cycle processes, and sales methodologies elements such as buying centre, competitor analysis, project goals, etc. which could be used in an opportunity by the sales representative while preparing value proposition for the customer.

      General Sales Cycle steps

      A Sales representative receives a qualified lead (Hot Lead).

      When this Hot Lead is accepted by the sales representative, the system creates an Opportunity.

      Within SAP CRM actual sales process begin with an opportunity. It is not mandatory to use Lead to create the Opportunity.

      The sales representative then contacts the customer and updates the opportunity with further data.

      Also there is option to activate activities available in the Sales Assistant or create new activities. These activities can be configured for different stages of the Opportunity.

      The Opportunity needs to be evaluated by the sales representative with positive or negative decision.

      Opportunity ends with the creation the quotation, or rejection from the customer.

      The solution derived from the opportunity is presented to the customer and the sales representative creates quotation.

      Once the sale representative secures agreement based upon the quotation, sales order can then be created.

      Delivery is not part of the SAP CRM and for that it is integrated with a back-end SAP ERP system.

      Billing for the sales orders can be performed within the SAP CRM.

      Also SAP CRM offers SAP BI in order to analyze the complete sales project based on the outcome of the opportunities.

      Opportunity Management

      An opportunity represents possibility for sale of services or products.

      A bid invitation, a sales deal or a trade fair can result into opportunity.

      Also Opportunity can be created with the Hot Lead, which is a business transaction in the Marketing process.

      SAP CRM offers Opportunity as a business transaction document that presents various aspects of the sales prospects (customers) such as the products and services which they have requested, their budget, expected sales volume and option to estimate the sales probability.

      With SAP CRM’s Opportunity Management, an organization can maintain and track a sales project at different stages. Thus it provides an option for analysis and optimization of customer-specific business process.

      For a Sales Cycle, various sales stages can be configured in customizing as per the customer-specific business process.

      Each sales stage can have planned activities which can be activated by the sales employee using the Sales Assistant.

      Above 2 images display Assignment Blocks in Create page for an Opportunity

      Mainly an opportunity document in SAP CRM contains data related to the Sales cycle, forecast data, classification of opportunity, product data (maintained in Items Assignment Block), and information related to activities, competitor products, sale team, attachments, etc.

      Change in sales stage for an Opportunity result in calculation of the forecast data, thus the completion of a Sales stage determines the probability of sale.

      Forecast data contains the expected volume of the sale in terms of product quantity and product value.

      An opportunity can be classified based upon the Opportunity Group (such as existing customer or new customer), its origin (such as trade fair), and its priority.

      These data could be used in the analysis of the Opportunity management in your company.

      In product data (maintained within Items assignment block), expected product quantity and product value can be maintained at each item level.

      This also reflects in the expected value of the Opportunity in the forecast data as a complete document.

      It is possible to save an Opportunity with incorrect product id or description. This is useful in the cases where product information is not clear at the early stage of sales cycle.

      CRM also provides functionality to search and maintain the competitor product in the Opportunity document. This relationship between products needs to be maintained in CRM product master data.

      As displayed in the above create page images, SAP CRM Sales offers Sales Stage History which presents data related to each sales stage which are completed for the Opportunity. Along with this, SAP CRM is also integrated with SAP BI for the analysis of the Opportunity Management data at different Sales stages and from the forecast data.

      Quotation Management

      Quotation is a legally binding agreement of your company with your customer to deliver specific product in a specified timeframe at a pre-defined price.

      In SAP CRM Sales Quotations are created as follow-up documents for opportunities.

      A quotation can be copied or converted to a sales order.

      It is also possible to create quotation with reference to the inquiry.

      For a quotation, validation period is maintained within which customer can place or modify the order, or can cancel the order.

      Quotation Management includes following processes:

      Create a quotation in the system

      Create items for the quotation

      You can add products requested by the customer

      You can perform ATP check of products for each item in the quotation

      Determine the pricing of individual items

      Send the quotation to the customer

      You can create activities as part of a Quotation document

      The data maintained in the Quotation document also includes order probability, validity, alternative items, actions and availability check.

      Product Proposal

      Product proposal functionality can be implemented using:

      Transaction history of the customer which includes previous sales orders of the customer.

      Marketing projects in which the customer has been involved.

      For these proposed products, it is possible to perform ATP check and the price calculation.

      You can have following types of the product proposals:





      Top-n product lists

      Sales Order Management

      SAP CRM Sales order processing is used to create and process a sales order and also to trigger logistics processing in the integrated back-end SAP ERP system. Following are the possible sources for creating Sales Orders in CRM:

      SAP ERP

      Directly in CRM

      IC Web Client

      Mobile Sales

      Internet Sales Application (E-Commerce)


      Sales order can be created as follow-up documents to an existing quotation or multiple existing quotations.

      In order to create a sales order from multiple existing quotations, organizational data of all these quotations must match.

      Rest of the header data is copied from first quotation selected.

      Sales order processing in SAP CRM consists of following steps:

      Create sales order with requested product

      Perform ATP check

      Maintain and determine the pricing conditions

      Integrated ERP system helps to perform credit check

      System replicates it to and receives it from the SAP ERP

      Order confirmation is sent to the customer

      Outbound delivery activities such as picking, packing, transport, and goods issue takes place in the integrated SAP ERP system.

      Billing process provided within SAP CRM could be used for creating customer invoices.

      Billing document can be created with reference to the sales order, deliver, or contract depending upon the customizing settings.

      General data entered at the header level of the sales order includes transaction types, requested delivery date, employee responsible, contact person, sold-to party and ship-to party.

      Required products and quantities are entered at the item level.

      SAP CRM offers functionality to configure products as part of Internet Pricing and Configurator (IPC) application.

      This application can be integrated with the SAP CRM Sales application such that user can configure the product and can place a sales order for it in the same place.

      A configurable product is maintained with characteristics which can have multiple values.

      Thus customer can set the values for the characteristics as per requirement.

      Once configured, customer can place order for this configured product.

      For analysing quotation and sales order processing, SAP BI provides standard reports. For example:

      0CRM_QUTO_Q0001 – To monitor top 5 quotations

      0CSAL_C03_Q0001 – To monitor incoming sales orders

      SAP CRM offers functionality to determine pricing information for a sales order.

      The system automatically calculates the gross price, discounts, surcharges that are applicable for your customer at a specific time.

      SAP CRM uses pricing condition techniques for maintaining and determining the pricing.

      A condition group can be assigned to the Business Partner, Product or customer hierarchy.

      Other Features in Quotation and Sales Order Management

      In the SAP CRM Sales processing there are certain functionalities which are well featured by SAP. Some of these are product determination, listing and exclusion, free goods and availability check. These features are used at different stages of Sales processing within SAP CRM Sales.

      Product Determination

      During the sales document processing, system can automatically determine and substitute the products.

      With the help of condition technique, it is possible to configure a product determination procedure.

      This product determination procedure can then be assigned to a transaction type.

      When a sales document is created for this transaction type and a product is entered, this will trigger the product determination procedure.

      This configuration is used when there is a requirement to have product substitution in a sales document.

      Product determination is not used to substitute a product which is not available with another available product.

      For this purpose you can use the rule-based ATP check in the SAP APO.

      Product determination feature is supported with the CRM Mobile Sales or the IC WebClient.

      Listing and Exclusion

      Listing and Exclusion for a particular account represents which products are permissible or not permissible for that account in a specific timeframe for a particular business transaction.

      There are two possible approached to implement this:

      PPR – Partner/Product Range (without condition technique)

      A newer approach using condition technique

      In case of PPR, assignment of business partners, products and timeframe is done. The necessary settings for the PPR are done in the customizing.

      In the newer approach Listing determines a product valid or invalid. This Listing consists of header and item. Header contains the condition technique and item contains PPR information.

      With free goods you can implement quantity discount. That is, you can offer a product for free to your customer when a certain quantity of product has been ordered. This feature is also implemented using the condition technique. It could be implemented in two ways:

      Inclusive free good: the discount is applied when certain quantity of product is purchased.

      Exclusive free good: certain amount of product is offered for free when some predefined quantity of product is purchased.

      Contract Management

      Through different SAP CRM channels, SAP CRM Sales offers Contract Management which is embedded into the sales cycle. Contract is an agreement with your customer based upon agreed conditions related to price, target value, or target quantity. It allows your company to release products or services based upon these conditions. It could be created based upon an opportunity which is won by the sales employee responsible. Further to this opportunity sales employee responsible and the customer agrees to favourable conditions, based upon which the sales order is then created. Customer needs to accept this contract and then the sales manager releases this contract. Customer can then order products against this released contract. Around completion date of the contract, Sales representative can contact the customer to renew the contract.

      The sales orders created are linked to the contract as follow-up documents and thus it keeps record of the entire required information from all the sales orders created.

      SAP CRM offers two types of contract:

      Quantity contract is an agreement with a customer that he or she will buy certain quantity of particular in a specified timeframe.

      Whereas Value Contract is an agreement with a customer that he or she will buy certain value of particular in a specified timeframe.

      Contract Management includes following functions related to the sales orders created against it:

      Following are relevant status values for a CRM sales contract:

      Open – This is set by default when contract is created.

      In Process – You can set this status while negotiating the contract with customer.

      Released – This status needs to be set, when an item in the contract is ready and can be used to release products and create sales orders against it.

      Completed – This status is set for the items whose validity has expired or, whose target value or quantity has been released completely. It could be set automatically or manually. Once an item in contract is in this status it will not be possible to release products against it.

      In order to create an order against a contract, you can open the contract and create the order as a follow-up document. Also, you can create the order and use the contract determination to fetch the possible contracts and then select the appropriate one. The order maintains release order list and keeps the check against the agreed maximum quantity and value.

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