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It seems like every week you hear of some sort of cyber attack on a business or government agency, but it shouldn’t really be news to us. These types of attacks are as old as the Internet itself.

Since the time of the earliest computer worms, like the Morris Worm in 1988, these little parasites have been infecting computers and networks around the world. But what are computer worms, and why should we pay attention to them?

What Are Computer Worms?

Computer worms are similar to real parasites because they can duplicate themselves across as many hosts as possible. Yet, they do it without causing much damage to the systems they are feeding off.

Hackers transmit these worms to your computer through software or operating system vulnerabilities. They usually arrive as attachments in email or instant messaging. They contain standalone software or files that do not have to attach themselves to any other software program to cause damage.

The goal of a computer worm is to replicate itself and spread those copies to other computers, and they do this without any human interaction. This is what makes them not only dangerous but popular among hackers.

Worms usually carry a “payload,” a piece of code that will make your computer vulnerable to other attacks. Without this payload, the life span of a worm is relatively short. This is because as soon as the worm deploys, it reveals the system weakness that allowed it to enter in the first place. Carrying and deploying a payload gives them another avenue into your system and network.

Some of the most destructive worms still exist today. Hackers simply build upon them to make them harder to detect. Like any form of malware, worms are constantly evolving, making them a threat worth protecting against.

Can Worms Ruin My Computer?

What happens if a worm infects your computer? Worms will not corrupt your files or break your computer. Instead, they slow down your computer by sucking up resources or Internet bandwidth.

Just because it won’t destroy your computer, that doesn’t mean it can’t be destructive in other ways. These invaders can modify and delete your files, steal data, and install backdoors. If they are carrying a payload, they can inject additional malicious software onto your computer and allow a hacker to control your computer and its system settings.

Another problem is they spread quickly. In fact, SQL Slammer spread so quickly, it was infecting thousands of vulnerable servers using SQL Server every minute. This is one of the fastest spreading worms, but it does prove that replication can occur rapidly.

How Can I Avoid Computer Worms?

Luckily, frequent software and operating system updates make worms less effective than they were when those updates were few and far between. However, you still need to keep your security updated to keep them out. Here are a few tips for keeping worms from burrowing their way into your network.

Have a good anti-malware program such as Kaspersky or Malwarebytes installed on your computer or use Windows Defender.

Turn Autorun off when downloading files from the Internet.

Update your system with any patches that your operating system vendor releases to protect against known worms and other possible security vulnerabilities.

Keep your operating system and anti-virus up to date.

Give up Windows XP and Windows 7 if you are still using them.

Have I Already Been Infected?

It’s always a good idea to keep any eye out for signs that your computer may already be infected by a computer worm. Some of the most common symptoms of infection include:

Files suddenly missing or being changed

Sluggish performance (can be entire system or just certain apps)

Sudden spikes in CPU usage

Unexplained hard drive usage (As worms replicate, they use more hard drive storage space.)

The sooner you notice the infection, the sooner you can stop it. Remember, the longer it’s on your system, the more damage it can do.

Worms may not be the most feared type of malware that hackers use, but they are definitely still an issue. Follow the best practices for security on your computer and network, and they shouldn’t be able to infiltrate. If instead, you are seeing the “Antimalware Service Executable” process slowing down your computer, you may want to continue letting it run in the background.

Crystal Crowder

Crystal Crowder has spent over 15 years working in the tech industry, first as an IT technician and then as a writer. She works to help teach others how to get the most from their devices, systems, and apps. She stays on top of the latest trends and is always finding solutions to common tech problems.

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You're reading What Computer Worms Are And Why They’re Still Dangerous

Several Reasons Why Aircraft Carriers Are Super Dangerous

Forget Kenny Loggins and let’s take a minute to put the real Danger Zone in perspective.

Flying jets off and on ships has historically been a high peril endeavor. Especially on.

The number of U.S. sailors and Marines that have died in and around aircraft carriers is shocking — 8,500 from 1948 to 1988 (when it was just as safe to fly off a U.S. carrier as a U.S. Air Force tarmac).

More than 12,000 aircraft were lost (both figures were dug up from the Navy Safety Center in an essay on the Navy’s transition to jet aviation included in the U.S. Naval Institute’s One Hundred Years of U.S. Navy Air Power (DISCLAIMER: My day job is working for the Naval Institute).

That number includes the aircraft and airmen lost in combat, but combat losses are tiny compared to the number lost in just attempting to take off and land on a carrier. Here’s several reasons why (before anyone complains, this list is far from exhaustive).

The Ship Doesn’t Stand Still

USS John C. Stennis practicing an extreme turn. US Navy Photo

During flight operations an aircraft carrier has to keep about 30 kts (34 mph) of wind across the deck to help provide a boost to the aircraft taking off. (That’s one of the reason the largest carriers are nuclear powered, to move the ships to generate the wind).

A giant steam catapult under the deck launches planes up to about 170 mph to provide the rest of the go for the aircraft.

So that means landing pilots have to take in to account 100,000 ton ship moving at a speed that will get you a ticket on some residential street.

In addition to going forward, the carrier moves in several other ways. Six to be exact. A ship can move front to back (surge), side to side (sway) and up and down (heave). The ship can rotate along each axis — pitch, roll and yaw respectively.

With that in mind, now imagine attempting to land on the top of a five story building in an earthquake (Or pick another analogy. There’s several to choose from).

The excellent PBS documentary Carrier has a pretty harrowing 20-minute sequence in which USS Nimitz is pitching and rolling and yawing and the F-18 pilots are attempting to land on the flight deck in the dark (one Marine captain lands is F-18C after the fifth or sixth attempt and shows the rest of squadron how bad his hand is shaking).

Little Margin for Error

A F-18 from Fighter Squadron VFA-146 lands on USS Ronald R. Reagan in 2010. Sam LaGrone Photo

As large as a carrier is (the patriotic like to say a Nimitz-class carrier is four acres of sovereign U.S. real estate anywhere in the world) the area to land is very small.

A plane landing on a carrier moves from about a 150 mph to zero in seconds. The plane stops by catching a hook on a steel wire connected to giant hydraulic motors underneath the flight deck. Hooking the arresting wire is tough, made tougher when the carrier is in motion (see previous sections on the carrier and how it can move).

The target wires (four on older U.S. carriers three on newer ships) exist in an area a little larger than a football field (317 feet) but you really only want to catch the third wire (second on newer ships).

Miss the wires and then you have to take off down the runway at max power to try and give the landing another go. A pilot comes up short, they risk hitting the back of the carrier. For some of the larger aircraft — like the Navy’s E2 Hawkeye — the width margin for error can only be a foot.

Dangers On the Deck

A well-heeded warning from the Island on the island of museum ship, USS Midway

Written in giant yellow letters on the side of every island (the aircraft control tower looking structure on the right side of the carrier) are the words: Beware of Jet Blasts, Props and Rotors.

Pick a direction and you can encounter any number of dangers.

That means there’s a danger on both sides of an aircraft.

Case in point, Petty Officer J.D. Bridges was a sailor onboard an aircraft carrier in 1991. While training a replacement he was inspecting the hook-up of an A6 Intruder to one of the carrier’s catapult. While moving to the front of the aircraft he got sucked into the Intruder’s jet intake. Bridges was lucky and got wedged in the intake before he was sucked toward the rapidly spinning blades of the engine and the pilots quickly turned off the engine.

He escaped with relatively minor injuries — and maybe the title of luckiest man alive. Rotor and prop wash and jet blasts can easily throw a person over the side. In case of that eventuality, or a downed plane, there’s a search and rescue helicopter constantly on standby.

Fire is also another worry.

The deck is a busy place, full of dangerous things — like bombs, bullets and fuel. In 1967 a Zuni rocket on a F-4 Phantom misfired and started a massive fire onboard USS Forestall. The fire on the deck burned for hours and cost the lives of 134 crewmembers. Metals like magnesium and phosphorus used in munitions can combust causing Delta-class fires. The metals burn at thousands of degrees and are very difficult to put out.

Relative to the Ocean, a Carrier is Pretty Small

F2H Banshee

Before GPS, it was much harder to find the carrier in the wide ocean. Pilots relied on a combination of inertial navigation, radio communications and good old-fashioned maps. Capt. Jim Lovell — best known as the commander of the ill-fated Apollo 13 space mission — tells a story about returning from a 1954 mission in his McDonnell F2H Banshee night fighter. Due to an electrical failure, Lovell’s instruments went dark in the cockpit. In the middle of the ocean at night with the cockpit lights out he noticed a glimmer of photo luminescent algae that had been stirred up by carrier USS Shangri-La. He followed the trail home and landed safely.

Getting Safer

As technologies improve the landing experience is getting better. In 2013 the Navy was able to land an unmanned aircraft completely autonomously using a highly precise GPS system that was tested on the service’s Super Hornets. The Navy is also testing an improved system to land the aircraft in conjunction with the Air Force. Regardless of improvements, landing on a carrier is about as harrowing a day job as man has thought up.

What Are Different Types Of Computer Keyboards? – Webnots

This is a digital era and every one of us have at least one mobile phone. However, desktop computers are still popular in organizations and educational institutions. Unlike smartphones, keyboard is the primary component you need while working on desktops. Many people also connect longer keyboard as an external device to their laptops which normally come with a smaller compact keyboard. Whether you have a Mac or Windows based PC/laptop , using a longer keyboard can easily improve your productive work and make things easier for you.

Types of Computer Keyboards

There are various types of keyboards available in the marketplace and selecting the best one depends on your need and creative use. In addition, choosing the layout like QWERTY or AZERTY can also impact your decision. Having a longer keyboard with separate number pad also helps to make use of thousands of alt code key keyboard shortcuts for making symbols.

1. Mechanical Keyboards

As the name indicates, mechanical keyboards are meant for harder usage. The keys are placed conveniently on switches generally called spring-activated switches. Below the switches, there will be an electric circuit which will give signals to the computer for the pressed keys. Mechanical keyboards will make louder noise compared to the rubber membrane keyboards used commonly on the desktops/laptops. Gamers and people who learn typing look for using mechanical keyboard as it reduces the possibility of mistakenly pressing a different key.

Mechanical Keyboard

2. Wireless Keyboards

Bluetooth Wireless Keyboard

3. Membrane Keyboards

Membrane keyboards are quite opposite in nature compared to mechanical keyboards. The keys are tightly packed and sometimes covered with a transparent membrane. This helps to avoid key movements and key pressing sounds. They are lightweight and protected from accumulating dust between keys. However, membrane keyboards are not widely used due to error prone nature while typing. In addition, people those like key sound may not like the quiet key movements.

Membrane Keyboard

4. Flexible or Foldable Keyboards

Flexible keyboards are foldable in nature that you can roll and move easily by keeping in your pocket. These keyboards are water and dust resistant and typically made with rubber like material. Flexible keyboards are mostly Bluetooth keyboards that come with a connector. Though it is easy to use, flexible keyboard needs a hard surface to place and type. In addition, they can be easily damaged and you can’t keep it on the lap or use conveniently like mechanical keyboards.

Flexible Foldable Keyboard

5. Ergonomic Keyboards

As per Oxford dictionary, the word ergonomic means “designed for efficiency and comfort in the working environment”. Ergonomic keyboards are designed in such way to avoid wrist and arm problems. The shapes of ergonomic keyboards differ and generally have curves to accommodate your palms for offering relaxed experience. Combined with ergonomics monitor and mouse, you can get a complete comfort while using your computer for longer time. Though generic ergonomic keyboards are much cheaper, you may need to go for a custom design when needed for medical reasons.    

Ergonomic Keyboard

6. Multimedia Keyboards

Apple keyboard on Mac, by default comes with multimedia keys for play/pause, rewind, froward and volume adjustments. However, most other desktop/laptop keyboards do not have dedicated multimedia keys. If you have the habit of frequently watching videos or listening songs on your PC, then multimedia keyboard with special keys can be handy for you. Multimedia keyboard replaces the controls on the video/audio player apps in your computer. You can use the keyboard keys as a quick control instead of using the media player app in your device. Multimedia keyboards are generally mechanical keyboards with bright backlit display. Some multimedia keyboards also come with gaming controls which you can use along with normal audio/video controls.

Multimedia Keyboard

8. Projection Keyboards

Computers come with default onscreen or virtual keyboard which you can use in case your physical keyboard is damaged. It is also useful with touch screen monitors thus avoiding the need to have a physical keyboard all the time. Projection keyboards are similar to onscreen virtual keyboards and do not have physical components on the layout section. However, the projection of keyboard layout needs a small handheld device which you need to connect with computer using Bluetooth or USB cable.

Once switched on, the device will show a laser projection of keyboard layout. You can simply type on the projected keyboard layout like normal keyboard. Projection keyboards are costlier compared to other models and you need a flat solid surface for projecting the layout. In addition, the data accuracy may not be perfect leading to errors and the projection may not be convenient for all users.

Projection Keyboard

Final Words

The above listed are the major types of keyboards available for your computer. As mentioned, some keyboard models may also fall into multiple categories. For example, a multimedia keyboard can be a wireless or mechanical type. In addition, there are special keyboards for gaming which are generally considered under mechanical or multimedia category. Therefore, make sure to understand the basic types and check the available features compatible with your device before purchasing an external keyboard for your device.

Atlas Stumbled: Why Humanoid Robots Are Still A Brilliant, Bumbling Mess

In the controller interface that MIT uses for its Atlas robot, the humanoid shows up as a 3D model within its environment. The red line rotates in time with the spinning head-mounted laser rangefinder. Erik Sofge

When the six-foot-two, 330-pound humanoid robot falls, no one is surprised. In part, that’s because this is what Atlas does. Like the nearly identical Atlas models loaned out to other teams competing in the DARPA Robotics Challenge, and the ones that have lost their footing on camera in the past, this bot tends to go down. In fact, the researchers at MIT’s CSAIL (Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory) predicted exactly when it would fail—three paces into its aggressive stride. And, true to form, Atlas steps, steps, steps and goes over, rescued from a face plant onto the concrete floor by the cable attached to the roll cage that serves as its skull.

None of this is new, or news. Humanoid bots are notoriously unwieldy machines that struggle to ape the dynamic sense of balance and constant, minute adjustments that keep most humans effortlessly upright. What’s interesting is why this version of Atlas is losing control so quickly.

At the beginning of this demonstration for media, CSAIL postdoc Scott Kuindersma blamed the problem on a “bug in the code,” some mysterious side effect of the team’s effort to strip out all of the code provided by Atlas’s maker, the Google-acquired Boston Dynamics, and instill the robot with all-new control algorithms.

But it isn’t the software that’s making this Atlas tipsy. It’s the robot’s hands. One of the most sophisticated robots on the planet is repeatedly toppling itself because it can’t account for the marginal weight of its own three-fingered grippers.

You’d be hard-pressed to find a more succinct example of what makes humanoid robotics so exciting, and yet so deeply unprepared for use in the real world.

MIT CSAIL’s Atlas demonstration was part of a day-long lab tour on Monday to kick off National Robotics Week Erik Sofge

What’s cool is that Atlas can do anything at all on two legs. As explosive as robotics R&D appears to be, with Amazon, Facebook and Google all investing heavily in the field, the successes of humanoid systems are weighed against other humanoids. Five of the eight best-performing teams in the DRC’s first physical trials this past December were using Atlases (CSAIL came in third). The robot powered through a battery of disaster response-themed tasks, their hydraulic actuation outclassing most of the competition’s electric motors. Compared to the majority of the field, Atlas was pure grace under fluid pressure, the synthetic equivalent of a pro athlete.

Compared to most humans, however, Atlas is a barely mobile mess. During the same demo at MIT, it needed multiple tries, spaced over various minutes, to pick up a single two-by-four. It walked to the board without failure, but at a pace so slow and cautious, you had to suppress the urge to help the doddering thing across the converted garage (its imposing, weightlifter-like bulk and rotating warning light notwithstanding). When it got there, a researcher monitoring the robot’s physical intentions—the on-screen interface is mesmerizing, with a detailed 3D model of Atlas and its surroundings, and color-coded indicators of where it plans to step or reach—had to intervene, ordering it to use the other hand, to avoid colliding with its own body. If Atlas were a person, it would be confined to a wheelchair, and cared for by a live-in nurse. (Note: The following video is short, but not very exciting.)

And that’s without considering those pesky hands. “It’s the hands!” someone says while Atlas is swaying on its safety tether. The researchers huddle at the nearby bank of computer monitors, and break up looking pretty triumphant. As Kuindersma explains, the robot was originally shipped to competitors bearing stumps. Teams were provided with two choices of generic hands, including models built by iRobot. MIT ran through those and other options, finally settling on its own combination of gripping and sensing, attaching a camera and a tactile sensor to an existing three-fingered manipulator. Atlas still thinks it’s all stumps, and isn’t factoring in the weight of its enhanced hands.

Those enhancements don’t seem entirely legal to me—the point of giving an Atlas to qualifying teams was to provide baseline hardware, and focus their efforts on control software. Doesn’t adding sensors amount to a significant hardware change?

According to Kuindersma, DARPA has cleared teams to add components as they see fit to Atlas, from the wrists down. By boosting its sensing features, CSAIL unwittingly created a stability bug. Offsetting the hands’ weight probably won’t be a serious challenge, but other bugs will invariably pop up, such as the redistribution of weight when Boston Dynamics replaces the huge, ungainly power and hydraulic tethers on all of its Atlases with battery packs, effectively unplugging the bot for the first time (those overhauls should happen within six months).

If you’re still reading this, then congratulations: You clearly like robotics. While robots themselves are neat, wiggling and shuffling and making for neat clips and GIFs, the appeal of robotics isn’t necessarily in the machines that are ultimately produced. Robotics is troubleshooting. Robotics is merciless, and hard, and humanoid robotics is probably hardest and cruelest of all. Atlas and its ilk could remain functional invalids for years or decades to come. That’s fine. It’s the high degree of difficulty, and the fact that even the best humanoids are bumbling underdogs, that makes it so easy to root for them.

One of the offending hands—the glowing red panel is a tactile sensor that helps detect when and how the robot is gripping an object. Erik Sofge

Why We Still Haven’t Figured Out What Stonehenge Was For

How did Egyptians know how to build the pyramids? Ricardo Liberato/wikimedia, CC BY-ND

Ever since humans could look up to see the sky, we have been amazed by its beauty and untold mysteries. Naturally then, astronomy is often described as the oldest of the sciences, inspiring people for thousands of years. Celestial phenomena are featured in prehistoric cave paintings. And monuments such as the Great Pyramids of Giza and Stonehenge seem to be aligned with precision to cardinal points or the positions where the moon, sun, or stars rise and set on the horizon. Today, we seem to struggle to imagine how ancient people could build and orient such structures. This has led to many assumptions. Some suggest prehistoric people must have had some knowledge of mathematics and sciences to do this, whereas others go so far as to speculate that alien visitors showed them how to do it. But what do we actually know about how people of the past understood the sky and developed a cosmology? A scientific discipline called “archaeoastronomy” or “cultural astronomy,” developed in the 1970s, is starting to provide insights. This subject combines various specialist areas, such as astronomy, archaeology, anthropology, and ethno-astronomy. Simplistic methods The pyramids of Egypt are some of the most impressive ancient monuments, and several are oriented with high precision. Egyptologist Flinder Petrie carried out the first high-precision survey of the Giza pyramids in the 19th century. He found that each of the four edges of the pyramids’ bases point towards a cardinal direction to within a quarter of a degree.

But how did the Egyptians know that? Just recently, Glen Dash, an engineer who studies the Giza pyramids, proposed a theory. He draws upon the ancient method of the “Indian circle”, which only requires a shadow casting stick and string to construct an east-west direction. He outlined how this method could have been used for the pyramids based on its simplicity alone.

So could this have been the case? It’s not impossible, but at this point we are in danger of falling into a popular trap of reflecting our current world views, methods, and ideas into the past. Insight into mythology and relevant methods known and used at the time are likely to provide a more reliable answer.

This is not the first time scientists have jumped to conclusions about a scientific approach applied to the past. A similar thing happened with Stonehenge. In 1964, the late astronomer Gerald Hawkins developed an intricate method to use pit holes and markers to predict eclipses at the mysterious monument. However, this does not mean that this is how Stonehenge was intended to be used.

Way forward

To start understanding the past we need to include various approaches from other disciplines to support an idea. We also have to understand that there will never be only one explanation or answer to how a monument might have been aligned or used.

So how can cultural astronomy explain the pyramids’ alignment? A study from 2001 proposed that two stars, Megrez and Phad, in the stellar constellation known as Ursa Major may have been the key. These stars are visible through the entire night. Their lowest position in the sky during a night can mark north using the merkhet—an ancient timekeeping instrument composing a bar with a plumb line attached to a wooden handle to track stars’ alignment.

The benefit of this interpretation is that it links to star mythology drawn from inscriptions in the temple of Horus in Edfu. These elaborate on using the merkhet as a surveying tool—a technique that can also explain the orientation of other Egyptian sites. The inscription includes the hieroglyph “the Bull’s Foreleg” which represents the Big Dipper star constellation and its possible position in the sky.

The use of the two stars Megrez and Phad of Ursa Major to line up with the cardinal north direction (meridian indicated in orange) as simulated for 2562BC. Daniel Brown

Similarly, better ideas for Stonehenge have been offered. One study identified strange circles of wood near the monument, and suggested these may have represented the living while the rocks at Stonehenge represented the dead. Similar practices are seen in monuments found in Madagascar, suggesting it may have been a common way for prehistoric people to think about the living and the dead. It also offers an exciting new way of understanding Stonehenge in its wider landscape. Others have interpreted Stonehenge and especially its avenue as marking the ritual passage through the underworld with views of the moon on the horizon.

Cultural astronomy has also helped shed light on 6,000-year-old passage graves—a type of tomb consisting of a chamber of connected stones and a long narrow entrance—in Portugal. Archaeologist Fabio Silva has shown how views from inside the tombs frame the horizon where the star Aldebaran rises above a mountain range. This might mean it was built to give a view of the star from the inside either for the dead or the living, possibly as an initiation ritual.

Fieldwork at one of the passage graves in Portugal, Dolmen da Orca. Next to the stone structure is a replica tent to simulate the view from inside of the passage grave. Daniel Brown

But Silva also drew upon wider supporting evidence. The framed mountain range is where the builders of the graves would have migrated with their livestock over summer. The star Aldebaran rises for the first time here in the year—known as a helical rising—during the beginning of this migration. Interestingly, ancient folklore also talks about a shepherd in this area who spotted a star so bright that it lit up the mountain range. Arriving there he decided to name both the mountain range and his dog after the star—both names still exist today.

Current work carried out by myself in collaboration with Silva has also shown how a view from within the long, narrow entrance passages to the tombs could enhance the star’s visibility by restricting the view through an aperture.

But while it is easy to assume that prehistoric people were analytic astronomers with great knowledge of science, it’s important to remember that this only reflects our modern views of astronomy. Findings from cultural astronomy show that people of the past were indeed sky watchers and incorporated what they saw in many aspects of their lives. While there are still many mysteries surrounding the meaning and origins of ancient structures, an approach drawing on as many areas as possible, including experiences and engaging in meaning is likely our best bet to work out just what they were once used for.

Daniel Brown is a Lecturer in Astronomy at Nottingham Trent University. This article was originally featured on The Conversation.

Meta Search Engines : Why Use Them? Still Important?

Engines which work on top of search engines has been a growing area ever since Web Search went mainstream.

The question here is – are meta search engines of any value today when search itself seems a saturated market. Here are my reasons:

Knowing the Difference

No search engine is perfect. While it is true that many queries can be answered in a succinct line or two, in-depth details on any topic from relevant sources takes research and research entails reference to more than one source.

Search Engines as the Rudimentary OS on the Web

From the desktop perspective, an Operating System is defined as “the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer (Web) and provides programmers (Users) with an interface used to access those resources.” The definition does neatly fit into what the Search Engines are doing on the net today. Meta Search engines are essentially applications that sit on top of this OS for the Web, applying and integrating still more innovations on to those engines.

Looking from this perspective, the present day mainstream engines are performing the rudimentary operations of Operating Systems. Just like the OS is not about a bunch a device drivers, meta search engines have their utility.

TestBed for Innovation

The Web is a massive set of data. The single largest repository (in loose terms) of content. The time that it takes to start on a venture as scalable as the Web is also a prime factor why there have been brilliant ideas in the waiting to take off for quite some time now. Trawling content on the web is a mammoth task. And it is that task which is really an issue with newer web search technologies (no wonder up-coming engines have been so long in incubation period). Meta-search engines are testbeds of innovation. Successful strategies will span out and scale out in future.

Why Re-invent the Wheel

The fact that Yahoo, Google Live and chúng tôi account for 99% of Web search goes to say that they are doing more than a commendable job of indexing content on the Web. So why re-invent the wheel?

If I were to start a search engine based around a new technology, why not use the top 50 results from these engines and then in course of time scale up. To that extent, new engines using the results trawled by the biggies is effectively a good way to save a lot of computing and intellectual effort.

These are but a few of the reasons why I believe Meta search engines are as important as from-the-ground-up engines.

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