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Introduction to Types of Variables in Statistics

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Different Types of Variables in Statistics

In statistics, the variable is an algebraic term that denotes the unknown value that is not a fixed value which is in numerical format. Such types of variables are implemented for many types of research for easy computations. So there are many different types of variables available that can be applied in varied domains. Many other variables are discussed in minimally are listed are active variable which the researcher evaluates. A variable that occurs before the independent variable is called an antecedent variable.

1. Independent Variables

The independent variable is the one that is computed in research to view the impact of dependent variables. It is also called as resultant variables, predictor or experimental variables. For example, A manager asks 100 employees to complete a project. He should know the capacity of the individual employee. He wants to know the reason behind smart guys and failure guys. The first reason is that some will be working hard for day and night to complete the project within the estimated time, and the other one is that some guys are born intelligent and smarter than others. The variable which is similar to an independent variable is called a covariate variable but is impacted by the dependent variable but not as common as a variable of interest.

2. Dependent Variables 3. Categorical Variables

It is a wide category of variable which is infinite and has no numerical data. These variables are called as qualitative variables or attribute variable in terms of statistics software. Such variables are further divided into nominal variables, ordinal and dichotomous variables. Nominal variables don’t have any intrinsic order. For instance, a developer classifies his environment into different types of networks based on their structure, such as P2P, cloud computing, pervasive computing, IoT. So here, the type of network is a nominal variable comprised of four categories. The varied categories present in the nominal variable can be known as the nominal variable levels or groups.Dichotomous variables are also called binary values, which have only two categories.

For example, if we question a person that he owns a car, he would reply only with yes or no. such types of two distinct variables that are nominal are called as dichotomous. It just accounts for only two values, such as 0 or 1. It could be yes or no, short or long, etc.Ordinal variables are nominal variables that include two or multiple categories. If you see any hotel feedback form, it has five ratings such as excellent, good, better, poor and very poor. So we can rank the level with the help of ordinal variables that hold meaning to the research. It is unambiguous, and values can be considered for decision making.

4. Continuous Variables

It can account for only a certain set of values, such as several bikes in a parking area are discrete as the floor holds only a limited portion to park bikes. Ratio variables occur with intervals; it has an extra condition that zero on any measurement denotes that there is no value of that variable. In simple, the distance of four meters is twice the distance of two meters. It operates on the ratio of measurements. Apart from these mentioned variables, a dummy variable can be applied in regression analysis to establish a relationship to unlinked categorical variables. For instance, if the user had categories ”has pet” and ”owns a home” can assign as 1 to ”’has pet” and 0 to ”’owns a home”.

A factor that remains constant in an experiment is termed as a control variable. In an experiment, if the scientist wants to test the plant’s light for its growth, he should control the value of water and soil quality. The additional variable which has a hidden impact on the obtained experimental values are called confounding variables.

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Learn 7 Most Useful Types Of Keys In Sql

Introduction to SQL Keys

In SQL, keys are the set of attributes that used to identify the specific row in a table and to find or create the relation between two or more tables i.e keys identify the rows by combining one or more columns. SQL provides super key, primary key, candidate key, alternate key, foreign key, compound key, composite key, and surrogate key. SQL keys use constraints to uniquely identify rows from karger data.

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CREATE TABLE `customer` ( `cust_id` int(11) NOT NULL, `cust_name` varchar(100) NOT NULL, `cust_address` text NOT NULL, `cust_aadhaar_number` varchar(50) DEFAULT NULL, `cust_pan_number` varchar(50) NOT NULL ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1; ALTER TABLE `customer` ADD PRIMARY KEY (`cust_id`);

In the above-given SQL query, we can see how a column ‘cust_id’ is set as a Primary Key.

Type of SQL Keys

Multiple types of Keys are supported by the SQL Server.

The following are the list of SQL Keys:

Primary Key

Unique Key

Candidate Key

Alternate Key

Composite Key

Super Key

Foreign Key

For Example 

Customer Table

cust_id cust_name cust_address cust_aadhaar_number cust_pan_number

100001 Sunil Kumar Noida 372464389211 ADSFS3456K

100002 Ankit Gupta Gr Noida 442289458453 CGHAD7583L

100003 Suresh Yadav New Delhi 878453444144 NMKRT2278O

100004 Nilam Singh Lucknow 227643441123 HFJFD3876U

100005 Amal Rawat Ghaziabad 932571156735 CBMVA9734A

100006 Harsh Saxena Kanpur 1453534363319 TRYUC2568H

Below given the “Order” table having the related data corresponding to the “cust_id” from the Customer Table.

Order Table

cust_id order_month_year order_amount

100001 2024 – Jan $100,000

100002 2024 – Jan $120,000

100003 2024 – Jan $100,000

100004 2024 – Jan $110,000

100001 2024 – Feb $105,000

100002 2024 – Feb $125,000

Now, we will go through one by one on each of the Key:

1. Primary Key

Primary Key is a field that can be used to identify all the tuples uniquely in the database. Only one of the columns can be declared as a primary key. A Primary Key can not have a NULL value.

Example: In the above given relational table, “cust_id” is the Primary Key as it can identify all the row uniquely from the table.

2. Unique Key

Unique Key can be a field or set of fields that can be used to uniquely identify the tuple from the database. One or more fields can be declared as a unique Key. The unique Key column can also hold the NULL value. Use of Unique Key improves the performance of data retrieval. It makes searching for records from the database much more faster & efficient.

Example: In the above given relational table, “cust_aadhaar_number”, “cust_pan_number” are the Unique Key as it can allow one value as a NULL in the column

3. Candidate Key

Candidate Key can be a column or group of columns that can qualify for the Unique Key. Every table has at least one Candidate Key. A table may have one or more Candidate Key. Each Candidate Key can work as a Primary Key if required in certain scenarios.

Example: In the above given relational table, “cust_id”, “cust_aadhaar_number”, “cust_pan_number” are the Candidate Key as it can identify all the row uniquely from the table. These columns also qualify the criteria to be a Primary Key.

 4. Alternate Key

Alternate Key is that Key which can be used as a Primary Key if required. Alternate Key also qualifies to be a Primary Key but for the time being, It is not the Primary Key.

Example: In the above given relational table, “cust_aadhaar_number”, “cust_pan_number” are the Alternate Key as both of the columns can be a Primary Key but not yet selected for the Primary Key.

5. Composite Key

Composite Key is also known as Compound Key / Concatenated Key. Composite Key refers to a group of two or more columns that can be used to identify a tuple from the table uniquely. A group of the column in combination with each other can identify a row uniquely but a single column of that group doesn’t promise to identify the row uniquely.

Example: In the above given relational table i.e. Order Table, “cust_id”, “order_month_year” group of these columns used in combination to identify the tuple uniquely in the Order Table. The individual column of this table is not able to identify the tuple uniquely from the Order table.

6. Super Key

Example: In the above given relational table, Primary Key, Candidate Key & Unique Key is the Super Key. As a single column of Customer Table i.e ‘cust_id’ is sufficient to identify the tuples uniquely from the table. Any set of the column which contains ‘cust_aadhaar_number’, ‘cust_pan_number’ is a Super Key.

7. Foreign Key

A foreign key is a column which is known as Primary Key in the other table i.e. A Primary Key in a table can be referred to as a Foreign Key in another table. Foreign Key may have duplicate & NULL values if it is defined to accept NULL values.

Example: In the above given relational table, ‘cust_id’ is Primary Key in the Customer table but ‘cust_id’ in the Order table known as a ‘Foreign Key’. Foreign Key in a table always becomes the Primary Key on the other table.

The above-given picture displays how each column is shown as a Key according to their qualification to identify the tuples uniquely from the table. Screenshot summarizes all the Key through the use of the relational table.

Conclusion

SQL Keys is one of the attributes of the relational database. which plays important roles to establish a relationship between two or more tables. It also helps queries to execute faster i.e. retrieval of the records from the database becomes much faster by using Keys. Keys also set the different constraint to uniquely identify the tuples from the large data.

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What Are Different Types Of Mutagenesis?

Chemical Mutagenesis

Chemical mutagenesis involves the use of chemicals to induce mutations in the DNA of an organism. Chemical mutagens can act by a variety of mechanisms, including base substitution, frameshift, and DNA strand breaks. Examples of chemical mutagens include alkylating agents, such as ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), which add alkyl groups to DNA bases, causing base substitution mutations. Nitrosoguanidine is another example of a chemical mutagen that causes base substitution mutations. Chemical mutagenesis is a useful tool for generating large numbers of random mutations in a short period of time. However, it can also lead to a high frequency of non-specific mutations, making it difficult to identify the specific mutations responsible for a particular phenotype.

Radiation Mutagenesis

Radiation mutagenesis involves the use of ionizing radiation, such as X-rays or gamma rays, to induce mutations in the DNA of an organism. Radiation can cause DNA damage by ionizing molecules in the cell, leading to strand breaks, base damage, and other types of DNA damage. Radiation mutagenesis is a useful tool for generating large numbers of mutations in a short period of time. However, it can also cause a high frequency of non-specific mutations, making it difficult to identify the specific mutations responsible for a particular phenotype. In addition, radiation mutagenesis can be hazardous to researchers, and precautions must be taken to prevent exposure to radiation.

Site-Directed Mutagenesis

Site-directed mutagenesis involves the targeted introduction of specific mutations into a gene of interest. This technique is particularly useful for studying the effects of specific mutations on gene function. Site-directed mutagenesis can be performed using a variety of methods, including PCR-based mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. PCR-based mutagenesis involves the use of PCR to amplify a gene of interest, with modified primers that introduce specific mutations into the amplified product. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis involves the use of synthetic oligonucleotides to introduce specific mutations into a gene of interest. Site-directed mutagenesis is a useful tool for studying the effects of specific mutations on gene function, but it can be time-consuming and labor-intensive.

Transposon Mutagenesis

Transposon mutagenesis involves the use of transposable elements, or transposons, to randomly insert DNA sequences into the genome of an organism. Transposons are mobile genetic elements that can move from one location to another within the genome. They can be used as mutagens by introducing new DNA sequences into the genome, disrupting gene function, or causing changes in gene regulation. Transposon mutagenesis is a useful tool for identifying genes involved in specific biological processes, as well as for studying the effects of random mutations on gene function. However, it can also lead to a high frequency of non-specific mutations, making it difficult to identify the specific mutations responsible for a particular phenotype.

Conclusion

Mutagenesis is a powerful tool for studying the effects of mutations on gene function and identifying genes involved in specific biological processes.

Transposon mutagenesis is useful for identifying genes involved in specific biological processes but can also lead to a high frequency of non-specific mutations. CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis allows for precise targeting of specific mutations but requires specialized equipment and expertise.

Overall, the choice of mutagenesis method depends on the specific research question and the resources available to the researcher.

FAQs

Q1. What is mutagenesis?

Ans. Mutagenesis is the process of inducing mutations in the genetic material of an organism.

Q2. What are the different types of mutagenesis?

Ans. The different types of mutagenesis include chemical mutagenesis, radiation mutagenesis, site-directed mutagenesis, transposon mutagenesis, and CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis.

Q3. What is chemical mutagenesis?

Ans. Chemical mutagenesis involves the use of chemicals to induce mutations in the DNA of an organism.

Q4. What is radiation mutagenesis?

Ans. Radiation mutagenesis involves the use of ionizing radiation, such as X-rays or gamma rays, to induce mutations in the DNA of an organism.

Q5. What is site-directed mutagenesis?

Ans. Site-directed mutagenesis involves the targeted introduction of specific mutations into a gene of interest.

Q6. What is transposon mutagenesis?

Ans. Transposon mutagenesis involves the use of transposable elements, or transposons, to randomly insert DNA sequences into the genome of an organism.

Store Variables, Echo, Alert, Popup Handling In Selenium Ide

In this tutorial, we will learn, Store commands, Echo commands, Alerts and Popup handling.

Selenium IDE Variables Store

To store variables in Selenium IDE, we use the “store” command. The illustration below stores the value “tutorial” to a variable named “myVariable.”

To access the variable, simply enclose it in a ${ … } symbol. For example, to enter the value of “myVariable” onto the “userName” textbox of Mercury Tours, enter ${myVariable} in the Value field.

StoreElementPresent

This command stores either “true” or “false” depending on the presence of the specified element. The script below stores the Boolean value “true” to “var1” and “false” to “var2”. To verify, we will use the “echo” command to display the values of var1 and var2. The Base URL for the illustration below was set to Mercury Tours homepage.

StoreText

This command is used to store the inner text of an element onto a variable. The illustration below stores the inner text of the tag in Facebook onto a variable named ‘textVar.’

Since it is the only element in the page, it is safe to use ‘css=h1’ as our target. The image below shows that Selenium IDE was able to save the string “Sign Up” in the ‘textVar’ variable by printing its value correctly.

Alerts, Popup, and Multiple Windows

Alerts are probably the simplest form of pop-up windows. The most common Selenium IDE commands used in handling alerts are the following:

Alerts Uses

assertAlert

assertNotAlert

retrieves the message of the alert and asserts it to a string value that you specified

assertAlertPresent

assertAlertNotPresent

asserts if an Alert is present or not

storeAlert retrieves the alert message and stores it in a variable that you will specify

storeAlertPresent returns TRUE if an alert is present; FALSE if otherwise

verifyAlert

verifyNotAlert

retrieves the message of the alert and verifies if it is equal to the string value that you specified

verifyAlertPresent

verifyAlertNotPresent

verifies if an Alert is present or not

Remember these two things when working with alerts:

Selenium IDE will not be able to handle alerts that are within the page’s onload() function. It will only be able to handle alerts that are generated after the page has completely loaded.

In this example, we will use the storeAlert command to show that even though Selenium IDE did not show the actual alert, it was still able to retrieve its message.

Step 2. Create the script as shown below.

Step 3. Execute the script and do not expect that you will be able to see the actual alert.

Confirmations

Confirmations are popups that give you an OK and a CANCEL button, as opposed to alerts which give you only the OK button. The commands you can use in handling confirmations are similar to those in handling alerts.

assertConfirmation/assertNotConfirmation

assertConfirmationPresent/assertConfirmationNotPresent

storeConfirmation

storeConfirmationPresent

verifyConfirmation/verifyNotConfirmation

verifyConfirmationPresent/verifyConfirmationNotPresent

However, these are the additional commands that you need to use to instruct Selenium which option to choose, whether the OK or the CANCEL button.

chooseOkOnNextConfirmation/chooseOkOnNextConfirmationAndWait

chooseCancelOnNextConfirmation

You should use these commands before a command that triggers the confirmation box so that Selenium IDE will know beforehand which option to choose. Again, you will not be able to see the actual confirmation box during script execution.

Let us test a webpage that has a button that was coded to show whether the user had pressed the OK or the CANCEL button.

Step 2. Create the script as shown below. This time, we will press the OK button first.

Step 3. Execute the script and notice that you do not see the actual confirmation, but the webpage was able to indicate which button Selenium IDE had pressed.

Step 4. Replace the “chooseOkOnNextConfirmation” command with “chooseCancelOnNextConfirmation” and execute the script again.

Multiple Windows

We use the selectWindow command in switching between windows.

Transfer control from the parent window to the newly launched Facebook window using the “selectWindow” command and its title as the locator

Verify the title of the new window

Select back the original window using the “selectWindow” command and “null” as its target.

Verify the title of the currently selected window

Step 2. Create the script as shown below.

We need the “pause” command to wait for the newly launched window to load before we could access its title.

Step 3. Execute the script. Notice that the Test Case passed, meaning that we were able to switch between windows and verify their titles successfully.

Always remember that setting selectWindow’s target to “null” will automatically select the parent window (in this case, the window where the element “link=here” is found)

Note: Facebook has changed the title since the creation of Tutorials. Please modify the code accordingly

Summary

The “store” command (and all its variants) are used to store variables in Selenium IDE

The “echo” command is used to print a string value or a variable

Variables are enclosed within a ${…} when being printed or used on elements

Selenium IDE automatically presses the OK button when handling alerts

When handling confirmation dialogs, you may instruct Selenium IDE which option to use:

chooseOkOnNextConfirmation/chooseOkOnNextConfirmationAndWait

chooseCancelOnNextConfirmation

Window titles are used as locators when switching between browser windows.

When using the “selectWindow” command, setting the Target to “null” will automatically direct Selenium IDE to select the parent window.

Search Engine Marketing Statistics 2023

2023 Search Engine Marketing (SEM) and Search Engine Optimization (SEO) statistics: Discover the latest search usage and adoption data to inform your search strategies

Statistics help us turn data into information, allowing us to make informed and rational decisions and that’s exactly the purpose of this article.

We’re huge fans of search engine marketing, both search engine optimization and paid search marketing. But with behavior changing so quickly, it’s vital to keep on top of search engine marketing statistics to inform your strategy.

Search marketing data for 2023 – February update

This summary of search engine marketing statistics is aimed at helping you make better-informed decisions about the running of your search marketing.

If you’re looking to make the business case for investment in search, we recommend you start by modeling search engine marketing return via a search gap analysis to put a quantitative estimate to the returns.

How many searches are made online each day and why?

Google processes over 8.5 billion searches every day. It has steadily increased YOY since 1998. In fact, Google makes up 78% of all online search behaviour today. But who is benefiting from our increased search behavior?

Global research by Datareportal shows 43.2% of internet users aged 16 to 64 cite ‘researching products and brands’ as one of their primary reasons for using the internet.

So, in the case of unknown products and brands trying to increase awareness/recognition, priming your search strategy to increase impressions on non-branded high-intent keywords is more important than ever.

The same study found that 58% of internet users purchase products and services online on a weekly basis, demonstrating the potential for near-instant returns with the right keywords.

Moreover, gone are the days of focusing purely on desktop search. Mobile shopping now has a 60% market share, not to be ignored.

Who has the biggest search engine market share worldwide?

In terms of search engine platform breakdown, Google continues to dominate search engine use, with an 85% percent market share of desktop searches in January 2023.

Clearly, Google is still the market leader, which needs to be taken into account for your digital strategy. This isn’t to say that you should discount other search engines though, especially as Bing which took 9% of searches in the same month.

It’s a slightly different story on mobile, however, as Google currently holds 96% of the mobile search market share. This is likely due to Google’s continued focus on the importance of mobile UX factors for SEO.

Desktop vs mobile vs tablet searches

Up until mid-2024, mobile and desktop searches were mostly neck and neck, with mobile just edging into the lead every few months. However, the most recent stats put mobile ahead with 59% of searches, while desktop falls to 39%.

This shows that as more people remained connected 24/7 due to the high mobile phone penetration across the globe, desktop searches are likely to continue to decline.

If you’re looking for a marketing plan to refocus your online marketing activities and improve your performance, take a look at our free digital marketing plan template for Smart Insights Free Members to start your digital marketing optimization journey.

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The impact of mobile search on SEO

What does this change in search habits mean for SERPs? At the moment, only 13% of websites are able to retain the same position for a particular search across all devices.

So, you may be ranking well on desktop but not even appear on the first page of results on mobile. In fact, 30% of pages that show on the first page of desktop search results do not appear in the top 10 results on mobile.

According to SEMRush, only 11% of URLs kept the same position on mobile as desktop.

Marketers in 2023 need to build omnichannel and mobile marketing strategies into their marketing business as usual. Defend your mobile rankings by regularly checking that your site is optimized for mobile, and keep an eye on mobile rankings rather than simply keeping tracking of desktop rankings.

How much trackable web traffic comes from organic vs paid search?

In 2023, the combination of organic and paid search makes up 80% of all trackable website visits. The current split given my HigherVisibility is 53% organic and 27% paid.

Organic search’s dominance is fairly impressive considering the changes that have been made to the layout of search engine results pages (SERPs), which have pushed organic results further down the page, giving more dominant positions to paid results. However, users seem to put more trust in the results that rank highly organically.

Their study also includes an analysis of the impact of SERPs features on CTR. Features   tend to increase CTR for the top position and decrease CTR of subsequent links.

The results indicated are:

Google keyword – this is a follow-up search

Search engine marketing statistics for voice search popularity

In 2023 35% of the US owned a smart speaker, dropping to 30% in Canada and 28% in Australia. But how are people using these devices to search and how can you tailor your SEO strategy to this new behaviour?

WebFX breaks down smart searches into 4 categories:

Looking to know: People ask their smart devices questions to obtain information. These are extremely common, with people asking questions as simple as “What’s the weather for today?”

Looking to go: Many people ask their devices things such as “Where can I get the best Chinese food?” or “Where can I buy rain boots?” These searchers intend to find and visit the business that best meets their needs.

Looking to buy: Smart devices are often used to purchase products. People can order products through these devices and get suggestions of where to purchase those products.

Looking to do: When users are looking for something to do, they can ask the Google Home or Alexa for help. People can search with questions such as “What festivals are near me?” or “Where is the closest mall?”.

Depending on your product/service, think about the types of searches that you want to appear on and ensure you are ranking for high-intent conversational search queries that you know help drive your conversions.

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Our popular marketing planning template is structured across the Smart Insights RACE Framework. Join Smart Insights as a Free Member to download our digital marketing plan template today

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Guide To Two Main Types Of Servlet

Introduction to Servlet Types

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Types

There are two main types of Servlet. They are Generic and HTTP servlets. We can use the constructor method to initialize the Servlets with the help of init() and the destructor method to remove the servlet from the resources using destroy(). There is a separate method called service() to handle the servlet requests but they are handled in a different manner in both the servlets. Common Gateway Interface is used to connect with the server from the webpage so that the requests can be understood and responses can be given back to the user.

Generic Servlet:

javax.servlet.GenericServlet

This Servlet does not follow any protocol or is not bound to any form of protocol rules as to how to write the servlet and in which order. This results in having no support from any HTTP protocol from the system. We can write servlets easily in Generic Servlet making it common for any methods used in the system. Log method is also used in Generic Servlet which is defined in ServletContext Interface so that all the changes made in the servlet can be monitored easily.

When we must handle multiple requests for running servlet requests, we should override service() method to handle the requests as it is not specific to any protocols. Also, while running in a routine, service() method cannot run with its usual timing and it is needed to override the same. This makes the service method used in abstract form and cannot help any protocol directly. Only init and destroy methods are used in the ServletConfig Interface making it easy for beginners to learn to write Generic Servlet.

Generic Servlet helps in the configuration of any servlet application and implementation of any interface to help in using any method in the servlet as it is protocol independent. Any kind of request can be handled in Generic Servlet along with extending the uses of applications used in the server.

Javax Servlet package is used and helps in extending java.lang.object to implement Generic Servlets along with Servlet Config which makes initialization parameters to be passed through XML language in the servlet.

This is not preferred by developers as most of the time, HTTP protocol is used which works well with HTTP Servlet.

Data is read directly from the browser. If it does not belong to HTTP protocol, it is managed with the help of Generic Servlet but if it is an HTTP web page, the request is sent to HTTP servlet. This data is processed with the help of any software or connecting with the database or getting information directly. The result is sent back to the browser either in txt or HTML format depending on the way the request is received. Also, a response is sent to the browser saying the type of document sent as data to the same.

HTTP Servlet:

HTTP Servlet is a subclass of Generic Servlet. The servlet is called as javax.servlet.HttpServlet.

As the name suggests, they have HTTP support and can work in any HTTP environment with the help of servers. When there are HTTP-specific methods to be used, we can continue with HTTP servlet.

HTTP Servlet can be used only with HTTP protocol and for other protocols, we should use Generic Servlet. Service methods should specify the HTTP protocol in the services handled making it most specific only to HTTP methods.

Service methods are handled altogether with the help of several other commands. To post requests, doPost() is used, and to fetch the requests, doGet() is used. Other methods used in HTTP servlet are doTrace(), doDelete() and getServiceInfo(). With these sorts of commands, the service method of Generic Servlet can be replaced and used. Based on the transfer method, it redirects to the corresponding method and fetches the information for the servers. Service method is not abstract and it is evident for the users as to which commands to be used in each stage.

Javax servlet Http package is used where Generic Servlet is extended to implement java.io.serializable along with the public class of HTTP servlet class. HTTP servlet has the properties of both Generic and HTTP servlet so that developers can make use of all the functionalities in the servlet.

Void service is provided which is both public and private making the protocol to understand the server methods and work based on the same. Override service methods need not be used as most of the service methods are either used in Generic or HTTP servlets.

Any Java library can be used in Servlet as the base language is Java and helps in communicating with applets and databases or any other software as per the developer requirement.

Any application type can be developed with the help of Servlet that helps to maintain the speed of the application. As it is platform-independent, we should focus only on the server-side and connect with the application. We can use either Generic or HTTP servlet to write the application or can be written with the help of Servlet interface.

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