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The Swiftness of Internet Justice
In 1988, Michael Dukakis was asked a question at a debate that probably helped end his career. Moderator Bernard Shaw asked him if his wife were raped and murdered, would he favor the death penalty? You can see a video of the exchange on YouTube, but needless to say Dukakis’ answer is completely unsatisfying. He talks about how the death penalty is not a deterrent. He talks about Massachusetts and the drop in crime there. He never talks about his wife, even in the hypothetical. I’ve thought a lot about this question. I am not in favor of the death penalty, and this seems to be the sort of question that always pops up to challenge people who think like me. Here’s how I would have answered:[Image credit Chris Martin]
“If someone raped and killed my wife, I would want them dead. I would want to kill them with my own bare hands. They deserve nothing less. But thankfully, our government tries to be better than any one individual. Our justice system tries to remain dispassionate. I’m thankful that our country would take the life and death decision out of my hands at that point, because that would be the lowest moment in my life, and our government needs to be better than one citizen at their lowest.”
That pretty much sums up my feelings about the justice system. I want our system to be better than the sum of its parts, and certainly better than any one individual. I want it to transcend a passionate, retaliatory response to criminal actions, because I don’t think retaliation makes society better, and that should be the ultimate goal of the justice system, to make our country a better place. If a man committed such a heinous crime against my wife, I would hunt him down and end his life. Then I would call the police, and after that, my lawyer.
There has been a lot of justice meted out on the Internet recently, especially over the last couple of weeks. It has ranged from the humorous to the alarming to the downright questionable.
Take the Cooks Source debacle, for instance. A magazine nobody had ever heard of set off a firestorm when it ripped off the writing of a food writer nobody had ever heard of. But that didn’t stop the Internet (and it does seem like the entire Internet has chimed in) from dealing a swift and painful blow to the serial plagiarists who run this tiny New England rag. You can, and should, read the entire story on Wired.
Did the Internet response go too far? I don’t think so. From what I’ve read, Cooks Source might be a repeat offender in this plagiarism game. The response from the editor was completely ignorant of Internet laws and customs. The editors have only made things worse in the subsequent days. The writer who was wronged is only demanding a thorough and public apology, and a token donation to a journalism school. But what about all the others Cooks Source might have ripped off? No, I think that if this is a serial problem from an unrepentant content thief, I have no sympathy for what befalls the magazine online. I don’t want to see anyone physically hurt, but a good thrashing on a Facebook wall is merited. Besides, this isn’t a criminal issue, it’s a tort issue.
What happens when it becomes a criminal issue? At a tech conference recently, a woman who works for one major Internet company claims that she was sexually harassed by an employee of another company. I’m not going to name names here, but her blog is public, and she offers explicit details about the alleged attack.
But what if it isn’t true? Or, what if it didn’t happen the way she said it did? I’m not trying cast doubt on her claims, but before the Internet and blogosphere tries to crucify her attacker, he should at least have his day in court. Then the crucifixion.
I was working at a retail store in a mall once when one employee, an older woman, smacked a younger employee, a college kid, on the butt. He was headed out of the stockroom onto the sales floor, and as a note of encouragement, she gave him a soft whack and said something silly, like: “Go get ’em, tiger!” He complained, she was fired.
Paul Carr writes an excellent piece on TechCrunch about this sort of incident. I did not realize that in Britain it’s not legal to talk about an alleged criminal’s guilt or innocence before they are tried. It certainly makes sense, though it would never fly in the U.S. because we are, for better and for worse, more enamored with the freedom of speech than we are with a universal sense of fairness. In the Bill of Rights, free speech comes first, but the rights of a person accused of a crime comes fourth, after speech, guns and the right to keep soldiers from living in your house.
There is a difference between retribution and justice. I personally might go after someone who wronged me, and that’s retribution. But I don’t get a large section of society involved in my case. That’s what justice is for. Retribution represents us at our worst moment. It is when we stoop down to meet someone lower than us. Justice cannot be attained by one individual, it has to be earned by society working together to be better than one person is capable of being. I’m glad our country as a whole is sometimes better than me. I wish it always were.
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Chronicles of the Delhi Sultanate mention the just and honest rule by kings in order to get support from others to run the empire. The system was called the circle of justice, in which the king needed to maintain ideal relations with all sections of the society for building a balance and prosperous rule. In this system, every point of the circle (i.e., all sections of the society) is equal and essential. God stands above everyone and casts his shadow on earth through the sultan. At the same time, chronicles of that time also emphasized the existence of gender distinction for the accession to the throne, in order to have an ‘ideal’ social and political order.Tawarikh
Chronicles written by scribes during the sultanate period were called as Tawarikh. These Tawarikh were written by the learned men of the society such as poets, courtiers, administrators and secretaries etc.
Buddha Offers Fruit to the Devil – from Jami al-Tawarikh
Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
The chronicles were written in the Persian language, which was the administrative language of that time. The authors of Tawarikh used to live in city like Delhi, recorded the events of the time and guided sultans to run a just and prosperous empire, expecting rewards in return for their services. In a nutshell these Tawarikh served as a major sources of information of the Delhi Sultanate period.The Circle of Justice
The idea of governing through the circle of justice was common in the Turkish and Persian rule, which they have adopted from the Sumerians. In the reign of the Delhi Sultanate, the chronicler Fakr-i-Mudabbir in the thirteenth century, gave the idea of the circle of justice, in which the king was expected to have a positive attitude towards his subjects. According to this idea, no power or king can survive without soldiers, and soldiers needed money or salary to survive. And the major portion of their income was collected as a revenue from the peasantry and for that matter the peasantry could pay only when they are happy and prosperous. To keep the prosperity intact in the empire, the king was expected to promote the justice and fair governance. In this way there was a circle, in which all elements are interdependent on each other in order to have a strong empire.Raziyya Sultan
Raziya was the first and the only woman sultan in Delhi. She is amongst the most fascinating characters of the Delhi Sultanate. She was trained to lead an army and administer a kingdom in times of necessity. She became adept as an archer and a horse rider by the age of 13. She even went on military expeditions with her father as a teenager. She discarded purdah and held open court. Iltutmish’s sons were incompetent, but his daughter, Raziyya, was well-educated and adept in military tactics. Therefore, Iltutmish nominated Raziyya as his successor. His wish was considered offensive by the chahalgani.
When Iltutmish died in 1236 CE, the nobles of the court refused to have a woman as the sultan. Thus, they disregarded the deceased sultan’s nominated successor and raised Ruknuddin Firuz Shah to the throne.
Ruknuddin’s reign was short. He was an incapable ruler. In 1236 CE, he was assassinated. The nobility finally agreed to allow Raziyya as the sultan of Delhi. As a sultan, Raziyya reportedly sought to abolish the tax on non-Muslims, but this was met with opposition from the nobility. She established schools, academies, centres for research and public libraries.Minha-i-Siraj
Minhaj I Siraj was a historian from Persia, born in 1193 in Ghor region in present-day Afghanistan. He worked as a teacher in a madrasa under Nasiruddin Qubacha. Then he came to Delhi and got protection from Iltutmish. Iltutmish appointed him as Qazi and Imam of Gwalior. During Razia’s reign, he was appointed as principal of Madarasa in Delhi. He also condemned the idea of Raziyya as the Delhi Sultan.What Minhaj-i-Siraj thought About Razziya?
Minhaj-i-Siraj acknowledged that Raziya was way more efficient and qualified than her brothers as ruler. However, like chahalgani, he was not in favour of making a female as the ruler at the helm. It was deemed to be against the social order ordained by God. In a way, this signifies that society was male-dominated. He also expressed that in “God’s register, Raziyya’s name does not fall under the column of men then how can she possess all qualities of man as ruler?”.
Eventually, due to a lot of conspiracy against her, Raziyya was overthrown and her brother, Muizuddin Bahram Shah, usurped the throne.Conclusion
With the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate in the subcontinent of India, the idea of a just and ideal system of ‘the circle of justice’, in which a ruler was expected to keep fair relationships with different sections of society from troops to peasantry because the prosperity and the consolidation of the empire were more or less was dependent on all elements of the social structure.
Furthermore, this ideal social order also emphasized that the power of ruling the kingdom is always vested with males of the society, and to make a woman the ruler or sultan would be against the order of god’s creation, and this power can not be given to a woman. As a result the first and last sultan of Delhi, Raziyya was removed from the throne.FAQs
Q1. Name other women in ancient Indian history who wielded great power in governance of a kingdom but had to face gender biasness.
Ans. Rudramadevi of the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal in Andhra Pradesh in 1262- 1289 CE. She ignored the gender distiction by inscribing a changed name on inscriptions and pretended to be a man. Another woman was the ruler of Kashmir ruled during 980-1003, referred as ‘didda’ rather than ‘didi’.
Q2. When was Raziyya ascended to the throne and which dynasty she belonged to?
Ans. Raziyya sultan ruled the Delhi sultanate from 1236 CE to 1240 CE. She belonged to the slave or mamluk dynasty, the first dynasty of the Delhi sultanate.
Q3. What was chahalgani?
Ans. Chahalgani was the council of forty, it was a group of administrative and military nobles exerting considerable influence on sultans.
Q4. Which ruler of the Delhi sultanate broke up the chahalgani?
Ans. Ghiyasuddin Balban broke up the chahalgani, the group of forty nobles in an attempt to establish peace and order in the country.
Q5. Who was Nasiruddin Qubacha?
Q6. Who was Iltutmish?
Ans. Shamshuddin Iltutmish was Aibak’s (founder of the Delhi Sultanate) son-in-law. He belonged to the Ilberi tribe of Turks. Iltutmish’s accomplishments attracted the attention of Qutubuddin Aibak. After Aibak’s death, Iltutmish ascended the throne by replacing Aram Shah (son of Aibak) by chahalgani. He was given the title of Altamash orIltamash, which later changed to Iltutmish.
This is the era of hyper-connectivity and follows it is genuinely based on one basis − the Internet of Things (IoT). This sector is drastically expanding daily and is evident to help the emerging curator with software and hardware uncountably. IoT has been there, from building intelligent homes and innovative cars to medical equipment and manufacturing.
Nowadays, the Internet of Things is one of the most trending topics to discuss. It is all related to technologies and things revolving around it. Many entrepreneurs look for this technology to develop their big tech startups. And interestingly, it has supported them throughout the process of building large ventures. Cisco Systems calculated that the Internet of Things, IoT, was a brand-new concept in 2008 and 2009. However, it quickly evolved into the hub of the business, enabling effective solutions in various areas, such as power management, cost reduction, convenience, etc.Startups That Mainly Focus On The Internet Of Things (IoT) 1NCE
For low-cost digital services based on an IoT set rate (ten years for ten EUR, five hundred megabytes included), 1NCE was the first MVNO to provide them. Its services are now practically accessible everywhere, including China. With its partner Deutsche Telekom, it is in an ideal situation for future expansion and will become a significant player in the connectivity landscape.Veo Robotics
FreeMove, the company’s flagship product, allows heavy-duty deformable robots to collaborate with humans while maintaining safety regulations. Sensors in industrial work cells provide a 3D field that the algorithm uses as its basis for operation. The robot’s velocity and position are dynamically changed to maximize the user’s safety and participation.Daalchini
Through IoT vending machines with a special heating zone, Daalchini seeks to make healthy home cuisine and condiments available to its consumers around the clock. Through their physical marketplace of self-service kiosks, Daalchini eliminates the barriers between restaurateurs and clients in offices, hospitals, subway lines, etc. The specialized mobile app, mainly developed IoT vending machine with associated heating zone to give their clients fresh, warm home-cooked meals, and vending will all be done seamlessly.HiPER Automotive Intugine Technologies
Before they can get to us, the tangible products we use daily (such as dairy, food, furniture, clothing, gadgets, automobiles, etc.) must first be obtained, produced, stored, and transported through a highly complex supply chain. It is challenging for the companies running these supply chains to match consumer expectations, stick to scheduled delivery dates, and keep operating expenses under control. Being one of the top providers of multimodal supply chain management, Intugine Technologies supports brands worldwide in streamlining operations, cutting back on logistical costs, and delighting customers.API7.ai
The open systems infrastructure provider chúng tôi makes API analysis and management possible. The company is devoted to assisting companies with their digital transformation, giving them the tools to manage and visualize business-critical traffic, and speeding up decision-making through big data and artificial intelligence. The latest wave of cloud-native API gateways is APISIX, a top-level open-source project chúng tôi contributed to the Apache Software Foundation. The enterprise-level version API7, which is based on Apache APISIX, offers more sophisticated capabilities to satisfy the basic needs of enterprise customers.
Tencent, NASA, Weibo, Airwallex, OPPO, VIVO, European Factory Platform, and more than 1000 organizations in the internet, finance, blockchain, industrial, ecommerce, and IoT sectors utilize APISIX and API7 extensively. Since its launch in 2023, chúng tôi has drawn talent from five nations and eighteen cities.Lattice
The incredible startup Lattice increases worksite productivity. The startup’s solution uses AI technology to acquire information from the employees’ ID badges. It offers up to 3-meter precision real-time site knowledge using a robust mesh-based wireless network. The technology also offers actual viewing of the resources installed at the job site and makes it easier to evaluate productivity. Project leaders can streamline regular analysis and enhance resource utilization in this way.Conclusion
The phrase “Internet of Things” (IoT) refers to a network of material things, or “things,” that are implanted with detectors, algorithms, as well as other technologies to communicate and exchange information with some other gadgets over the world wide web. There is currently more tangible product linked to the internet than actual people. Nearly every business and startup are attempting to gain traction in the IoT space, particularly in the innovative solutions sector. IoT is taking over tech firms and startups quickly and will evolve more in the future.
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a department of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) responsible for the allocation of every unique name and number used to identify a device or server communicating on the World Wide Web. Until September 30, 2023, ICANN had limited control of this department, beholden to a contract from the United States Department of Commerce. From that date onward, the non-profit organization has (technically) been given free reign over IANA.
Although IANA isn’t necessarily “the Internet,” it does possess stewardship over your IP address and any domain names for any websites you own. Its name was established in 1988 (here’s the record), and its functions were referenced back in the 70s during the era when the Internet was largely a government project (ARPANET, the first computer network).Does This Mean the U.S. No Longer Has Control Over Its Asset?
This question is difficult to answer since the handover was to a non-profit organization operating in California. It’s a privatization to a U.S.-based entity, but the government no longer has influence over what happens with IANA anymore. Whether you believe this is a good or a bad thing depends on whether you want a more globalized stakeholder system controlling how these names and numbers are distributed.What the Pro-Transition Side Says
People who favor the IANA transition usually do so with the intent of a globalized multi-stakeholder model of the Internet where large-scale innovators such as Google have a larger say in managing it. Google’s Senior VP – Kent Walker – has said that “it will give innovators and users a greater role in managing the global Internet.” Further in his statement, he said that the Internet is composed of “companies, civil society activists, technologists, and selfless users around the world” and implied that we must ensure that “the right people” are placed in a more pivotal position to continue its development.
The Internet Association – a lobby group with members like Google, Amazon, Facebook, and Twitter – attended a last-minute hearing to defend the transfer.
This isn’t something new. Back in 2013, a number of government representatives, activists, and academics held a meeting called the “Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet Governance” to discuss the creation of a new Internet governance organization. Despite the plan’s failure, the White House later announced that it will allow the contract with the Department of Commerce to expire, an event that ultimately led to IANA’s transition.What the Anti-Transition Side Says
People against the IANA transition will often cite the fact that the status quo allowed the Internet to be partially tied to a government that is constitutionally bound by a right to freedom of expression. They perceive the transition as a hands-off approach to the Internet that may leave its future vulnerable to governmental organizations that do not share these values. By handing over control of unique domain names and numbers to ICANN completely, it sets a precedent that could minimize the principle of an “open Internet.” In 2012 the UN’s International Telecommunications Union (ITU) held a meeting in Dubai with several government leaders who signed a binding measure which showed a keen interest in having a larger stake of the Internet. Many of the countries that attended the conference for international telecom regulation had or continue to have shaky records regarding freedom of expression online (the list of signatories and non-signatories is visible here).
While the ITU’s agreement has little to do with the IANA transition, the event itself has left many people’s eyebrows chafing because of the paradigm the timeline as a whole establishes.The Takeaway
As uncertain as the future might seem, here’s how things stand as of the autumn of 2023: ICANN is an independent non-profit organization whose goal is the stewardship of IP addresses and domain names around the world. It is not necessarily “the Internet,” nor is it an entity that will trouble itself with the content of what is hosted on any particular IP address or domain name. Google would be in more of a position to perform that role with its own search engine (i.e. dropping websites from its search results pages). And even then there are alternatives. It’s doubtful that the handing over of complete authority over IANA to ICANN poses a significant threat to freedom of expression for the time being, nor does it appear that it would necessarily benefit tech giants. As it stands from the decision finalized on the first of October 2023, the domain name system and number allocation of the Internet was simply shifted to an independent entity from a department of the U.S. government. Nonetheless, we should all keep our eyes on ICANN to make sure it serves its duty properly.
Miguel has been a business growth and technology expert for more than a decade and has written software for even longer. From his little castle in Romania, he presents cold and analytical perspectives to things that affect the tech world.
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The increasing dependence on devices and applications has led to the development of the Internet of Things (IoT) in recent years. IoT networks have helped increase connectivity between objects, making them integrate into our physical world. As a result, developers need to be familiar with several IoT-capable programming languages to create smart systems across various settings. IoT has enabled greater integration between digital and physical objects by establishing a network of interconnected devices. This technology has permitted unprecedented communication and data sharing, which led to revolutionary changes in how information is collected, analysed, and used. As a result, app developers must choose the right programming languages to create programs that can cover this expanding network.Most Popular Programming Languages for IoT
Python has become one of the most popular programming languages due to its easy integration with evolving IoT technologies. Its popularity rocketed by its straightforward syntax and extensive libraries and frameworks compatible with different programming paradigms. Python is an ideal language for creating IoT applications because it’s user-friendly and offers a variety of libraries. Every day, more devices enter the ever-growing Internet of Things (IoT). So, there is an increasing demand for engineers who know how to write code tailored for such specialised devices. This trend will continue as we see even more widespread deployment of IoT devices in homes, workplaces, and other settings. With its flexible syntax and readability, Python offers an excellent platform for building applications for many IoT devices.Java
Java is a popular, powerful object-oriented programming language used for years to create desktop programs and online apps. Recently, it has emerged as a top choice for developing complex IoT systems due to its compactness and security. As the IoT industry grows, Java is an ideal language for tracking and controlling connected devices. Java is safe and reliable, making it perfect for creating programs that support communication with IoT devices. Java has become one of the most effective languages for creating IoT applications with high scalability and versatility.C/C++ Rust Conclusion
The concept of the Internet of Things has taken the digital world by storm. Following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, modern technologies are becoming an important part of our daily lives in this digital age. They provide the foundation for communication between devices and networks. The demand for programming languages that facilitate IoT development will continue to grow. More people are becoming interested in creating smarter devices that can interact with each other. With this increasing demand comes an even greater need for developers with skills to innovate using these new technologies.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of connected physical objects that can collect and share data, providing unparalleled automation. It has transformed how people interact with their homes, automobiles, and other objects. With the rise of this revolutionary technology, we must ensure its safety and privacy.
The Internet of Things has become a staple of innovative companies. If you want to make an impact on your market, you need to make sure you can contribute to this network of connected devices. From home security systems to smart thermometers, there is no end to the technology improving life around the house.
However, with innovative technologies comes a need to excessively utilize them. From Pizza Hut’s cardboard DJ table to KFC’s smartphone charger in a Meal Box, there is no shortage of examples of odd uses for new devices. And when it comes to the Internet of Things, there are plenty of strange products being connected on a daily basis.Toilets
Who hasn’t been enjoying their morning constitutional and thought, “Man, I wish I didn’t have to turn around to flush”? Well, no one has probably thought that, but they will now thanks to the popularity of smart toilets.
These handy connected bathroom installments can do everything from remote flush and self-clean to massage your butt and warm your toes. Some of them even come with night-lights and slow closing lids so that any bathroom-related argument can be squashed in a second.Dog Houses
Everyone loves caring for their pets and the tech market has gotten on board. There are dozens of pet startups and wearables that aim to make own a pet that much easier. You can get everything from smart leases to smart feeders that will keep you and your furry friend happy.
But now, technology has gone even further by providing smart dog houses for pet owners around the world. In New York, remotely monitored, environmentally controlled doghouses sit outside brick-and-mortar stores to give people a place to “park” their pets, offering shelter that can be monitored via mobile app.Onesies
Yes, baby monitors do a great job of helping you keep track of your child. Even the hi-tech ones are able to monitor temperature, provide live video, and whisper sweet nothings to keep your little one sleeping soundly. But those monitors can’t do everything.
With smart onesies, you can take helicopter parenting to a whole new level. Some hi-tech wearables allow you to see how your baby is breathing as well as their body position, sleeping temperature, activity level, and whether they’re asleep.Mattress Covers
Everyone knows that you send one third of your life sleeping. This is typically the excuse people make for spending too much on a bed. But with technology progressing faster than anyone could have ever imagined, an expensive mattress is the least of your worries.
Smart mattress covers will change the way you finish your day. Eight, for example, is sensor-filled mattress cover designed to personalize and improve sleep for everybody. It senses and analyzes over 15 factors from your sleep patterns and bedroom environment, to determine the conditions that help you rest your best.Egg Trays
You’ve probably seen plenty of smart kitchen technology. Smart refrigerators that take pictures of your food. Smart coffee makers that brew the perfect cup every time. Even smart toasters that guarantee you won’t burn your bread early in the morning when you are still technically sleeping. But a smart egg tray connected through the Internet of Things? Oh yeah, it’s a thing.
Granted, the fear of running out of eggs has paralyzed even the greatest minds. But this egg tray can track how many you have left on a fancy mobile app, and can even alert you to which of the eggs is the freshest. It uses WiFi connectivity to keep you up to date on your favorite source of protein at breakfast.
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