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Introduction to Khajuraho Temples

Khajuraho temples are a group of medieval Hindu and Jain temples located in the Madhya Pradesh state of India. The temples are famous for their intricate carvings and sculptures, depicting various human and animal figures and spiritual and mythological scenes. The temples were ancient during the reign of the Chandela dynasty between the 10th and 12th centuries.

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The Khajuraho temples have a location in the Chhatarpur district of Madhya Pradesh, India. They are about 620 kilometers southeast of New Delhi and 175 kilometers southeast of Jhansi. The temples have a location in a remote rural area, surrounded by forests and farmlands.

The temples have great religious and cultural significance as they depict the Hindu and Jain ways of life and religious beliefs of ancient times. Their intricate carvings and sculptures make them architectural masterpieces that are widely known.

The Khajuraho temples are a famous tourist destination in India, drawing thousands of visitors each year. Considered masterpieces of Indian art and architecture, the temples are also seen as a symbol of the golden age of Indian culture.

A brief history of the Khajuraho Temples and the Chandela Dynasty

The Khajuraho temples were of ancient times during the reign of the Chandela dynasty, which ruled over the region in central India, now known as Madhya Pradesh, between the 10th and 12th centuries. The dynasty earned a reputation for its patronage of art and architecture, with the construction of the temples considered one of their most notable accomplishments. They built the temples over several decades, likely utilizing them for religious ceremonies and as places of worship for the Hindu and Jain communities.

The Chandela dynasty reached its peak of power and prosperity during the reign of King Dhanga, who ruled from 954 to 1003 CE. He was responsible for the construction of many of the temples at Khajuraho. However, by the 13th century, the dynasty began to decline, and the temples fell into disuse and neglect. In the 19th century, people repaired them, and since then, extensive restoration and preservation efforts have been undertaken on them.

Types of temples

#1 The Western Group of Temples is famous and most visited. It includes the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple, the Chausath Yogini Temple, the Chitragupta Temple, and the Lakshmana Temple, among others. The sculptures depicting various human and animal figures and spiritual and mythological scenes, along with intricate carvings, are widely known in these temples.

#2 The Eastern Group of temples is smaller and less visited than the Western Group, but still worth a visit. It includes the Parsvanath Temple, the Ghantai Temple, and the Adinath Temple. These temples are known for their Jain architecture and sculptures.

#3 The Southern Group of Temples is the least visited of the three groups but still contains some notable temples, such as the Duladeo and Chaturbhuj Temples.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Q1: What is Khajuraho?

Ans: Khajuraho is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in the Madhya Pradesh state of India. Its intricate carvings and sculptures in the collection of Hindu and Jain temples make them famous.

Q2: How many temples are there in Khajuraho?

Ans: There are 85 temples in Khajuraho, of which only 25 are still standing.

Q3: What is an excellent time to visit Khajuraho?

Ans: The best time to visit Khajuraho is between October and March when the weather is pleasant.

Q4: Is there an entrance fee for visiting Khajuraho temples?

Ans: There is an entrance fee for visiting the temples in Khajuraho. The price varies for Indian and foreign nationals and different age groups.

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History, Architecture, And Pooja Timings

About Yadagirigutta Temple

Yadagirigutta Temple is the most famous temple in Telangana. It is the temple of Lord Vishnu, also known as the Lakshmi Narasimha Temple. Around 5000 to 8000 devotees visit the temple every single day. These devotees of the great Lord Vishnu come here to seek his blessings, make promises to him, offer prayers, and perform poojas and abhishekas.

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What is Yadagirigutta Temple’s Significance?

This Temple is Highly well-liked devotees who visit this temple will have their wishes fulfilled.

The main temple’s twelve Alvar pillars are a favorite structure aspect.

The silver Lakshmi Narasimha idols inside the temple also attract visitors.

The temple’s location is close to the capital city because this temple receives a large number of visitors. A daily average of 5000 – 8000 visitors go to this temple.

The Indian Green Building Council has given the Yadagirigutta Temple a platinum rating for sustainable building.

History of Yadagirigutta Temple

Yadari worshipped Lord Narsimha, and one day he was impressed by her. As a result, he appeared on the cave walls in five different incarnations. Sri Gandabharunda, Sri Lakshminarasimha, Sri Yogananda, Sri Ugra, and Sri Jwalanarasimha.

The tribal people learned of the Lord’s presence and began to worship him after Yadari attained salvation. They had been practicing false worship without releasing it. The Lord had left to the hills.

Yadagirigutta Temple’s Architecture

The temple has maintained the Vaishnava Agama Shastras, primarily practiced in South India and known for their Thenkalai Heritage.

The famous Film set Designer Anand Sai was the temple’s primary architect and worked under the senior architect P Madhusudhan due to their knowledge of Agama Shastras and old designs.

They mainly imported 2.5 lakh tonnes of granite from Prakasam, Andhra Pradesh, for the temple’s reconstruction.

The carving of the pillars is from a single stone.

Originally, The YadagiriGutta Temple was constructed on two acres; it stands on 14 acres.

CM K Chandrasekhar Rao, his Cabinet, colleagues, and business people donated the 125 kg of gold that covers the temple’s Vimana Gopuram (The top structure of the temple)

What are The Timings For Sevas and Poojas at Yadadri Temple? Morning Timings

Suprabhatham 04 am to 04:40 am

Binde Teertam 04.30 am to 05 am

Bala Bogam 05 am to 05:30 am

Nijabhishekam 05:30 am to 06:30 am

Archana 06:30 am to 07:15 am

General Darshanam 07:15 am to 11:30 am

Maharaja Bogamu 11:30 am to 12:30 am

Darshanams 12:30 pm to 03 pm

Dawara Bandanamu 03 pm to 04 pm

Evening Timings

Special Darshan 04 pm to 05 pm

General Darshan 05 pm to 07 pm

Aaradhana 07 pm to 07:30 pm

Archana 07:30 pm to 08:15 pm

General Darshan 08:15 pm to 09 pm

Maha Nevidhana 09 pm to 09:30 pm

Shayanostavam 09:30 pm to 09:45 pm

Temple Close 09:45 pm

How to Reach Yadagirigutta Temple? By Road

The distance between the temple and the city of Hyderabad is 85 kilometers. The nearest bus station to the temple is Bhongiri Bus Station, 14 km away, and buses run there every 30 minutes.

By Train

The temple is 62 kilometers from Secunderabad Railway Station, and the nearest stations are Wangapalli (7 km) and Raigir (9 km). Private vehicles are frequently available.

By Air Best Time to Visit

October to March are the best times to visit the Yadagirigutta temple. You get relief from the heat at this time, allowing you to appreciate your journey more. You can enjoy seeing Yadagirigutta quite well that time of year.

Final Thoughts

The Yadagirigutta Temple is a highly well-known temple in Telangana. After more than five years of construction, the temple has developed from a small hill temple into a massive pilgrimage center and architectural wonder.

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History, Legacy, Labour And Economy

About Jamestown

The first permanent English establishment in America, Jamestown served as the base for the country’s administration, the opening of diplomatic ties of Native Americans, and the development of barter and commercial crops, which helped the colonies (and ultimately the country) prosper economically.

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Jamestown’s History

The establishment of Jamestown, the very first permanent English presence in North America, in Virginia in 1607—13 years before Pilgrims arrived in Massachusetts at Plymouth—sparked a sequence of cultural exchanges that influenced the country and the rest of the world. These ancient Virginians left behind a legacy that still exists today in the shape of their constitution, language, traditions, convictions, and goals.

The colony, whose leader John Smith, and the Native American Pocahontas—whom legend has it rescued Smith’s life—have all been the focus of innumerable books, plays, and movies, many of which are fantastical. It declined after surrounding Williamsburg took over as the seat of government for colonial Virginia in 1699. Due to erosion, the peninsula had become Jamestown Island by the middle of the nineteenth century. The location was added to the Colonial National Historical Park in 1936.

Commerce in Jamestown

Every colony created one system of governance. Jamestown, a constituent body consisting of seven members and a president, and the Pilgrims, who signed the Mayflower Contract, played a pivotal role in making future colonies and the entirety of America possible. Captain John Smith became the president in 1608 after the previous three governors had completed their terms. He established the law requiring people to labor for their bread and established food commerce with the Powhatan Nation.

Even though an explosive accident forced Smith to return to England in 1609, he supported North American colonization and provided historically significant chronicles of Jamestown.

Labor and the Economy

In Virginia, the very first known Africans came in 1619. During the Portuguese-African War, the Portuguese seized them, and they originated from Ndongo in Angola, Rural Western Africa. Every one of these early Africans was not free, but from the mid-century, the custom of enslavement of Africans for life became more common, taking the place of indentured slaves as the main source of labor. Every one of these early Africans was not free, but from the mid-century, the custom of enslavement of Africans for life became more common, taking the place of indentured slaves as the main source of labor.

Legacy of Jamestown

Jamestown saw the start of the initial representative democracy in British America. Colonists demanding a say in the laws that regulated them called for a general assembly to be convened in 1619. The monarch disbanded the Virginia Company in 1624; thus, Virginia became a British crown colony cause of some events, along with a battle with the Powhatan Indians in 1622 and misbehavior by certain Virginia Business executives in England.

Since Williamsburg became the state’s capital in 1699, Jamestown remained the hub of Virginia’s political and social life. Although Jamestown was no longer a town by the middle of the eighteenth century, its influences can still be seen in the modern United States.

Types And Criteria With Example

Definition of Non-Controlling Interest

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The portion of the interest is left out after the holding company’s claim. For example, Zee Ltd wants to acquire 60% of the equity shares of B Ltd, so in this case, out of 100% holding of B Ltd, 60% will be given to Zee. Now Zee will be the holding company, and the rest of the shares % which is 40%, will be considered as Non-controlling interest. They will not allow to manage any company affairs and not require interfering in the company’s decisions. Sometimes a situation arises when there are losses in the company, so in that case, the losses which apply to the It is combined subsidiary may exceed the non-controlling interest of the single subsidiary. The non-controlling interest holders get the share as per the confined % of the controlling interest they share in the company.





Holding Company

Controlling Interest (80%)

Non controlling interest ( 20%)

Share Capital    800,000.00                     640,000.00             160,000.00

Reserve      60,000.00                       48,000.00               12,000.00

   860,000.00                     688,000.00             172,000.00


There are two types of non-controlling interest: direct non-controlling interest and another is Indirect non-controlling interest.

In direct non-controlling interest, the minority shareholders, i.e., those who are non-controlling interest bearing in the company, will get the profits to share of pre and post-acquisition. In contrast, in the case of indirect non-controlling interest, only post-acquisition profits are shared with the minority interest holders, and the pre-acquisition profits are not shared. The non-controlling Interest holders get a share of this distribution as per their controlling interest percentage in the company.

Criteria for Non-Controlling Interest Recording of Non-Controlling Interest

First of all, we must find that the acquisition is on which date.

Then find out the company which acquires and the company which is acquiring.

Calculation of Pre-acquisition and Post-acquisition profits are done.

Calculation of Pre-acquisition and Post-acquisition of reserves and surpluses are done.

In the next step, the distribution of profits takes place.

The Minority Interest record is under the head of Equity and Liability.

Minority Interest is separately recorded in the Balance sheet with its own name.


Non-Controlling Interest holders can anyway get access to the company’s financial books.

Taking a small share as a minority interest holder in a very emerging business can help the growth of individual investors.

The Non-Controlling Interest holders can see the business developments and get an insider’s view to plan their investment in such a way.

In most cases, the minority interest holders gain a huge average return on their funds since they know the company’s norms.

The risk also subsides because a huge investment does not require from the minority interest holders, and thus they can enjoy the benefit of the low risk and more gains on returns.

In the case of a business sale, the minority interest holder can sell part of this stake without many legal complications.


It is a very wide term. Minority shareholders of the company are not allowed to participate in the company’s meetings, but sometimes they can make a decision for the board members. If the board’s performance is not satisfactory, then the minority shareholders can ask the board to take action against them. In the corporate, the minority interest holder meeting and voting can be very influential. Non-controlling Interest holder also makes huge profits and returns on their investment in the company. They make very little investment per the company’s emerging business but can gain huge profits. Non Controlling Interest also gets their share in case of an acquisition. It is given emphasis in the Balance Sheet and is shown as a separate item.

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Types And Benefits Of Recourse Loan With Example

What is a Recourse Loan?

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Key Takeaways

Some of the key takeaways of the article are:

A recourse loan is a financing instrument in which the lender can seize the collateral and any other assets in the defaulter’s name to recover the debt money.

Examples of other assets include other bank deposits, income sources, etc.

A recourse loan is backed by collateral and the borrower’s liability. Hence, the lender has to assume significantly lower risk in this type of loan.

Although there are many different recourse loans, the two most common types are hard money loans and auto loans. Not all mortgages are recourse loans, but the hard money loans in real estate purchases are recourse loans.

Examples of Recourse Loan

Let us now look at the following example to understand the concept of recourse loans.

Four years back, John got a stable job in a multinational company with an annual package of $75,000. Three months after joining the job, he purchased a house worth $300,000 in the countryside. However, when he checked his savings account, he realized that he had a savings of $60,000, which he decided to use as equity in this real estate purchase. So, he approached a bank for a housing loan of $240,000.

Unfortunately, today John defaulted on the bullet payment, and the lender immediately seized his house for foreclosure and subsequent recovery of the debt from the sale, resulting in proceeds of $75,000. So, the remaining $75,000 (= $150,000 – $75,000) plus the interest cost will be recovered through garnishment, wherein the outstanding loan balance will be directly deducted from his monthly paycheck until the entire loss amount is settled.

In this way, the recovery of losses occurs in a recourse loan when the borrower defaults.

Types of Recourse Loan

Hard money loans: In the case of a real estate acquisition, a hard money loan is considered a recourse loan because its terms give the lender the right to take possession of the borrower’s property after default and then resell it for a more significant gain.

Auto loans: Since the value of automobile cars depreciates over a period, which exposes the lenders to the risk of adequate recovery in the event of a default. Hence, most auto loans are recourse loans in nature.

Benefits of Recourse Loan

Some of the significant benefits of a recourse loan are as follows:

Some assets adequately back it in the form of collateral. Besides, there is the total liability of the borrower, which means that the lender doesn’t need to bear too much risk.

Borrowers get recourse loans as per their credit profile and financial position. People with good credit histories are offered favorable interest rates, while those with poor credit histories can get the loan on the back of their unlimited liability.

With such flexibility in lending terms, these loans result in the maximum flow of money in an economy through more frequent and easy lending.

First, the borrowers who default on a recourse loan may lose much more than the collateral provided because the lender invariably goes after the borrower’s other assets and income stream to recover the outstanding loan balance.

Further, the borrower who fails to repay a recourse loan loses not just the money, but such an event can be a very traumatic experience for them. It can get tricky for them to cope psychologically.


So, it can be seen that a recourse loan is a binding debt financing instrument that secures the lenders and makes their life much easier. But, on the other hand, it is not so favorable for the borrowers as they may be exposed to severe consequences in the event of a default. Hence, borrowers should consider all the aspects of the loans before signing up for any recourse loan.

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Types And Measures Of Risk Averse With Advantages

Definition of Risk Averse

Risk averse refers to investors who prefer lower risk over a high rate of returns. They choose to invest their money to earn a guaranteed return, even if it is less, so there remains little or no risk of loss. Generally, the rate of returns remains the same or exceeds slightly depending upon inflation for risk averse investors.

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Risk averse describes the attitude of the investors willing to get a guaranteed return. There is always a risk in investment, but higher returns also attract higher risks. Some investors don’t want to risk their savings getting subsumed with any kind of loss. Hence, they prefer to invest in such investments where they can constantly earn, no matter low or high. The high rate of return does not attract these kinds of investors but gets facilitated by the idea of earning constantly, and due to their lower risk appetite, they want to take a very low risk.


Consider investments like fixed deposits, certificate deposits, or other fixed-income instruments. These kinds of investments offer fixed returns with no or very low risks. An investor who is risk averse would consider such investments for the portfolio to maintain the risk at the lowest level possible.

Types of Investors Risk Averse

There are three types of investors depending upon their way of dealing with the risks:

Risk averse: Such investors avoid risk as much as they can. They prefer a lower rate of return with no risk rather than a high rate with higher risk, as they are afraid to bear any loss in their investments.

Risk Neutral: Such investors neither take too much risk nor avoid risks. They take a calculated risk because they don’t want to bear heavy losses. They usually take medium risks to get a medium or high rate of return.

Risk Loving: Such investors love to take risks, and they look at investment as a gamble in which they can earn a huge rate of return or bear huge losses. They are not afraid of losses because they always get lured by the high rate of returns.

Measures of Risk Averse

Measures of Risk Averse are:

1. Absolute Risk Averse (ARA)

When the risk is high, u(c) curvature will also get higher. However, there is a measure ‘Arrow-Pratt measure of absolute risk aversion that stays constant with respect to these transformations. It is named Arrow Prat measure after the names of the economists Kenneth Arrow and John W. Pratt. It is defined as

A (c) = – un (c)

u1 (c)


2. Relative Risk Aversion (RRA)

The Arrow-Pratt measure of relative risk aversion (RRA) is defined as

R (c) = cA (c) = –cun (c)

u1 (c)


u(c) represents the utility curve as a function of wealth being “c” It is not like ARA, whose units are $-1; the RRA measure is a dimensionless measure due to which it is applied universally. This measure of risk-averse is still valid.

The implication of increasing/decreasing absolute and relative risk aversion: The implication of increasing or decreasing absolute and relative risk aversion helps form the portfolio with one asset risky and the other risk-free. If the investor’s wealth increases, then there is an increase in the risk asset; likewise, if there is a decrease in the investor’s wealth, the investor will choose to increase the risk-free assets.

3. Portfolio Theory

A=dE(c) / dσ

An = dE(c) / d nõn


Investment without fear: A risk averse investor can invest without any fear of getting losses as the money invested here provides a return guarantee. This attracts investors who don’t want to bear any kind of loss in investment.

Constant return: Risk averse investors enjoy the constant return on their investment. They get almost the same or similar returns.

Low risk: There is a very low or almost no risk for risk averse investors.

Loss of opportunity: The main fallback of risk averse approach is that the investor loses the opportunity of earning a high return as they are not ready to take any significant risk.

Almost No Increase in Return: The returns the investors get are almost the same as there is no increment in the return, or a very little increase in return can be seen.

Dependent On Inflation: The increase in the rate of return for risk averse investors is dependent on inflation, which means the rate of return increases only when there is inflation in the country.


Every investor has their own preference for investments. Risk averse investors are those who are not attracted by high returns or a chance of getting a huge profit. They just don’t want their investment to bear any kind of loss; they want guaranteed returns on investments regardless of low returns.

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