Trending December 2023 # These Fungi Demand More Pumpkin In Their Pumpkin Spice Lattes # Suggested January 2024 # Top 13 Popular

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Pumpkin spice latte season is officially here. Starbucks baristas have been whipping up the popular beverage since they rolled out the fall menu at the end of August, even before the weather started to cool. But human PSL enthusiasts aren’t the only ones this autumn indulging in that warm mix of nutmeg, cloves, cinnamon, and pumpkin purée. One mycologist is brewing a special blend of pumpkin spice for a different kind of customer: fungi. 

“Fungi are pretty closely related to animals,” says Matt Kasson, an associate professor of forest pathology and mycology at West Virginia University. “I thought, well, people have preferences. Maybe fungi have preferences for these pumpkin spices, too.” 

That’s how Kasson, an avid supporter of team PSL, ended up with a lab smelling of pie. He created stacks of agar plates, or containers of gelatinous fungus food, full of pumpkin spice ingredients. Kasson’s fungi project, which he dubbed #WholeLatteDecay on Twitter, tests the ability of 17 species of fungi to grow on the unique conditions of spices, milk, sugar, and other ingredients commonly found in pumpkin spice lattes. His Twitter feed has been filled with similar fungus food experiments, such as Operation #MoldyTwinkie and #FungalPeeps. In time for fall, pumpkin spice lattes seemed like the perfect next candidate for a moldy takeover. 

“This is all a ploy by me to get people interested in fungi and sometimes you have to use these things that people are familiar with and give them some kind of mind bomb,” he says. Fungi are well-known for decomposing all kinds of organic matter—from bread left out on the table, to over-ripe citrus on trees, to a forgotten cup of pumpkin spice latte—but it’s easy to gloss over how important they are. Prompted by his experiments, Kasson says, “people start asking questions like, ‘Oh, why did fungi grow here? Why did it grow there?’ ” 

We have a new terrifying mycology project called Operation #MoldyTwinkie. @lovettbr & I will ID an unknown fungus or fungi growing inside individually wrapped 8-year-old expired @Hostess_Snacks Twinkies. These moldy cakes were discovered in @colinpurrington’s basement. @MSAFungi chúng tôi Matt Kasson , PhD 🍄🧫 (@kasson_wvu) October 8, 2023

Earlier this summer, for instance, Kasson was tending to his garden in Morgantown, West Virginia when he encountered a problem: His patch of pumpkins were decaying. Wispy white strands of the soil fungus, Athelia rolfsii, which causes southern blight in plants, rotted the pumpkins. While this was disappointing for his crop, it also gave him an idea for his autumnal experiment back at his lab.  

“I was witnessing my pumpkins kind of being dissolved in front of my eyes by this one fungus, and it got me thinking about how certain fungi really like pumpkins.”

[Related: Here’s the skinny on what actually flavors a pumpkin spice latte]

Kasson plated the various fungi species, including Athelia rolfsii, on different combinations of pumpkin spices. He cooked up three types of pumpkin spice growth mediums, in addition to a control plate of potato dextrose media typically used for bacteria and fungi experiments. The pumpkin spice latte agar used the drink directly from Starbucks (which only started to include real pumpkin in 2023). While the exact recipe isn’t known, it includes a bit of coffee, steamed milk, spices, and potassium sorbate and other food industry preservatives, Kasson says. The second agar—which he called the pumpkin pie agar—more closely resembled an actual pumpkin treat, with Libby’s canned pumpkin and a few grams of pumpkin spice. Finally, he created a more minimal agar using only the spices. While boiling up the various pumpkin spice media it was like he had dessert on a hot plate, he says: “The lab smells glorious.” 

Matt Kasson examines his pumpkin spice agar concoctions in his lab at West Virginia University. Cooking up the various pumpkin spice agar recipes involved boiling pumpkin purée mixtures and pressing the liquid through cheesecloth. Angie Macias

The true test is whether the decomposers will enjoy the pumpkin, too. Fungi often act as “gatekeepers,” doing the initial legwork for bacteria and other organisms to follow afterwards, Kasson explains. These are complex foods for fungi, but some species have specialized chemical “toolkits” available to help break them down. For instance, certain fungi can change the pH or secrete enzymes to modify conditions to be more favorable for its own growth, he says. “So we can learn something about their different tools in their toolkit, essentially, by exposing them to really unique substrates or really extreme environments.”

It’s been almost a week since he first began the experiment and inoculated the fungi, so they still smell pleasant—for now. The scent can shift as the decay progresses, going from a lovely floral or fruity fragrance to rancid pepperoni in three days, Kasson says. The fungi have also been forming colorful spectacular shapes: puffy white cotton, crusty green mats, orange carpets, brown spikes and appendages. There have been some species that haven’t been growing on the plates just yet, he says, but they are changing the color of the media. 

“Often that’s a sign that the fungus is trying to modulate or change the environment before it grows,” Kasson explains. Variable growth rate between species is normal, and Kasson suspects that those plates might see growth soon.      

All the agar types plated with the 17 species of fungi on day six of the experiment. The rows from top to bottom: pumpkin spice latte agar, pumpkin pie agar, pumpkin spice agar, and potato dextrose agar. Matt Kasson

So far, most of the fungi species seem to be faring poorly on the minimal pumpkin spice agar, which is likely due to the limited amount of nutrients needed for growth, he says. Though some of the generalist fungi, such as species of Trichoderma and Coprinellus, do show signs of slow growth on these plates—hinting that these fungi can tolerate a poor nutrient environment or heavy spice load.

[Related: Why autumn air smells so delicious and sweet] 

He did notice a surprising pattern: Most of the fungi species grew better on the media made with the Starbucks pumpkin spice latte. But A. rolfsii—the southern blight pathogen—did better on the pumpkin pie media compared to the pumpkin spice latte. The growth patterns could mean that some of the ingredients in PSL could be problematic for fungi like A. rolfsii. It also suggests that the species preferred to grow on the substrate it was found consuming in the wild.

“What’s clear about a pumpkin-loving fungus like A. rolfsii is that it knows the real thing when it tastes it,” says Kasson. “So retailers beware, our fungus can decipher your secret recipe, pumpkin or not.”

Check out more images from Kasson’s #WholeLatteDecay outreach project below. All images and caption information courtesy of Matt Kasson.

It’s #PumpkinSpice season, incl. the return of @Starbucks PS latte 🎃🥛☕️. 😍 it or 🤬 it, I’ve got a new mycology project called #WholeLatteDecay to find out which fungi 🍄 prefer pumpkin spice latte-infused growth agar 🧫 over standard & other 🎃-themed nutrient agars! 1/ chúng tôi Matt Kasson , PhD 🍄🧫 (@kasson_wvu) September 9, 2023

Kasson made one of his initial observations for this experiment among his pumpkin patch, which had shown signs of southern blight early in the growing season. Here in one of his carved pumpkins, A. rolfsii can be seen growing around the eye cutouts. Matt Kasson

A. rolfsii growing on day six of the experiment. Ample growth can be seen on the pumpkin pie agar (top right) in comparison to the pumpkin spice latte agar (top left). Very minimal growth is seen on the pumpkin spice agar (bottom right), and normal dense growth is seen on the control dextrose plate (bottom left). Matt Kasson

On day six, Trichoderma species seems to be thriving on all four plates. From left to right, top to bottom: pumpkin spice latte agar, pumpkin pie agar, pumpkin spice agar, and potato dextrose agar. Matt Kasson

Happy pumpkin spice latte season! Matt Kasson

You're reading These Fungi Demand More Pumpkin In Their Pumpkin Spice Lattes

Study Abroad Zanzibar: Swahili And Spice

Condon (COM’18) is one of seven students in BU’s 2023 Zanzibar: Swahili Language and Culture in East Africa Study Abroad program, here to live with host families and earn credits in Swahili, African identity, religion, and politics. But at the end of six weeks among the ancient baobabs, sultan’s fortresses, and colorful markets, they will have learned far more. For each student, in his or her own way, the gentle African hospitality they encounter and the intimacy of sharing part of the Islamic holy month make the program a lesson in cross-cultural empathy and respect in a time when both are sorely needed.

“It’s just as much a learning experience for our hosts as it is for us,” Hartnett says of his family, Hajji and Nahda Islam—both former professional basketball players—and their two sons, ages two and a half and four and a half, who tended to use Hartnett as a visiting jungle gym. “They appreciate that we respect their values and customs while we’re in their homes,” says cultural anthropology and African studies major Kasey Shultz (CAS’17), whose host parents took her on day trips to beach villages to visit relatives. The students almost all returned home daily for dinners of fresh curry and seemingly endless offerings of passion fruit, papaya, and the ubiquitous avocado, which is made into a creamy juice.

Birthplace of Swahili

“They are very hard workers, but we also have fun,” says Kijakazi Omar Makame, head of the SUZA Swahili department. The program also includes a Student Language Partner Program that matches foreign students with Swahili-speaking students—rafikis—for honing their conversational skills. These blossomed into friendships. For at least six hours a week, the rafikis help students with homework, or take them to the market to chat with merchants. “They’re also really good people to ask stuff like, where do I get a light bulb,” says Quella. Students spend the rest of their spare time on group field trips and outings with their host families or meeting up with fellow students to sip spiced coffee and people-watch at the Stone Town Café or enjoy the sweeping views and breezes from rooftop cafes.

“The students see things they’ve never seen before, and they learn how different civilizations emerge,” says Idris Ahmada Rai, vice chancellor of SUZA, which has three campuses. “There was the daughter of a millionaire; we took her to the Masai. She learned much more than Swahili.” Rai says SUZA also offers a course for families interested in hosting. “They get certification and there’s a database so students can rate them,” he says. “This has been going on for over 30 years, so we have very experienced families, including many retired teachers.”

The students’ weekly field trips include several days in the wildlife-rich Arusha in northern Tanzania. On the island, they visited a spice plantation—Zanzibar exports vanilla, cinnamon, and nutmeg in addition to cloves—and the bush hut of a mgana wa kienyegi, or healer, whose blend of Q’uranic knowledge, herbal remedies, and symbolic magic are capable, he told the students, of “fixing all the problems you have except for HIV/AIDS.” As the students sit in a semicircle on the floor of the squat concrete infirmary, the healer passes around bunches of lemon grass (to heal the insanity, or zungu zungu), clove leaves, mnusi, njomgoma root, and other remedies.  There are elaborate brews for infertility and impotence, and a ritual to win lawsuits, involving scripture written on an egg. “What is the cure for sadness?” assistant program director Breeanna Elliott asks, translating for a student. Those who are grieving should “write a passage from Q’uran in red food coloring on a piece of paper. Dip the paper into a glass of water and when the red bleeds out of the paper, drink the water. Then bathe yourself.”

Beyond academics: life lessons 

It was the weeks of Ramadan that most broadened Condon’s horizons, and sent her home with a more worldly and compassionate outlook. She was initially nervous about traveling to a predominantly Muslim island, she says, “because I didn’t want people to hate me because I was Christian.” It was a Saudi Arabian guest visiting for Ramadan at Condon’s host home in the Shangani quarter of Stone Town who engaged Condon in frank discussions of faith. “He said over and over, ‘I want you to understand that Muslim faith is peaceful, and if you read the Q’uran, you will understand this,’” says Condon. “I thought it was interesting how much he wanted to make sure he was breaking down what he thought I perceived Islam to be and building a new reputation for the religion. I wondered what he had heard about America, what types of Americans he had met before, and how much the media played into his perception of us. Based on the way he talked to me, I felt that he clearly had the idea that I was antagonistic toward Islam, and to be honest, I couldn’t blame him. One of my host sisters had asked me whether or not it was dangerous for her to travel in America. She was afraid that she would be shot if she came because she is Muslim.”

Reflecting on his Zanzibar experience back in Boston, Hartnett says he grew aware of the blood memory of slavery among its people, and how that legacy informs, even on the subtlest level, a reverence for freedom. The program opened the international relations major’s mind not just to a way of living, but to a way of being. “Whether you’ve just come in for the weekend on the ferry from Dar es Salaam or you are studying Swahili for two months at the State University of Zanzibar, the term ‘feel free’ will be unavoidable,” he says. “The phrase is likely to be heard when entering a shop or café, when being introduced to someone, or even just in passing on the street.” After weeks of living with the locals and studying Swahili and the history and culture of Zanzibar, the seemingly lighthearted remark began to take on a deeper meaning for him. “Amid a history marred by slavery and the slave trade, despite the misunderstood conservative nature of Islamic life, and in the midst of a desire for independence,” he says, “the phrase ‘feel free’ stood as a proud beacon to all who wander endlessly through the maze-like streets of Stone Town.” To Hartnett, on a universally human level, it came to mean: “Appreciate all whom you encounter, allow yourself to feel safe and relaxed, and just be”—a lesson worth holding onto.

7 Reasons Why Data Science Jobs Are In High Demand

blog / Data Science and Analytics 7 Reasons Why Data Science Jobs are in High Demand

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Today, the data a business generates is a valuable asset. By deriving insights from this data, businesses can help streamline their operations, boost revenue, and improve their reputation. As a result, businesses are geared up to hire data science professionals, which places candidates with data science experience in the high-demand bracket. In fact, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), employment for data scientists is predicted to grow by 36% between 2023 and 2031. So if you are considering jobs in data science, read more. 

Jobs in Data Science

Candidates with a background in data science can find employment across a variety of sectors and organizations today. Some of the top companies in the world, like Meta and Amazon, are willing to pay extremely high salaries to aspiring candidates with data science experience. There are several factors to consider if you have been looking for jobs in data science. These include whether the job you are looking at will meet your salary expectations, the necessary qualifications to apply for a position, and so on. These are some of the details we will cover in this blog. 

ALSO READ: What is Data Science? Why is This Career Path in Demand? Find Out Now!

Why is Data Science Important?

According to a report by International Data Corporation (IDC), the amount of data available globally will grow to over 175 zettabytes by 2025. The enormous amounts of data that businesses generate are valuable assets to their future operations. Data science professionals can utilize this data to generate insights that play the role of business intelligence in helping the company’s management make informed decisions related to hiring, operations, procurement, inventory, demand, marketing, and almost every aspect of the business.

You may have also seen the impact of the rise of data science in your day-to-day life. Data science is everywhere, from order recommendations on your favorite fast food app to your Internet search results. It is used in a multitude of sectors, including healthcare, manufacturing, banking, policy, marketing, gaming, and more. As we get increasingly sophisticated in how we deal with our data, it can significantly impact our lifestyles and ways of doing business.

What are the Benefits of a Data Science Career?

There are several benefits to choosing a career in data science. Some of them are as follows: 

High Demand

According to Precedence Research, the global data analytics industry is predicted to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 30.41% between 2023 and 2030. This indicates extremely high demand in the field in the next decade.

Abundant Openings

The BLS predicts over 13,500 open positions for data scientists are projected annually over the next decade. The fact that the skill requirement for data science professionals is high also limits the saturation of the market. 

High Salaries

Considering the high demand and limited availability of talent, data science positions are among some of the highest-paid roles in the world. 


Data science has applications in a wide range of industries. Hence, there are many different fields that candidates with a data science background can work. 


Data scientists are valuable for companies since they inform business intelligence and have a direct impact on the company’s bottom line. This makes the position of a data scientist highly respected in most businesses. 

Quality Work

Your data science work can have an immense real-world impact. For instance, data science has helped detect diseases in the healthcare sector. These benefits can make the job incredibly fulfilling. 

Personal Benefits

Data science work is very logical and analytical. It requires you to be focused and organized. These are qualities that help you in your personal life as well. They also set you up for leadership roles in the future. 

ALSO READ: How to Become a Data Scientist in 2023: The Ultimate Guide

Data Scientist Job Description

Data scientists must thoroughly understand the business. They need to communicate with other business units continuously. They are responsible for setting up an organization’s data-capturing infrastructure and working on cleaning and analyzing this data. This involves recognizing patterns in the data and making inferences from it. Once it is analyzed, they need to work on reporting information to various stakeholders across the organization using data visualization techniques. They must also work with engineers and product teams to develop solutions for various business problems. 

Jobs in Data Science for Freshers 1. Data Scientist

They work on collecting, analyzing, and interpreting large amounts of data to derive insights that will inform business decisions. 

Average Base Salary: $97,222 per year

2. Data Analyst

They work on creating and maintaining data systems. Also, they use statistical tools to interpret data and also work on fixing coding errors.

Average Base Salary: $64,794 per year

3. Data Architect

They design the structure for a company’s data management systems. Also, they work on choosing the data sources to be used and integrate, secure, and maintain them.

Average Base Salary: $104,431 per year

4. Business Analyst

Based on the insights derived by data analysts, they work on identifying solutions to problems faced by the company. 

Average Base Salary: $81,500 per year

5. Database Administrator

They manage and maintain data systems so that users can leverage them to analyze data for their projects. 

Average Base Salary: $89,298 per year

Job in Data Science for Experts

Moving up the data science ladder can prove to be extremely rewarding. Here are some of the highest-paying data science jobs for experts:

1. Machine Learning Engineer

They are talented software developers who design, create, and operate Artificial Intelligence (AI) software for automated prediction models.

Average Base Salary: $122,573 per year

2. Machine Learning Scientist

They work in the research and development of algorithms that run AI systems. 

Average Base Salary: $160,000 per year

3. Lead Data Scientist

They manage large teams of data scientists and plan and implement data science projects

Average Base Salary: $140,198 per year

4. Applications Architect

They manage the teams that design and develop software applications and collaborate with internal stakeholders on development projects. 

Average Base Salary: $128,970 per year

5. Enterprise Architect

They oversee the upkeep and maintenance of a business’s IT infrastructure. 

Average Base Salary: $139,894 per year

Data Science Careers on Demand

According to Precedence Research, the size of the global data analytics market was valued at $41.39 billion in 2023 but is predicted to be worth $346.33 billion by 2030. This massive growth in market size is a great indicator of increasing demand for data science professionals. 

Is Data Science a Good Career?

Data science professionals are in high demand. There are several open positions for them to consider and aspiring candidates are offered high salaries. There couldn’t be a better time to enter the data science industry. If you love statistics and mathematics, think analytically, and love solving problems, it could be the best career for you. 

While it is an amazing field to enter, there is a steep skill requirement in most jobs in data science. You might need to upskill to secure a position in the industry. Explore data science courses on Emeritus today. 

By Tanish Pradhan 

Write to us at [email protected]

Data Rooms And Their Role In Business Transactions

An online archive of important firm papers is known as a “secure data room” or just a “virtual data room.” To assist with the lengthy due diligence process that purchasers normally do in conjunction with mergers and acquisitions, online data rooms are frequently employed.

Important firm papers, including contracts, information on intellectual property, employee data, financial statements, a capitalization table, and more, are kept in the online data room. The selling corporation may give out important information in a controlled setting while maintaining anonymity thanks to the online data room. A virtual data room speeds up corporate operations by eliminating the need for a physical data room to store records.

What is A Data Room?

VDR software functions are similar to safes for private data. These extremely secure locations, whether they are real or virtual, can hold a lot of sensitive data that only authorized people can access.

In the past, data rooms were primarily used to safeguard business and legal transactions, initial public offerings, or real estate. They have, however, been utilized more recently for broader objectives including housing, trading, and data sharing.

You may save, download, and manage various types of documents in data rooms, including news stories, official correspondence, graphs, tables, and photographs.

Also read:

Top 10 Job Search Websites of 2023

Who Can Access This?

Any business that has data security concerns can begin employing a data room.

More generally, data rooms are often appropriate for businesses handling substantial volumes of sensitive data. When sharing information with other audiences, they (the latter) may need to adhere to data protection regulations (i.e. their employees, clients, users, and suppliers). Contracts, financing, and accounting solutions papers cannot be communicated via email due to their bulk and confidentiality; instead, they demand a more secure and collaborative route.

The data room solutions state that there are several benefits to using data rooms. The most frequent situation is when a business has to securely transfer information with partners from another business, especially during complicated transactions when privacy is crucial.

Examples include:


strategic alliances,


corporate restructuring.

Preparing The Data Room for Business Processes

The management group of a seller must comprehend how crucial a comprehensive internet data room is to a smooth transaction or commercial operation. Collecting the required paperwork should be the responsibility of capable key staff.

It takes time to prepare a data room, therefore it should begin as soon as feasible. The trade will move more slowly or maybe stop altogether if the data room is not ready.

Given that thorough and correct disclosure schedules are essential to completing the acquisition, the online data room should be developed concurrently with the selling company’s disclosure schedules that are attached to the acquisition agreement.

The Benefits of Data Room in Business Corporate Data Protection

Unquestionably, this is the major factor driving most businesses to use a data room. Only authorized individuals are able to consult the material since access to it is limited.

In addition to all the essential features, data rooms provide a wide range of choices that can improve the security of the data.

Also read:

Best Top 10 Paid Online Survey Website in the World

Easy Access

The act of printing out documents, filing them away, and finding space for them to be stored seems completely outmoded in today’s digital world. Moreover, what a waste of time! Additionally, every time a document is needed, it must be physically moved, located, scanned, sent, and then returned to its original location.

Best Control

It’s crucial that documents don’t end up in the wrong hands in any firm. As the document’s owner, you have control over who has access to the information while it is kept in a data room. Overall, data rooms make sure that your papers don’t go misplaced, that the appropriate parties review them, and that you maintain complete control over any alterations.

All of these characteristics are modifiable at your discretion. You can try looking at different software providers to familiarize yourself with security in as much detail as possible. That would be quite right of you because that way you will know how a particular security mechanism works.

Transparency Combined with Functionality

Additionally, data rooms have the benefit of being very user-friendly. Unlike the previous physical archives, you may access them from anywhere using any device (smartphones, tablets, computers, etc.).

Spending Reduction

You can save money on paper and printer ink. We’re not even talking about the fact that you’ll reduce your costs for maintaining a physical data room and completely eliminate the potential costs that you’ll cover for data leaks or corruption due to some kind of emergency.

Keep in mind that using a VDR keeps you safe from natural disasters at the very least. Even if your entire company is swept away by a hurricane, your data will still be with you. Forever.

List Of Operators In Kotlin With Their Examples

Introduction to Kotlin Operators

The following article outlines the most commonly used operators in Kotlin. Operators are special symbols used to perform specific operations on the operands. For example, the (-) operator performs a subtraction between two operands.

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Operators in Kotlin, Here 67 and 7 are operands, and – is an operator.

Types of Kotlin Operators

Given below are the different types:

1. Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic Operators perform basic arithmetic calculations like subtraction, addition, multiplication, division, etc. In Kotlin, simple a + b is interpreted as as a function call.

Operator Meaning Example

+ Add two operands a + b

– Subtract the right operand from the left operand a – b

* Multiply two operands a * b

/ Divide the left operand by the right one a / b

% Modulus – returns remainder on dividing two numbers a % b (deprecated from v 1.1)


package com.examples { var num1 = 64 var num2 = 32 val answer : double answer = num1 +num2 println ("sum = $answer")  answer = num1 - num2 println ("diff = $answer")     answer =num1 * num2 println ("mult = $answer")  answer = num1 / num2 println ("div = $answer")  answer = num1 % num2 println ("mod = $answer")  }

Note: The + operator is also used for String concatenation with strings.


package com.examples { val fname = "Laxman" val lname = "das" val full_name = fname + " " + lname println (full_name)          } 2. Assignment Operators

Assignment Operator is used to assign values to variables. The value after evaluation on the left-hand side is assigned to the right-hand side variable.

Besides the basic = assignment operator, Kotlin provides a wide range of assignment Operators, which are mentioned below:

Operator Example Equivalent to

+ = a+=b a=a+b

-= a-=b a=a-b

*= a*=b a=a*b

/= a/=b a=a/b

%= a%=b a=a%b


package com.examples { var number1 = 22 var number2 = 20 number1 + = 10 number2 % = 3 println ("Result1 = $number1")    } 3. Unary Operators

Unary Operators are those that work only on a single operand. Increment ( ++ ) and Decrement ( — ) operators are shortcuts of x = x+1 and x = x – 1

Operators Example Equivalent to

+ +a + (a value)

– -a –  (a value)

! !a Not a (inversion)

++ ++a a=a+1

— –a a=a-1


package com.examples { var a = 5 var b = 10 var c = 15 negation = -a increment = ++b dec = c-- println ("Negation = $negation")      }

In the above example, the value of b is first incremented by 1 and then assigned to variable’ increment,’ whereas the value of c is first assigned to variable dec and then decreases by 1.

4. Comparison Operators

Comparison Operators are used for comparing the two values. These operators are mostly used with if-else for executing specific flow after comparison.

Operator Meaning Expression

> Greater than

< Less than a < b

>= Greater than equals to

<= Less than equals to a <= b


{ var num1 = 20 var num2 = 30 { println (“greater number is $num1”) } else { println (“greater number is $num2”)     } }

5. Equality and Non-equality Operators

Kotlin provides a set of logical operators, and these equality and non-equality operators return a boolean value depending on the comparison result. These operators play an important role in the program logic flow by comparing the values and moving the flow according to that.

Operators Meaning Expression

!= Not equal to a != b

== It is equal to a ==b


{ var a = 3 var b = 6  println (a==b)     }

6. Logical Operators

Kotlin provides the below-mentioned 3 logical operators, which return boolean values, either true or false.

Operators Meaning Expression

&& True if all the values are true a && b (meaning a and b)

|| True if any of the value is true

! True if the value is false!  a (meaning not a )


{  var a = 20 var b = 4 var c = -8 val answer : Boolean }

7. In operator

Operators Meaning Expression

in Is a present in collection b a in b

Not in Is a not present in Collection b a !in b


{ val array = intArrayOf(10, 20, 30 ,40) If (20 in array) { println (“yes 20 is present in array”)       } else { println (“no 20 is not present in array”) } }

8. Range Operator

Kotlin uses the range operator to create a range of values. This operator is handy when working with loops. It is unnecessary to define every value if it is sequential; it is better to use a shortcut and define the range specifying the lowest and highest value.

Operator Meaning Expression

. . If i is in the range from a to b For (i in a . .b)


{ for (i in 1..10) { println (“value of i is $i”)     }                                         }

9. Indexed Access Operator

Indexed Access operators access any value at a particular index in an array. In Kotlin array starts with an index of 0.

Operators Meaning

a [i] Get the value at index’ i’ in an array ‘a’

a [i] = b Set the value b at the ‘i’ index of an array ‘a’


{ val array = intArrayOf(10, 20, 30, 40, 50) var value = array[1] println(“value at index 1 is $value”)         array[1] = 90 println (“recent value at index 1 is $array[1]”)  }

10. Bitwise Operators

Like other programming languages, e.g., C, C++, and Java, Kotlin has no bitwise operators. It has various functions that work for bitwise operations.

Functions Meaning

shl Signed shift left

shr Signed shift right

ushr Unsigned shift right

and Bitwise and

or Bitwise or

xor Bitwise xor

inv Bitwise Inversion


{ var a = 12 var b = 10 val result1 : Int val result2 : Int result1 = a and b result2 = a or b println (“final result of and operation is $result1”)  Println (“final result of or operation is $result2”)  // final result of or operation is 14 }

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to Kotlin Operators. Here we discuss the introduction, different operators used in Kotlin, and their examples. You can also go through our other suggested articles to learn more –

Demand Sensing In 2023: A Quick Guide To Get You Started

Every supply chain manager’s dream is to know exactly which product will be sold in the future, at what time, and in what quantity. However, 100% accurate demand forecasting doesn’t exist yet. Digital technologies such as AI/ML are bringing supply chain managers closer to accurate demand forecasting.

While demand forecasting works well for mid to long-term demand planning, it has shown to be less effective for short-term planning, and that is where demand sensing steps in.

This article explores demand sensing, what it is, how it’s different from demand forecasting, what its benefits are, and some best practices to get supply chain planners started.

What is demand sensing, and how does it differ from demand forecasting?

Demand sensing is a combination of methodology and technology to predict near-future demand based on short-term data. Unlike demand forecasting, which uses data from a year ago, demand sensing uses data acquired days or even hours ago to make accurate short-term predictions.

In other words, demand sensing picks up on short-term trends to predict what will happen in a volatile market.

Source: LinkedIn

What are the benefits of demand sensing?

Demand sensing can benefit your supply chain in the following ways:

More supply chain resilience

With short-term data obtained from demand sensing, supply chains can quickly adapt to market volatility or sudden disruptions such as the covid-19 pandemic. The technology can make supply chains more resilient and robust.

Better inventory management

Demand sensing can provide daily demand data to optimize inventory levels, reduce stock levels and make the supply chain leaner while not compromising on resilience. This can ultimately reduce costs of both excess production and handling costs.

Better predictability

Demand sensing uses a wide range of signals, including real-world events such as order patterns, retail sales, promotions, and market changes, to understand trends sooner.

What are some demand sensing best practices?

To successfully implement demand sensing in your business, supply chain managers can use the following best practices:

Start with sell-in data

A simple way to start demand sensing in your supply chain is to use granular historical data. This can be obtained by analyzing sell-in demand data with a shorter time horizon. Shipping history will also be factored in while considering sell-in data which can be obtained from any supply chain planning or ERP system. This can be used for accurate B2B demand forecasting.

If you are looking for supply chain planning software, you can check out our data-driven list to find the option that best suits your business needs.

Incorporate all possible data sources

For accurate demand sensing, it is important to consider all relevant data such as downstream sell-out data which includes:

Customer order data

Consolidated POS (point-of-sale) data (real-time data on products sold, quantity, date and time, region, etc.)

Channel data

This data can, for example, help predict trends early and warn the supply chain of near future disruptions.

Incorporate all external factors

You can also check out our data-driven list of Demand Planning Software to find the option that best suits your business needs.

Further reading

If you have any questions, feel free to contact us:

Shehmir Javaid

Shehmir Javaid is an industry analyst at AIMultiple. He has a background in logistics and supply chain management research and loves learning about innovative technology and sustainability. He completed his MSc in logistics and operations management from Cardiff University UK and Bachelor’s in international business administration From Cardiff Metropolitan University UK.





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