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Let’s learn about C language in this basics of C language tutorial:

What is C Programming Langauge?

C is a general-purpose programming language that is extremely popular, simple, and flexible to use. It is a structured programming language that is machine-independent and extensively used to write various applications, Operating Systems like Windows, and many other complex programs like Oracle database, Git, Python interpreter, and more.

It is said that ‘C’ is a god’s programming language. One can say, C is a base for the programming. If you know ‘C,’ you can easily grasp the knowledge of the other programming languages that uses the concept of ‘C’

It is essential to have a background in computer memory mechanisms because it is an important aspect when dealing with the C programming language.

IEEE-the best 10 top programming language in 2023

In this

History of C language

In this C programming tutorial , you will learn basics of C language like:

The base or father of programming languages is ‘ALGOL.’ It was first introduced in 1960. ‘ALGOL’ was used on a large basis in European countries. ‘ALGOL’ introduced the concept of structured programming to the developer community. In 1967, a new computer programming language was announced called as ‘BCPL’ which stands for Basic Combined Programming Language. BCPL was designed and developed by Martin Richards, especially for writing system software. This was the era of programming languages. Just after three years, in 1970 a new programming language called ‘B’ was introduced by Ken Thompson that contained multiple features of ‘BCPL.’ This programming language was created using UNIX operating system at AT&T and Bell Laboratories. Both the ‘BCPL’ and ‘B’ were system programming languages.

In 1972, a great computer scientist Dennis Ritchie created a new programming language called ‘C’ at the Bell Laboratories. It was created from ‘ALGOL’, ‘BCPL’ and ‘B’ programming languages. ‘C’ programming language contains all the features of these languages and many more additional concepts that make it unique from other languages.

‘C’ is a powerful programming language which is strongly associated with the UNIX operating system. Even most of the UNIX operating system is coded in ‘C’. Initially ‘C’ programming was limited to the UNIX operating system, but as it started spreading around the world, it became commercial, and many compilers were released for cross-platform systems. Today ‘C’ runs under a variety of operating systems and hardware platforms. As it started evolving many different versions of the language were released. At times it became difficult for the developers to keep up with the latest version as the systems were running under the older versions. To assure that ‘C’ language will remain standard, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) defined a commercial standard for ‘C’ language in 1989. Later, it was approved by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in 1990. ‘C’ programming language is also called as ‘ANSI C’.

History of C

C Basic Commands

Following are the basic commands in C programming language:

C Basic commands Explanation

This command includes standard input output header file(stdio.h) from the C library before compiling a C program

int main() It is the main function from where C program execution begins.

{ Indicates the beginning of the main function.

Whatever written inside this command “/* */” inside a C program, it will not be considered for compilation and execution.

printf(“Hello_World! “); This command prints the output on the screen.

getch(); This command is used for any character input from keyboard.

return 0;

This command is used to terminate a C program (main function) and it returns 0.

}

It is used to indicate the end of the main function.

Where is C used? Key Applications

‘C’ language is widely used in embedded systems.

It is used for developing system applications.

It is widely used for developing desktop applications.

Most of the applications by Adobe are developed using ‘C’ programming language.

It is used for developing browsers and their extensions. Google’s Chromium is built using ‘C’ programming language.

It is used to develop databases. MySQL is the most popular database software which is built using ‘C’.

It is used in developing an operating system. Operating systems such as Apple’s OS X, Microsoft’s Windows, and Symbian are developed using ‘C’ language. It is used for developing desktop as well as mobile phone’s operating system.

It is used for compiler production.

It is widely used in IOT applications.

Why learn C Language?

As we studied earlier, ‘C’ is a base language for many programming languages. So, learning ‘C’ as the main language will play an important role while studying other programming languages. It shares the same concepts such as data types, operators, control statements and many more. ‘C’ can be used widely in various applications. It is a simple language and provides faster execution. There are many jobs available for a ‘C’ developer in the current market.

‘C’ is a structured programming language in which program is divided into various modules. Each module can be written separately and together it forms a single ‘C’ program. This structure makes it easy for testing, maintaining and debugging processes.

‘C’ contains 32 keywords, various data types and a set of powerful built-in functions that make programming very efficient.

Another feature of ‘C’ programming is that it can extend itself. A ‘C’ program contains various functions which are part of a library. We can add our features and functions to the library. We can access and use these functions anytime we want in our program. This feature makes it simple while working with complex programming.

Various compilers are available in the market that can be used for executing programs written in this language.

How C Programming Language Works?

C is a compiled language. A compiler is a special tool that compiles the program and converts it into the object file which is machine readable. After the compilation process, the linker will combine different object files and creates a single executable file to run the program. The following diagram shows the execution of a ‘C’ program

Nowadays, various compilers are available online, and you can use any of those compilers. The functionality will never differ and most of the compilers will provide the features required to execute both ‘C’ and ‘C++’ programs.

Following is the list of popular compilers available online:

Clang compiler

MinGW compiler (Minimalist GNU for Windows)

Portable ‘C’ compiler

Turbo C

Summary

‘C’ was developed by Dennis Ritchie in 1972.

It is a robust language.

It is a low programming level language close to machine language

It is widely used in the software development field.

It is a procedure and structure oriented language.

It has the full support of various operating systems and hardware platforms.

Many compilers are available for executing programs written in ‘C’.

A compiler compiles the source file and generates an object file.

A linker links all the object files together and creates one executable file.

It is highly portable.

You're reading What Is C Programming Language? Basics, Introduction, History

What Is Selenium? Introduction To Selenium Automation Testing

What is Selenium?

Selenium is a free (open-source) automated testing framework used to validate web applications across different browsers and platforms. You can use multiple programming languages like Java, C#, Python, etc to create Selenium Test Scripts. Testing done using the Selenium testing tool is usually referred to as Selenium Testing.

Selenium Tool Suite

Selenium Software is not just a single tool but a suite of software, each piece catering to different Selenium QA testing needs of an organization. Here is the list of tools

Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

Selenium Remote Control (RC)

WebDriver

Selenium Grid

At the moment, Selenium RC and WebDriver are merged into a single framework to form Selenium 2. Selenium 1, by the way, refers to Selenium RC.

Video Tutorial Selenium

Who developed Selenium?

Since Selenium is a collection of different tools, it also had different developers. Below are the key persons who made notable contributions to the Selenium Project

Primarily, Selenium was created by Jason Huggins in 2004. An engineer at ThoughtWorks, he was working on a web application that required frequent testing. Having realized that their application’s repetitious Manual Testing was becoming increasingly inefficient, he created a JavaScript program that would automatically control the browser’s actions. He named this program the “JavaScriptTestRunner.”

Seeing potential in this idea to help automate other web applications, he made JavaScriptRunner open-source, which was later re-named Selenium Core. For those interested in exploring other options for web application testing, take a look at these Selenium alternatives.

The Same Origin Policy Issue

Same Origin policy prohibits JavaScript code from accessing elements from a domain that is different from where it was launched. Example, the HTML code in chúng tôi uses a JavaScript program “randomScript.js”. The same origin policy will only allow chúng tôi to access pages within chúng tôi such as chúng tôi chúng tôi or chúng tôi However, it cannot access pages from different sites such as chúng tôi or chúng tôi because they belong to different domains.

This is the reason why prior to Selenium RC, testers needed to install local copies of both Selenium Core (a JavaScript program) and the web server containing the web application being tested so they would belong to the same domain

Birth of Selenium Remote Control (Selenium RC)

Unfortunately; testers using Selenium Core had to install the whole application under test and the web server on their own local computers because of the restrictions imposed by the same origin policy. So another ThoughtWork’s engineer, Paul Hammant, decided to create a server that will act as an HTTP proxy to “trick” the browser into believing that Selenium Core and the web application being tested come from the same domain. This system became known as the Selenium Remote Control or Selenium 1.

Birth of Selenium Grid

Birth of Selenium IDE

Shinya Kasatani of Japan created Selenium IDE, a Firefox and Chrome extension that can automate the browser through a record-and-playback feature. He came up with this idea to further increase the speed in creating test cases. He donated Selenium IDE to the Selenium Project in 2006.

Birth of WebDriver

Simon Stewart created WebDriver circa 2006 when browsers and web applications were becoming more powerful and more restrictive with JavaScript programs like Selenium Core. It was the first cross-platform testing framework that could control the browser from the OS level.

Birth of Selenium 2

In 2008, the whole Selenium Team decided to merge WebDriver and Selenium RC to form a more powerful tool called Selenium 2, with WebDriver being the core. Currently, Selenium RC is still being developed but only in maintenance mode. Most of the Selenium Project’s efforts are now focused on Selenium 2.

So, Why the Name Selenium?

The Name Selenium came from a joke that Jason cracked once to his team. During Selenium’s development, another automated testing framework was popular made by the company called Mercury Interactive (yes, the company who originally made QTP before it was acquired by HP). Since Selenium is a well-known antidote for Mercury poisoning, Jason suggested that name and his teammates took it. So that is how we got to call this framework up to the present.

What is Selenium IDE?

What is Selenium Remote Control (Selenium RC)?

Selenium RC was the flagship testing framework of the whole Selenium project for a long time. This is the first automated web testing tool that allows users to use a programming language they prefer. As of version 2.25.0, RC can support the following programming languages:

What is WebDriver?

The WebDriver proves to be better than Selenium IDE and Selenium RC in many aspects. It implements a more modern and stable approach in automating the browser’s actions. WebDriver, unlike Selenium RC, does not rely on JavaScript for Selenium Automation Testing. It controls the browser by directly communicating with it.

The supported languages are the same as those in Selenium RC.

Java

C#

PHP

Python

Perl

Ruby

What is Selenium Grid?

Selenium Grid is a tool used together with Selenium RC to run parallel tests across different machines and different browsers all at the same time. Parallel execution means running multiple tests at once.

Features:

Enables simultaneous running of tests in multiple browsers and environments.

Saves time enormously.

Utilizes the hub-and-nodes concept. The hub acts as a central source of Selenium commands to each node connected to it.

Selenium Browser and Environment Support

Because of their architectural differences, Selenium IDE, Selenium RC, and WebDriver support different sets of browsers and operating environments.

  Selenium IDE WebDriver

Browser Support Mozilla Firefox and Chrome

Google Chrome 12+

Firefox

Internet Explorer 7+ and Edge

Safari, 

HtmlUnit and PhantomUnit

Operating System Windows, Mac OS X, Linux All operating systems where the browsers above can run.

Note: Opera Driver no longer works

How to Choose the Right Selenium Tool for Your Need

Tool Why Choose?

Selenium IDE

To learn about concepts on automated testing and Selenium, including:

Locators such as id, name, xpath, css selector, etc.

Executing customized JavaScript code using runScript

Exporting test cases in various formats.

To create tests with little or no prior knowledge in programming.

To create simple test cases and test suites that you can export later to RC or WebDriver.

To test a web application against Firefox and Chrome only.

Selenium RC

To design a test using a more expressive language than Selenese

To run your test against different browsers (except HtmlUnit) on different operating systems.

To deploy your tests across multiple environments using Selenium Grid.

To test your application against a new browser that supports JavaScript.

To test web applications with complex AJAX-based scenarios.

WebDriver

To use a certain programming language in designing your test case.

To test applications that are rich in AJAX-based functionalities.

To execute tests on the HtmlUnit browser.

To create customized test results.

Selenium Grid

To run your Selenium RC scripts in multiple browsers and operating systems simultaneously.

To run a huge test suite, that needs to complete in the soonest time possible.

A Comparison between Selenium and QTP(now UFT)

Advantages and Benefits of Selenium over QTP

Selenium QTP

Open source, free to use, and free of charge. Commercial.

Highly extensible Limited add-ons

Can run tests across different browsers Can only run tests in Firefox, Internet Explorer and Chrome

Supports various operating systems Can only be used in Windows

Supports mobile devices QTP Supports Mobile app test automation (iOS & Android) using HP solution called – HP Mobile Center

Can execute tests while the browser is minimized Needs to have the application under test to be visible on the desktop

Can execute tests in parallel. Can only execute in parallel but using Quality Center which is again a paid product.

Advantages of QTP over Selenium

QTP Selenium

Can test both web and desktop applications Can only test web applications

Comes with a built-in object repository Has no built-in object repository

Automates faster than Selenium because it is a fully featured IDE. Automates at a slower rate because it does not have a native IDE, and only third-party IDE can be used for development.

Data-driven testing is easier to perform because it has built-in global and local data tables. Data-driven testing is more cumbersome since you have to rely on the programming language’s capabilities for setting values for your test data

Can access controls within the browser(such as the Favorites bar, Address bar, Back and Forward buttons, etc.) Cannot access elements outside of the web application under test

Provides professional customer support No official user support is being offered.

Has native capability to export test data into external formats Has no native capability to export runtime data onto external formats

Parameterization Support is built Parameterization can be done via programming but is difficult to implement.

Test Reports are generated automatically No native support to generate test /bug reports.

Cost(because Selenium is completely free)

Flexibility(because of a number of programming languages, browsers, and platforms it can support)

Parallel testing(something that QTP is capable of but only with use of Quality Center)

Summary

The entire Selenium Software Testing Suite is comprised of four components:

Selenium IDE, a Firefox and chrome add-on that you can only use in creating relatively simple test cases and test suites.

Selenium Remote Control, also known as Selenium 1, is the first Selenium tool that allowed users to use programming languages in creating complex tests.

WebDriver, is the newer breakthrough that allows your test scripts to communicate directly to the browser, thereby controlling it from the OS level.

Selenium Grid is also a tool that is used with Selenium RC to execute parallel tests across different browsers and operating systems.

Selenium RC and WebDriver was merged to form Selenium 2.

Functions In C Programming With Examples: Recursive & Inline

What is a Function in C?

Function in C programming is a reusable block of code that makes a program easier to understand, test and can be easily modified without changing the calling program. Functions divide the code and modularize the program for better and effective results. In short, a larger program is divided into various subprograms which are called as functions

In this tutorial, you will learn-

Library Vs. User-defined Functions

Every ‘C’ program has at least one function which is the main function, but a program can have any number of functions. The main () function in C is a starting point of a program.

In ‘C’ programming, functions are divided into two types:

Library functions

User-defined functions

The difference between the library and user-defined functions in C is that we do not need to write a code for a library function. It is already present inside the header file which we always include at the beginning of a program. You just have to type the name of a function and use it along with the proper syntax. Printf, scanf are the examples of a library function.

Whereas, a user-defined function is a type of function in which we have to write a body of a function and call the function whenever we require the function to perform some operation in our program.

C programming functions are divided into three activities such as,

Function declaration

Function definition

Function call

Function Declaration

Function declaration means writing a name of a program. It is a compulsory part for using functions in code. In a function declaration, we just specify the name of a function that we are going to use in our program like a variable declaration. We cannot use a function unless it is declared in a program. A function declaration is also called “Function prototype.”

The function declarations (called prototype) are usually done above the main () function and take the general form:

return_data_type function_name (data_type arguments);

The return_data_type: is the data type of the value function returned back to the calling statement.

The function_name: is followed by parentheses

Arguments names with their data type declarations optionally are placed inside the parentheses.

We consider the following program that shows how to declare a cube function to calculate the cube value of an integer variable

/*Function declaration*/ int add(int a,b); /*End of Function declaration*/ int main() {

Keep in mind that a function does not necessarily return a value. In this case, the keyword void is used.

For example, the output_message function declaration indicates that the function does not return a value: void output_message();

Function Definition

Function definition means just writing the body of a function. A body of a function consists of statements which are going to perform a specific task. A function body consists of a single or a block of statements. It is also a mandatory part of a function.

int add(int a,int b) { int c; c=a+b; return c; } Function call

A function call means calling a function whenever it is required in a program. Whenever we call a function, it performs an operation for which it was designed. A function call is an optional part of a program.

result = add(4,5);

Here, is th complete code:

int add(int a, int b); int main() { int a=10,b=20; int c=add(10,20); printf(“Addition:%dn”,c); getch(); } int add(int a,int b) { int c; c=a+b; return c; }

Output:

Addition:30 Function Arguments

A function’s arguments are used to receive the necessary values by the function call. They are matched by position; the first argument is passed to the first parameter, the second to the second parameter and so on.

By default, the arguments are passed by value in which a copy of data is given to the called function. The actually passed variable will not change.

We consider the following program which demonstrates parameters passed by value:

int add (int x, int y); int main() { int a, b, result; a = 5; b = 10; result = add(a, b); printf("%d + %d = %dn", a, b, result); return 0;} int add (int x, int y) { x += y; return(x);}

The program output is:

5 + 10 = 15

Keep in mind that the values of a and b were passed to add function were not changed because only its value was passed into the parameter x.

Variable Scope

Variable scope means the visibility of variables within a code of the program.

In C, variables which are declared inside a function are local to that block of code and cannot be referred to outside the function. However, variables which are declared outside all functions are global and accessible from the entire program. Constants declared with a #define at the top of a program are accessible from the entire program. We consider the following program which prints the value of the global variable from both main and user defined function :

int global = 1348; void test(); int main() { printf(“from the main function : global =%d n”, global); test () ; return 0;}

void test (){ printf(“from user defined function : global =%d n”, global);}

Result:

from the main function : global =1348 from user defined function : global =1348

We discuss the program details:

We declare an integer global variable with 1348 as initial value.

We declare and define a test() function which neither takes arguments nor returns a value. This function only prints the global variable value to demonstrate that the global variables can be accessed anywhere in the program.

We print the global variable within the main function.

We call the test function in order to print the global variable value.

In C, when arguments are passed to function parameters, the parameters act as local variables which will be destroyed when exiting the function.

When you use global variables, use them with caution because can lead to errors and they can change anywhere in a program. They should be initialized before using.

Static Variables

The static variables have a local scope. However, they are not destroyed when exiting the function. Therefore, a static variable retains its value forever and can be accessed when the function is re-entered. A static variable is initialized when declared and needs the prefix static.

The following program uses a static variable:

void say_hi(); int main() { int i; for (i = 0; i < 5; i++) { say_hi();} return 0;} void say_hi() { static int calls_number = 1; printf(“Hi number %dn”, calls_number); calls_number ++; }

The program displays :

Hi number 1 Hi number 2 Hi number 3 Hi number 4 Hi number 5 Recursive Functions

Consider the factorial of a number which is calculated as follow 6! =6* 5 * 4 * 3 * 2 * 1.

This calculation is done as repeatedly calculating fact * (fact -1) until fact equals 1.

A recursive function is a function which calls itself and includes an exit condition in order to finish the recursive calls. In the case of the factorial number calculation, the exit condition is fact equals to 1. Recursion works by “stacking” calls until the exiting condition is true.

For example:

int factorial(int number); int main() { int x = 6; printf(“The factorial of %d is %dn”, x, factorial(x)); return 0;} int factorial(int number) { if (number == 1) return (1); /* exiting condition */ else return (number * factorial(number – 1)); }

The program displays:

The factorial of 6 is 720

Here, we discuss program details:

We declare our recursive factorial function which takes an integer parameter and returns the factorial of this parameter. This function will call itself and decrease the number until the exiting, or the base condition is reached. When the condition is true, the previously generated values will be multiplied by each other, and the final factorial value is returned.

We declare and initialize an integer variable with value”6″ and then print its factorial value by calling our factorial function.

Consider the following chart to more understand the recursive mechanism which consists of calling the function its self until the base case or stopping condition is reached, and after that, we collect the previous values:

Inline Functions

Function in C programming is used to store the most frequently used instructions. It is used for modularizing the program.

Whenever a function is called, the instruction pointer jumps to the function definition. After executing a function, instruction pointer falls back to the statement from where it jumped to the function definition.

In an inline function, a function call is directly replaced by an actual program code. It does not jump to any block because all the operations are performed inside the inline function.

Inline functions are mostly used for small computations. They are not suitable when large computing is involved.

An inline function is similar to the normal function except that keyword inline is place before the function name. Inline functions are created with the following syntax:

inline function_name () { }

Let us write a program to implement an inline function.

inline int add(int a, int b) { return(a+b); } int main() { int c=add(10,20); printf("Addition:%dn",c); getch(); }

Output:

Addition: 30

Above program demonstrates the use of an inline function for addition of two numbers. As we can see, we have returned the addition on two numbers within the inline function only without writing any extra lines. During function call we have just passed values on which we have to perform addition.

Summary

A function is a mini-program or a subprogram.

Functions are used to modularize the program.

Library and user-defined are two types of functions.

A function consists of a declaration, function body, and a function call part.

Function declaration and body are mandatory.

A function call can be optional in a program.

C program has at least one function; it is the main function ().

Each function has a name, data type of return value or a void, parameters.

Each function must be defined and declared in your C program.

Keep in mind that ordinary variables in a C function are destroyed as soon as we exit the function call.

The arguments passed to a function will not be changed because they passed by value none by address.

The variable scope is referred to as the visibility of variables within a program

There are global and local variables in C programming

Operators In C++ With Example: What Is, Types And Programs

What are Operators?

An operator is a symbol used for performing operations on operands. An operator operates operands. The operations can be mathematical or logical. There are different types of operators in C++ for performing different operations.

Consider the following operation:

a = x + y;

In the above statement, x and y are the operands while + is an addition operator. When the C++ compiler encounters the above statement, it will add x and y and store the result in variable a.

In this C++ Tutorial, you will Learn:

Types Of Operators in C++

There are mainly 6 different types of operators in C++

Arithmetic Operators

Relational Operators

Logical Operators

Bitwise Operators

Assignment Operators

Other Operators

Arithmetic Operators

They are the types of operators used for performing mathematical/arithmetic operations. They include:

Operator Description

+ addition operator Adds to operands.

– subtraction operator Subtracts 2nd operand from 1st operand.

* multiplication operator Multiplies 2 operands.

/ division operator. Divides numerator by denominator.

% modulus operator Returns remainder after division.

++ increment operator Increases an integer value by 1.

— decrement operator. Decreases an integer value by 1.

For example:

using namespace std; int main() { int a = 11; int b = 5; int c;

cout << “a + b is :” << a+b << endl;

cout << “a – b is :” << a-b << endl;

cout << “a * b is :” << a*b << endl;

cout << “a / b is :” << a/b << endl;

cout << “a % b is :” << a%b << endl;

cout << “a++ is :” << a++ << endl;

cout << “a– is :” << a– << endl;

return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring an integer variable a and initializing it to 11.

Declaring an integer variable b and initializing it to 5.

Declaring an integer variable c.

Printing value of operation a+b alongside other text on the console.

Printing value of operation a-b alongside other text on the console.

Printing value of operation a*b alongside other text on the console.

Printing value of operation a/b alongside other text on the console.

Printing value of operation a%b alongside other text on the console.

Printing value of operation a++ alongside other text on the console.

Printing value of operation a– alongside other text on the console.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Relational Operators

These types of operators perform comparisons on operands. For example, you may need to know which operand is greater than the other, or less than the other. They include:

Operator Description

== equal to operator. Checks equality of two operand values.

!= not equal to operator Checks equality of two operand values.

> great than operator Checks whether value of left operand is greater than value of right operand.

< less than operator. Checks whether value of left operand is less than value of right operand.

>= greater than or equal to operator Checks whether value of left operand is greater than or equal to value of right operand.

<= less than or equal to operator. Checks whether value of left operand is less than or equal to value of right operand.

For example:

using namespace std;

int main() { int a = 11; int b = 5;

cout << “a=11, b=5” << endl; if (a == b) { cout << “a == b is true” << endl; } else { cout << ” a == b is false” << endl; }

if (a < b) { cout << “a < b is true” << endl; } else { cout << “a < b is false” << endl; }

} else { }

return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring an integer variable a and initializing it to 11.

Declaring an integer variable b and initializing it to 5.

Printing some text on the console stating the values of variables a and b.

Performing the arithmetic operation, a==b in an if decision making statement to know whether it’s true or false. The { marks the beginning of the body of the if statement.

Text to print on the console if the operation a==b is true. The endl is a C++ keyword for end line. It pushes the cursor to start printing in the next line. The } marks the end of the body of the if statement.

The else part of the above if statement. It states what to do if the operation a==b is false.

Text to print on the console if the operation a==b is false. The endl is a C++ keyword for end line. It pushes the cursor to start printing in the next line. The } marks the end of the body of the else statement.

Performing the arithmetic operation, a<b in an if decision making statement to know whether it’s true or false. The { marks the beginning of the body of the if statement.

Text to print on the console if the operation a<b is true. The endl is a C++ keyword for end line. It pushes the cursor to start printing in the next line. The } marks the end of the body of the if statement.

The else part of the above if statement. It states what to do if the operation a<b is false.

Text to print on the console if the operation a<b is false. The endl is a C++ keyword for end line. It pushes the cursor to start printing in the next line. The } marks the end of the body of the else statement.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Logical Operators

The logical operators combine two/more constraints/conditions. Logical operators also complement evaluation of original condition under consideration. They include:

Operator Description

&& logical AND operator. The condition is true if both operands are not zero.

|| logical OR operator. The condition is true if one of the operands is non-zero.

! logical NOT operator. It reverses operand’s logical state. If the operand is true, the ! operator makes it false.

For example:

using namespace std; int main() { int a = 5, b = 2, c = 6, d = 4; cout << “a equals to b AND c is greater than dn”; else cout << “AND operation returned falsen”;

cout << “a equals to b OR c is greater than dn”; else cout << “Neither a is equal to b nor c is greater than dn”;

if (!b) cout << “b is zeron”; else cout << “b is not zero”;

return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added.

The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring 4 integer variables a, b, c and d and assigning them different values.

Using the && (AND) operator inside the if statement. It joins two conditions, value of a equals to value of b and, value of a is greater than value of b. First condition is false, second condition is true. False&&true is False, hence, the outcome of if is false.

Text to print on console if the above if statement is true. This won’t be executed.

Part to be executed if the above if statement is false.

Text to print on the console if the if statement is false. This will be executed.

Text to print on console if the above if statement is true. This will be executed.

Part to be executed if the above if statement is false.

Text to print on the console if the if statement is false. This will not be executed.

Checking whether value of variable is 0.

Text to print on console if the above if statement is true. This will not be executed.

Part to be executed if the above if statement is false.

Text to print on the console if the if statement is false. This will be executed.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators perform bit-level operations on operands. First, operators are converted to bit level then operations are performed on the operands. When arithmetic operations like addition and subtraction are done at bit level, results can be achieved faster. They include:

Operator Description

& (bitwise AND). It takes 2 numbers (operands) then performs AND on each bit of two numbers. If both are 1, AND returns 1, otherwise 0.

| (bitwise OR) Takes 2 numbers (operands) then performs OR on every bit of two numbers. It returns 1 if one of the bits is 1.

^ (the bitwise XOR) Takes 2 numbers (operands) then performs XOR on every bit of 2 numbers. It returns 1 if both bits are different.

<< (left shift) Takes two numbers then left shifts the bits of the first operand. The second operand determines total places to shift.

>> (right shift) Takes two numbers then right shifts the bits of the first operand. The second operand determines number of places to shift.

~ (bitwise NOT). Takes number then inverts all its bits.

using namespace std;

int main() { unsigned int p = 60; unsigned int q = 13; int z = 0;

z = p & q; cout << “p&q is : ” << z << endl;

z = p ^ q; cout << “p^q is : ” << z << endl;

z = ~p; cout << “~p is : ” << z << endl;

z = p << 2; cout << “p<<2 is: ” << z << endl;

return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring an unsigned integer variables p and assigning it a value of 60, which is, 0011 1100 in binary.

Declaring an unsigned integer variables q and assigning it a value of 13, which is, 0000 1101 in binary.

Declaring an integer variable z and initializing it to 0.

Performing the bitwise & (AND) operation on variables p and q and storing the result in variable z.

Printing the result of the above operation on the console alongside other text.

Printing the result of the above operation on the console alongside other text.

Performing the bitwise ^ (XOR) operation on variables p and q and storing the result in variable z.

Printing the result of the above operation on the console alongside other text.

Performing the bitwise ~ (NOT) operation on variables p and q and storing the result in variable z.

Printing the result of the above operation on the console alongside other text.

Performing the left shift operation on variable p and storing the result in variable z.

Printing the result of the above operation on the console alongside other text.

Performing the right shift operation on variable p and storing the result in variable z.

Printing the result of the above operation on the console alongside other text.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Assignment Operators

For example:

x = 5;

In the above example, x is the variable/operand, = is the assignment operator while 5 is the value. Here are the popular assignment operators in C++:

Operator Description

= (simple assignment operator) It assigns value on the right to variable on the left.

+= (Add AND assignment operator) It first adds value of left operand to value of right operand then assigns result to variable on the left.

-= (Subtract AND assignment operator) It first subtracts value of right operand from value of left operand then assigns result to variable on the left.

*= (Multiply AND assignment operator) It first multiplies value of left operand with value of right operand then assigns result to variable on the left.

/= (Division AND assignment operator) It first divides value of left operand by value of right operand then assigns result to variable on the left.

For example:

using namespace std; int main() { int x = 5; cout << “Initial value of x is ” << x << “n”;

x += 5; cout << “x += 5 gives :” << x << “n”;

x -= 5; cout << “x -= 5 gives : ” << x << “n”;

x *= 5; cout << “x *= 5 gives :” << x << “n”;

x /= 5; cout << “x /= 5 gives : ” << x << “n”;

return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added.

The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring an integer variables x and assigning it a value of 5.

Printing value of variable x alongside other text on the console. The n is a new line character. It moves the cursor to the next line when printing.

Adding 5 to value of variable x and assigning result to variable x.

Printing value of variable x on the console alongside other text.

Subtracting 5 from value of x and assigning result to variable x.

Printing value of variable x on the console alongside other text.

Multiplying value of variable x with 5 and assigning result to variable x.

Printing value of variable x on the console alongside other text.

Dividing value of variable x by 5 and assigning result to variable x.

Printing value of variable x on the console alongside other text.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Other Operators

Let us discuss other operators supported by C++:

sizeof operator

This operator determines a variable’s size. Use sizeof operator to determine the size of a data type.

For example:

using namespace std; int main() { cout<<“Size of int : “<< sizeof(int) << “n”;

cout<<“Size of char : ” << sizeof(char) << “n”;

cout<<“Size of float : ” << sizeof(float) << “n”;

cout<<“Size of double : ” << sizeof(double) << “n”;

return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Determining the size of integer data type using sizeof operator and printing it alongside other text on the console.

Determining the size of character data type using sizeof operator and printing it alongside other text on the console.

Determining the size of float data type using sizeof operator and printing it alongside other text on the console.

Determining the size of float data type using sizeof operator and printing it alongside other text on the console.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Comma Operator

The comma operator (,) triggers the performance of a sequence of operations. It expresses first operand and discards the result. Next, it evaluates the second operand and returns the value and type.

using namespace std; int main() { int x, y; y = 100; x = (y++, y + 10, 99 + y); cout << x; return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring two integer variables x and y.

Assigning the variable y a value of 100.

Incrementing value of y and assigning result to variable x. It start with y at 100, then increments it to 101 (y++). Next, y is added to 10. Finally, y, still at 101, is added to 99, giving 200. x is now 200.

Printing value of variable x on the console.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Conditional Operator

This operator evaluates a condition and acts based on the outcome of the evaluation.

Syntax:

Condition ? Expression2 : Expression3;

Parameters:

The Condition is the condition that is to be evaluated.

Expression1 is the expression to be executed if condition is true.

Expression3 is the expression to be executed if condition is false.

For example:

using namespace std; int main() { int a = 1, b; b = (a < 10) ? 2 : 5; cout << “value of b: ” << b << endl; return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring two integer variables a and b. Variable a has been assigned a value of 1.

Assigning value to variable b. If variable a is less than 10, b will be assigned the value 2, otherwise, b will be assigned a value of 5.

Printing value of variable b on the console alongside other text.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Operators Precedence

A single operation may have more than one operator. In that case, operator precedence determines the one evaluated first.

The following list shows the precedence of operators in C++, with decreasing precedence from left to right:

Summary:

Operators are symbols for performing logical and arithmetic operations.

Arithmetic operators help us perform various arithmetic operations on operands.

Relational operators help us perform various comparison operations on operands.

Logical operators help us perform various logical operations on operands.

Bitwise operators help us perform bitwise operations on operands.

Assignment operators help us perform various arithmetic operations on operands.

The sizeof operator returns the size of a variable or data type.

The comma operator executes a sequence of operations.

The conditional operator evaluates a condition and acts based on the outcome.

Instagram – The Basics For Businesses

You can use Instagram for personal use (obviously) but you can also utilise Instagram for your business too.

Sure – there won’t be a great deal of interaction verbally – and you can’t reel off essays to your followers… but what you can do is express your brand and company visually – which can often be much more powerful. Story-telling remains one of the strongest and most impactful forms of communication – and every picture tells a story, making your communication with Instagram even more impactful.

So what can you gain from Instagram?

Instagram is essentially a bite-size snippet of visual loveliness. You’re sharing information in image form which means your followers can view them quickly, easily and also share it quickly and easily too. The visual aspect means you can get creative too – you’re not just limited to words, and there’s no character limit either. Mainly though, I think creating an Instagram account for your business or brand is going to give followers a glimpse into your everyday work-culture and brand ethos, which is a perfect marketing technique if those two things are important to you. Another plus point? You’ll also (most likely) gain lots of social shares – people love images. And people share them.

So how can you begin marketing with Instagram? Well first thing’s first. Fully commit.

Don’t commit to it if you don’t have time. This is the golden rule for every company looking into joining any social network. If you don’t have time to post a photo (at least every couple of days) then why are you joining? Social Networks are social, so if you don’t have time to put in the effort right now – just leave it. An empty feed and blank profile is no better than no account at all – it’s actually worse.

 Don’t Re-post Professional Shots

A big bug-bear of mine on Instagram are companies that simply edit a press-shot with Instagram and then post the same old catalogue photograph – just with a slight change of filter. Fashion brands are notoriously bad for this – but some do get it bang on. If someone is signed up to your Instagram account they want to see things other people don’t get to – whether that be a secret behind-the-scenes photo or a sneak peek of a future project. Don’t just rehash the same old images I can find on your website. That’s boring. Fashion brand Forever 21 have a great balance between products, promotional images (none of them rehashed though) and also personal office-culture, and fun random shots too. You get a real feel for the brand’s ethos and the kind of message they’re spreading.

Don’t Over-brand People

As with any marketing or sales techniques – the best route to take is often subtly. The last thing you want to do is spam people with 5 retro photographs of your logo every day (even if it’s a real sweet logo). Balance brand awareness with other “normal” images that don’t have any kind of sales technique or ulterior motive behind them, otherwise you won’t seem cool, you’ll just seem desperate.

Don’t Forget What Instagram Actually Is

Steer clear of uploading random quotes, Infographics and images of text – as it can culture up your feed and make it look a bit, um, tacky? Instagram is a photo-sharing site for people who like photos – and whilst the occasional inspirational quote is nice – it’s not what most people who use this site joined it for. If people want to be bombarded with quotes and text, they’ll follow an account that specialise in that. If you do insist on doing it – at least camouflage it with a filter. Like this:

Get Involved

Make sure you tag your images too – to make sure the multiple amount of people are viewing your images. Lots of people will search the app for random tags such as “love” “fun” or “sunshine” – so ensure your images aren’t missing out on this key element. Tagging is the easiest way to get your images seen!

Now for some last nuggets: Timing is Everything

If you have an amazing photo that you think will grab people’s attention – don’t post it in the middle of the night when no one is going to see it. Think about the key time to post and harness them.

Don’t Overload

Don’t post 5 photos at once – even if they are really good images. Spread them out… this isn’t Facebook remember, one image will be enough for now. If you see yourself becoming a super-regular poster, then try not to exceed one image an hour, as most people could see this as spammy.

Geo-Tag

Showing the location of your photographs lets other nearby view them. We all looking at places we know and are familiar with – so this could attract a nice base of follower for you. It also let companies and brands nearby see who their neighbours are.

Get Everyone Involved

If you’re a fun, young, start-up company – get the whole team involved with Instagram and get them all uploading photos. It creates a really great team-atmosphere and team spirit, which are both traits you’ll want to promote – you could even have “best Instagram” prizes for the most inventive.

Don’t Miss An Opportunity

If you already have a twitter account and regularly upload great images to twitter – you’re missing an opportunity here. If you’re already taking the time to photograph and upload – then why not join instagram too? You can link the accounts and benefit from both.

What Is& What Is It Used For?

What is chúng tôi & What is it Used for? Check whether the file is legit and remove it if suspicious

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Winexesvc.exe file connects Linux hosts to Windows ones, allowing the former to command the latter.

It carries great malicious potential and can be used by hackers to try to harm your system.

Verifying the file’s legitimacy and performing regular deep scans on your PC keep you safe.

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INSTALL BY CLICKING THE DOWNLOAD FILE

To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool

Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:

Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

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Typically, Windows background processes and exe files don’t need your attention, though users occasionally report encountering unidentified ones, raising an alert for suspicious activity. So, how can you tell whether a file is safe, harmful, or just plain necessary? In this article, we’ll examine winexesvc.exe.

Keep reading to learn more about how it works and whether to keep or toss it.

What is winexesvc.exe?

As prompted by its extension, chúng tôi is an executable file. It’s part of the Windows Subsystem for Linux feature that enables the transmission of remote commands across a network.

If you have installed it and its running is crucial to daily operations, it’s probably safe to remain on your device. However, it can be harmful, especially if it uses too much CPU or GPU while running in the background.

You should know that .exe files might occasionally harm your system. Because of their immense malicious potential, malware can disguise itself as such a file.

Therefore, you should exercise caution when running unknown ones on your device. To be always on the safe side, you should always enable the best Windows 11 security settings.

What is chúng tôi used for?

To put it briefly, chúng tôi is used to receive files from a Linux server to a Windows one. In other words, chúng tôi is created by a winexe so that commands from a Linux host can be executed on a Windows one. Thus, it can be used by Linux-based apps to control a Windows system.

While it can be legit, as you now know, it can be targeted by hackers to cloak harmful code in the same filename. So, to be protected from malware, it’s crucial to ensure that the chúng tôi file on your computer has not been infected and is safe to stay.

Is chúng tôi safe? 1. Verify chúng tôi location

To determine whether it poses any danger to your device, consider its context. The first thing you can do is check its location. It’s normally located in: C:WindowsSystem32

If that’s the case, the risk is much lower. However, this doesn’t mean you’re completely safe because the file is in its standard location. And you will need to verify other aspects as well.

2. Check winexesvc.exe’s behavior

If its behavior is suspicious, such as slowing down your system, interfering with other processes, or taking up too much of your PC’s CPU, it might be a malicious file, and it’d be best to remove it from your device. Follow this guide for the best uninstaller software to ensure it’s completely gone from your system.

Note: Think about the file’s origins – if you, yourself, have downloaded it from a legitimate source, the risk is minimal. On the other hand, if you have no idea how it ended up on your device or if it comes from an unreliable source, it is much more dangerous.

3. Scan your PC for malware

⇒ Get ESET Internet Security

4. Check its digital signature

The legitimate file should have a legitimate company’s digital signature, while a malicious chúng tôi probably provided no data about it.

To prevent issues with chúng tôi is important to keep an organized workspace. This includes frequent deep scans, freeing up PC space, installing Windows updates, keeping your system and security software up-to-date, and regularly backing up your data.

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