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Did you know that most email services like Gmail and Outlook only use basic email encryption techniques, leaving your email prone to data attacks? This tutorial discusses the various data encryption techniques you can implement to secure your data.

What Is Email Encryption?

Email encryption is a technique that disguises an email so that only the sender and intended recipient can access its contents, preventing unauthorized individuals from intercepting the signal and reading the message.

Most email doesn’t have this level of protection. Content is sent as regular text and open to data security risks. However, you can step in with proper end-to-end encryption, for instance, to secure your confidential email easily.

In this method, email is encrypted on the sender’s system using a public encryption key that scrambles the email and any attachments. The email is then sent to the recipient, who has a private key that can be used to decrypt the message. This technique is so secure that the message cannot be read by any email services, banking institutions, Internet service providers (ISPs), or hackers.

Why Is Email Encryption Important?

Privacy on the Internet is paramount for every individual and enterprise. However, a cyberattack can very easily put your private information in emails, such as login passwords, files, pictures, sensitive documents, and OTPs, at risk.

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The data you are sending via email may seem harmless, but even a mildly proficient hacker can extract your static or dynamic IP address, which can be used to reveal your name, address, ISP, and so much more. Using this data, any motivated hacker can wreak havoc by using strategies like phishing.

Phishing is one of the most prominent forms of cyberattacks. A large number of these attacks are caused by unencrypted emails that reveal sensitive data to malicious parties and are entirely preventable. Given this scenario, it’s in your best interest to encrypt your email.

Types of Email Encryption

There are multiple protocols for email encryption, each one suitable for different use cases, depending on implementation cost, success rate, complexity, and various other factors. A few prominent email encryption protocols in use today are covered below. They can be divided into two distinct types: transport-level encryption and end-to-end encryption.

Image source: Pexels

Transport-level encryption handles the data during transportation from the sender to the recipient. This format is less robust but cheaper than end-to-end encryption (E2EE), which stores the private encryption key at the endpoints and uses a public encryption key to secure data. The additional protection offered by this method comes at an additional price.


PGP or Pretty Good Privacy is considered one of the most widely used encryption protocols in the world. It utilizes the end-to-end encryption approach, providing cryptographic privacy and authentication with techniques like hashing, data compression, symmetric-key cryptography, and public-key cryptography to encrypt and protect datasets like emails, directories, and documents. S/MIME is used for email that contains multimedia files.

It was developed by Phil Zimmermann in the year 1991 and follows OpenPGP as the encryption key and standard (RFC 4880) for encrypting and decrypting data.


StartTLS is a form of transport-level encryption that uses either TLS (transport layer security) or SSL, also known as secure sockets layer, to upgrade an unprotected system to a protected one. It asks the email server to convert the unencrypted message into an encrypted one while the mail is being transmitted from sender to recipient.

This way, both the sender and recipient enjoy encryption without having to encrypt and decrypt messages on their systems. However, this approach can still leave the data vulnerable to hackers, who may intercept the message between the sender and the email server. These vulnerabilities can be overcome using protocols like DANE and MTA-STS.


DANE (DNS-Based Authentication of Named Entities) or MTA-STS are similar protocols and serve the same purpose. MTA-STS is actually SMTP MTA-STS, short for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol – Mail Transfer Agent – Strict Transport Security. That is a mouthful!

The only apparent difference between DANE and MTA-STS is that DANE utilizes DNSSEC for DNS authentication, while MTA-STS relies on certification authorities. Also, MTA-STS features a testing-only mode, which allows you to deploy a policy in a test environment before adopting it.

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These tools can be used as add-ons for extra protection on top of the StartTLS encryption protocol. They protect you from hackers and cybercriminals using StripTLS attacks or stripping attempts of TLS security levels, by enforcing the use of TLS by both the sender and recipient. Therefore, these protocols offer an added level of premium protection if a user finds that existing StartTLS encryption protocols are not enough.


Bitmessage is a relatively newer component of online data encryption and security. It was released under the liberal MIT license in 2012 and is based on the model of security protocol used by Bitcoin. Bitmessage is a peer-to-peer, zero-trust framework that gained traction shortly after its release when rumors of spying by the National Security Agency (NSA) surfaced. 

GNU Privacy Guard

GNU does not adhere to any single model of data encryption – transport level or end-to-end formats. It is, in fact, a complex hybrid of the two. Also known as GPG or GnuPG, it utilizes public key encryption for ease and symmetric key cryptography for the swiftness of the process. 

It is open freeware and can be used, modified, studied, etc. GNUPG is still prone to cyber attacks where hackers may pose as either sender or recipient. This is due to the exchangeability of the public key used for encryption.

Third-Party Email Services That Offer Email Encryption

There are several third-party email clients that offer varying degrees of email encryption. These email service providers can help defend you and your system from cyberattacks, spam mail, doxxing, and many other ways hackers try to get through your defenses.

1. ProtonMail

Developed by CERN scientists in 2013, ProtonMail has emerged to be one of the leading secure email services in the market today. It is best suited for personal, non-institutional use by individual users, and encrypted email sent using this service can be accessed by recipients across all email servers.

Image source: ProtonMail

ProtonMail features a strict no-logs policy, meaning it does not log any user information that passes through its systemn to ensure complete security and anonymity on the Web.

It utilizes end-to-end encryption to best protect your data between nodes. One of the most unique features of ProtonMail is PGP encryption, which very few email clients offer.

2. Mailvelope

Image source: Mailvelope

The unique thing about Mailvelope is that it features neither a desktop nor a web app. Rather, it is a free browser add-on that integrates itself with almost all web email services and encrypts your email without forcing you to migrate to a different app ecosystem. 

Mailvelope has been adopted by users across all usage types. It is suited for enterprise, institutional, and individual users and has been integrated into the workforce of several companies. It is compatible with email services like Gmail, Outlook, Yahoo, 1&1, Freenet, and GMX.

3. CipherMail

CipherMail caters specifically to corporations and similar institutions and has been adopted by dozens of multinational companies across verticals. 

CipherMail’s powerful email encryption gateway supports all major encryption protocols, like S/MIME, PGP, TLS, and PDF encryption. On top of that, it is compatible with all SMTP-based services and can be easily integrated into the existing workforce of an enterprise.

It also offers a Webmail Messenger that can protect data in cases where S/MIME or PGP cannot be used.

CipherMail allows users to communicate efficaciously and securely with external recipients who do not use any email service provider. In such a scenario, the recipient can install and use CipherMail’s webmail messenger to securely receive messages and files across the Web. CipherMail can also be accessed via Android devices.

4. Startmail

StartMail is a secure email service offered by the creators of the privacy-focused Startpage search engine. It integrates PGP encryption standards into the encryption protocol.

Image source: StartMail

The thing to note here is that PGP is implemented with only the server and is therefore not true end-to-end encryption. However, you can enable two-factor authentication to secure your account, protecting it even if your password is compromised.

StartMail offers users the ability to utilize burner email addresses without losing the encryption privilege, thus adding additional convenience to day-to-day operations. It also allowsmultiple aliases for quick throwaway usage and offers complete IMAP and SMTP support to users. 

StartMail has a web client and desktop app. However, it lacks mobile support.

5. CounterMail

CounterMail uses OpenPGP to encrypt your data with 4096 bits encryption keys.

Image source: CounterMail

It is the only known email service that can protect your email from man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks. To achieve this, it uses a hypercomplex system comprised of four layers of added protection, including:

SSL encryption

Session encryption

OpenPGP encryption

Server side disk-encryption

These layers are based on standard algorithms, but their independent operational ability makes them impenetrable to attacks.

The service also offers two-factor authentication for added protection and comes with a seven-day free trial. Even the payment gateways offer an anonymous payment option to further protect your identity.

Frequently Asked Questions Can hackers intercept encrypted emails?

Yes, it’s possible for hackers to intercept your encrypted emails. However, they will not be able to read the content of your email, as it will be distorted and jumbled. The only way to make it readable again is to decrypt it using the encryption key.

What are the most common methods of email hacking?

The most common are:

Does encrypted email guarantee encrypted attachments?

Not all encryption methods can automatically protect files that are attached to a message. Encryption methods that cover attachment encryption are usually end-to-end based. If they aren’t, you’ll need a separate program to encrypt your file before attaching it to the email.

Image credit: Mikhail Nilov via Pexels.

Ojash Yadav

Ojash has been writing about tech back since Symbian-based Nokia was the closest thing to a smartphone. He spends most of his time writing, researching, or ranting about Bitcoin. Ojash also contributes to other popular sites like MakeUseOf, SlashGear, and MacBookJournal.

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What Is A Web Browser? How Does It Work?

A web browser, aka Internet browser, is a software application that lets people access the World Wide Web. It is used to locate, fetch and display content on the internet, including web pages, images, videos, documents, and other files. 

In other words, you can also call it a rendering engine whose job is to download a web page and render it in a way that people understand. Web pages are built upon HTML, which needs to be rendered in the layout displayed in the user interface.

For instance, Chrome offers built-in tools like Password Manager, Password Checkup, Anti-phishing, and more.

Before we start with how a web browser works, let’s have a brief look at the components of a browser that play an important role in its functioning. Post which, we’ll see the step-by-step working of a web browser.

Any web browser has two elements- front-end and back-end. The front end is the interface we interact with, which looks fairly simple. However, it’s the complex back end that facilitates the core functioning of a browser. A browser has the following main components:

The Browser Engine provides a link between the user interface and the rendering engine. It manages and manipulates the rendering engine based on inputs from various user interfaces.

The Rendering Engine renders the requested web page on the browser screen. A web page is a document commonly written in HTML- rendering engine converts this document and data to an understandable format so that users can see the desired site, image, or video.

It deals with HTML and XML documents and other files to generate the layout displayed in the user interface. The rendering engine can also work with other types of data with the help of certain plugins and extensions. Below are the rendering engines used by major web browsers:

Blink – Google Chrome, Opera, Microsoft Edge (previously used EdgeHTML).

WebKit – Used in Safari.

Gecko – Mozilla Firefox.

Trident – Internet Explorer.

Presto – Legacy rendering engine for Opera.

The JavaScript Interpreter, as the name suggests, interprets and executes the JavaScript code embedded in a website. The results are then sent to the rendering engine for display.

UI Backend helps to draw basic widgets like a select box, an input box, a window, a check box, etc. It uses the underlying operating system user interface methods for the same.

It is a uniform layer that the browser uses to store all its data, including Cookies, Local Storage, Session Storage, IndexedDB, WebSQL, and FileSystem.

It involves a multi-step process including DNS resolution, HTTP exchange between browser and web server, rendering, and so on, as follows:

Credits: HackerNoon

You enter a URL in the web browser.

The browser finds the IP address for the domain using DNS.

The browser initiates a connection with the server.

Next, it sends an HTTP request to the webserver.

The server handles the request and sends out an HTTP response.

The browser renders and displays the HTML content, i.e., the web page.

Below are the commonly used jargons that you might’ve read above or come across while reading about the internet, web, or browsers.

URL – Universal Resource Locator is the address of a given unique resource on the Web.

HTML – HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language, used for creating web pages and applications.

HTTP – HTTP is a protocol that allows the fetching of resources, like HTML documents. It is a client-server protocol, which means your web browser initiates requests.

IP Address – It identifies the location of a specific server that’s connected to the internet. Each website has its own unique IP address and can have multiple IP addresses when hosted at multiple locations. For example, a common IP address for Facebook is

DNS – DNS or Domain Name System is the database that contains records of the domains. It helps discover websites using human-readable addresses.

Cookies – Cookies are the small pieces of data websites store on your device’s storage.

Google Chrome is currently the world’s most popular web browser with over 64% market share. It was first released in 2008. The browser uses Google’s Blink rendering engine. Here’s more about the evolution of Chrome over 12 years.

Microsoft Edge was first released in 2024 to replace Internet Explorer as the default browser on Windows 10. Later, it was made available for Android, iOS, and macOS.

It initially used the EdgeHTML rendering engine. However, in 2023, Microsoft rolled out the new Chromium-based Edge using the same rendering engine as Chrome, i.e., Blink. It still has a meager worldwide market share at a little over 3%.

Here’s how Edge has evolved from Internet Explorer.

It was acquired by a Chinese consortium led by Golden Brick Capital Private in 2024. Opera has recently released a dedicated Web 3 Crypto browser.

Safari is another browser popular amongst Apple product users. It first appeared in 2003 for Mac OS X, while the mobile version was introduced with iPhone OS 1 in 2007. It also had a Windows version, available from 2007 to 2012.

Safari uses WebKit rendering engine and has Google as the default search engine. It currently holds over 18% of the browser market share worldwide.

Samsung Internet

Brave Browser

Vivaldi Browser

UC Browser, etc.

The new developments in the Web 3.0 space might soon change how we use our browsers. Here are some Web 3.0 browsers that you may be interested in and yes, Brave is a part of it.

What Is Kerberos How Does Kerberos Work Kerberos Authentication

Do you use Microsoft Windows/Active Directory or Amazon Web Services (AWS)? Then you have probably been using Kerberos without even knowing it!

This article explores what Kerberos is and how it operates.

Kerberos and its Components

Kerberos is a security or authentication protocol for computer network security. Developed in the 1980s by MIT for Project Athena, Kerberos has since found application in many operating systems and networks.

Kerberos functions with 3 actors and uses a Key Distribution Centre (KDC) as a third-party authorizer/ intermediary between the client and the internet. This router prevents privatenetwork access and is strengthened further by Kerberos’ symmetric-key cryptography. Since most domain controllers (DCs)/network servers on the Active Directory Domain Services (ADDS) require and allow authentication for host access, Kerberos has found extensive use.

Kerberos Authentication

Before we can understand the authentication process, each of the 3 actors’ functions must be understood.

The Client/User – The client-server requests access on the user’s behalf, which is then transferred to the Application Server (AS).

Application Server – Hosts the service or resources the user wants access to.

Key Distribution Centre (KDC) – Consists of 3 sub-parts that handle the triple as, i.e., Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting, namely

Authentication Server (AS)

Kerberos Databased (KDB) – stores details of tested users, e.g., ID and password.

Ticket Granting Server (TGS) – the connecting link between a user and the target service.

Kerberos Authentication Workflow

These are broadly the stages by which Kerberos verifies a connection.

Stage 1 – The client-server requests the AS in the KDC to allocate a Ticket Granting Ticket (TGT).

Stage 2 – The AS runs users’ credentials, e.g., user ID and network address. Verified users’ details are found as values by the AS in the centralized Kerberos Database. Once the values are verified, the AS generates a secret client key using the client’s password hash, which is encrypted by a session key (SK1) and the TGT (which has information like the client ID, domain address, timestamp, SK1 and the lifetime of the ticket) are included. The AS also simultaneously generates a secret TGS key.

Stage 3 – The client receives the secret user key, decrypts the TGT and SK1, and sends the authenticators to TGS.

Stage 4 – The KDC uses the TGS secret key to decrypt and get the TGT and SK1. TGS matches the authenticator to user credentials, and the validity of the timestamp is verified. If everything is in order, the KDC creates an encrypted service ticket that contains the next session key (SK2). SK2 is also sent to the network service to validate the user’s request.

Stage 5 – When the client decrypts the service ticket, SK2 and authenticator are received. These are then sent to the target server.

Stage 6 – Finally, the target server uses SK2 to verify all client details and the service ticket authenticator. The target server relays a message to the client to confirm mutual authentication, granting a secure connection.

How does the Kerberos Encryption happen?

When creating a new account, you need to give different usernames and passwords. The username and Kerberos version number are combined to create a unique string called “salt” to maximize randomness. The secret key needs to share between the client and the target service, which, when matched, gives access.

Pros and Cons of Kerberos

Below are some strengths and weaknesses of this protocol:


Single Log-in and Access Control − Kerberos only needs a single login, after which renewal doesn’t need re-iterating information. Single-point login is easier for user access and administrators, e.g., in business, to enforce security policies.

Reciprocal/Shared and Reusable Authentication − The user and the service authenticate each other, so both parties are assured that the other has been verified.

Plus, once a user has been verified, the authentication is durable for the ticket lifespan, and personal information doesn’t have to be given again for this period.

Straightforward Transparency − Simple logs of the client’s name and timestamp are maintained for effortless auditing and transparency.

Versatile Security System − Kerberos uses several safeguard features in its security arsenal. These include cryptography, encrypted secret keys for each of the three entities, and third-party authentication (Multi-Factor Authentication). Passwords are never stored or sent across the network, and only the password hash is used, which makes impersonation harder.

Restricted Ticket Lifetime − The ticket issued by TGS only valid for a certain period, after which the administrator nullifies any attempts to access the target server.


Strict Synchronization − The client, KDC, and host site must be available at and configured to the same times and dates to prevent the ticket lifespan from expiring. Kerberos does give time leeway of about 5 minutes, after which the process has to be repeated due to relay attacks.

Cluster Hosting − Accessing multiple domains together requires simultaneous replication of the servers, or else all the access requests fail. Each client/device and network server need its own hostname and secret key as identifiers. Overlaps or duplications can cause login issues.

Centralized System − Kerberos is a centralized protocol, so single point attack can shut down the entire system, which makes a secondary/backup authentication mechanism necessary

Node Compliance − All devices, network services, and operating systems must be Kerberos -compatible. Both sides must be able to read and resolve NetBIOS and DNS addresses, as these are the most used Kerberos SPNs, and they need access to TCP and UDP 88 ports that handle traffic for Kerberos.


What Is Overemployment, And What Does It Mean For Your Business?

The rise of remote work has facilitated overemployment – employees who work more than one job, often without their employers’ awareness.

Employees seek additional jobs due to inflation, the rising cost of living, job insecurity, and a desire for financial freedom and security.

Overemployment affects employers because moonlighting employees may have reduced productivity, availability and performance.

This article is for employers seeking to identify and tackle the issue of overemployed employees.

The pandemic proved that remote work is feasible for many industries. Remote and hybrid positions are now a mainstay of modern working life, with big companies like Microsoft and Spotify and small businesses adopting permanent remote and hybrid work arrangements. 

However, remote work’s freedom and looser structure has led to a phenomenon called  “overemployment,” where workers hold multiple positions simultaneously. We’ll examine the overemployment trend and its effects and share how employers can reduce the chances of their teams working multiple jobs.

What is overemployment?

Overemployment is having two or more remote jobs simultaneously. And it’s a growing trend: According to a ResumeBuilder survey, 79 percent of remote workers have held more than two jobs simultaneously in the last year – and 36 percent have at least two full-time remote jobs. 

Overemployment differs from side hustles, odd jobs and the gig economy, which refers to income-earning activities outside a traditional long-term employer-employee relationship. In contrast, overemployed workers put in up to 40-plus hours weekly at two or more jobs at the same time. 

How is overemployment possible?

Remote work is fueling the overemployment trend. While working two full-time jobs would be challenging to impossible in an office environment, employees can easily monitor two company Slack channels and email accounts while balancing the day-to-day requirements of two positions. 

Working from home wasn’t invented when COVID-19 hit. In fact, telework has been around since the dawn of the 21st century. However, the trend boomed during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2023, when, according to Pew Research, 71 percent of U.S. employees were mandated to work remotely as a health precaution.

According to the FlexJobs Career Pulse survey, around 66 percent of U.S. employees still work remotely part time even after pandemic restrictions have eased and more companies operate normally. Employees are drawn to remote work’s flexibility and are in no hurry to relinquish it. According to Future Forum, 76 percent of employees prefer the flexibility of hybrid work. 

Did You Know?

Some believe office work is going the way of the dinosaurs. Many businesses have a “new normal” that includes hybrid and work-from-home setups instead of a traditional office environment.

Why are employees working multiple jobs?

Several factors contribute to the decision to work multiple jobs. For some, economic need necessitates overemployment; others want job security and financial freedom.  

1. Inflation and cost-of-living increases necessitate overemployment.

According to Statista, inflation in the United States has been prevalent since 2023. While the consumer price index eased at the beginning of 2023, inflation in the U.S. remains high.

Additionally, according to JPMorgan Chase, mid-income households’ purchasing power has been deteriorating since 2023. This means that the same amount of income might not go as far as it did previously. 

The combined effects of inflation and the high cost of living have prompted people to hold multiple jobs to make ends meet. This is especially true for those who live in cities with a high cost of living, such as Los Angeles and Miami.

2. Job security fears fuel overemployment.

Mass layoffs have been a significant issue in the U.S. economy since the start of 2023. In 2023, layoffs affected the tech industry particularly, and many more companies and industries will likely experience layoffs and budget cuts.

Instead of relying on a single job for their income, some employees hold multiple jobs simultaneously to reduce the financial blow if one employer lets them go. They may be onto something: ResumeBuilder’s survey found that around 19 percent of laid-off tech workers were not strongly affected by the job loss because they had other jobs to fall back on.


The jobs most at risk of layoffs include product management, quality assurance, marketing, finance and information technology.

Key Takeaway

Free remote working tools like Basecamp, Asana and Toggl can help you stay on task and work efficiently from home.

3. Overemployment may violate corporate policies.

Employees working multiple jobs simultaneously could be in violation of corporate policies. For example, if a company has a noncompete clause, an employee working with a competitor could expose the employer to legal risks.

Similarly, some companies may forbid employees from working as independent contractors. In such cases, if an employee is found to be providing such services while with the company, they breach their contract.

In fact, in 2023, credit reporting agency Equifax fired 24 remote employees who secretly held dual full-time employment. The termination was because their second job conflicted with their role, a violation of the company code of conduct.

Is it illegal to work multiple jobs in the U.S.?

It is not illegal in the U.S. to work multiple jobs. At-will employment is the de facto standard in the U.S., meaning employers and employees are not bound by a contract.

It’s up to an employer’s discretion whether or not they allow employees to work multiple jobs. Generally speaking, employers are more likely to accept employees working multiple jobs if the moonlighting job doesn’t conflict with company policies or if the employee isn’t taking away time and resources from their primary job.

However, at-will employment also means an employer can terminate a worker without notice or cause. This means employees may risk losing their job if an employer finds they’re working multiple jobs.

Did You Know?

Firing a remote employee has unique challenges. It’s crucial to work with IT to shut down the employee’s online access to applications, programs, databases and communication channels.

How can employers prevent overemployment?

While employers cannot completely prevent overemployment, they can take steps to reduce the chances of their workers juggling multiple jobs.


To discern if employees are faking being active online, check their chat platform availability, see how long it takes to complete tasks and note if they seem to work only when you’re monitoring.

Mitigate overemployment in your business

Overemployment has become a growing concern for many employers, as it can have severe implications on an employee’s productivity and performance and the company’s bottom line.

Employers should take proactive steps to reduce the risks associated with overemployment. Overall, employers should strive to create an environment where employees feel valued and fairly compensated so they don’t have to rely on additional income sources.

Viral Marketing: What Is It And How It Works

Introduction: What is Viral Marketing?

It might be a brief message on your smartphone about a freshly released product, a news item (such as India winning the world cup), or a YouTube video that people share with other users.

Examples Hotmail ALS Ice Bucket Challenge

The ALS Ice Bucket Challenge is another illustration of how versatile viral marketing can be. The ice bucket challenge already existed before The ALS Association used it to increase donations and awareness. However, the widespread posting of ALS Ice Bucket films on social media generated a global sensation that significantly raised awareness of the disease.

Types of Viral Marketing Puzzles and Riddles

The most popular type of internet information sharing is blog postings. Even though some of it has the potential to go viral, the outcomes of other online content, such as quizzes and riddles, are as important to consider. Until you can solve it, it appears to be taunting you. These puzzles and riddles are more likely to be found on messaging apps like WhatsApp.


They can be used to entertain, engage, and educate the audience because they are brief, clear, and attention-grabbing. Infographics are a fantastic tool for obtaining high-quality backlinks. If you want to appeal to the eye, this format is excellent.

Motivational Content

Everyone needs something to motivate them to get up every morning, go to work, and work to improve every day in today’s fast-paced world. As a result, motivating posts are among the most prevalent types of material on YouTube, Reddit, Instagram, Facebook, and other social networking sites. They discuss positive behaviours, famous and wealthy people’s statements, proverbs, and other things that make the audience feel good.

People will relate to and desire to share content with others if it has a strong message that is motivating.

Personality Quizzes

‘Which Game of Thrones character are you?’ quizzes are likely to be taken by most of us.

These tests are being used as a kind of content marketing strategy. They draw a sizable crowd and serve a certain demographic. For instance, a questionnaire geared toward mothers would ask, “Which Celebrity mom are you like?”

Keep one thing in mind before you start to become enthusiastic. For your audience to believe the quiz results, they must be relevant and logical.


Just count how many times you see titles like “X Useful ideas for…” or “Y Hacks to make your life easy” as you navigate through your Facebook feed or YouTube recommended list.

Marketing professionals know that articles and videos with titles that begin with a number received more likes, views, and shares than their equivalents.

Case Studies

Readers like case studies because they are packed with data supported by research. People enjoy watching ideas and concepts in motion and are very interested in the outcomes.

How-To Guides

The majority of “how to” content adopts a problem-solution methodology. In fact, you’ll see that many search queries individuals enter when browsing the internet start with the word “how to.”

As a result, such information has a higher likelihood of turning up in Google search results. By doing this, you increase your organic search traffic.

Top Posts

Top postings frequently have the potential to become viral and can be a strong source of traffic. The top 15 recipes to amaze your visitors may have been in stories you have read. The word “top” in these names could mean “the best,” “most popular,” or “those with the best results.”

Long-form Content

According to Google, a piece of writing must be at least 1500 words long to rank highly in search results. It appears that your target audience wants in-depth, thoroughly researched articles. Long-form content still receives more shares despite a rise in short-form material due to short attention spans and increased mobile content consumption. The rationale for this is that your readers will consider a lengthy, well-researched piece as a reliable source of information.

Steps To Create A Successful Viral Marketing Campaign

While part of that may seem frightening, you should be relieved to know that there are viral marketing strategies available, and companies like the Harmon Brothers producing hit after hit offers us hope that we can also master the process.

The following are some essential considerations when creating your campaign.

Understand your target audience − This is marketing 101, but for a piece of content to become viral, it needs to be seen by the appropriate people. It all comes down to producing content that appeals to and emotionally connects with your audience.

Facilitate sharing − You shouldn’t merely provide content and hope that others will share it. Instead, take the initiative and incorporate sharing your content into your marketing. A referral scheme or the addition of share buttons to your blog article ar two examples of simple solutions.

Be aware of your objectives and keep them top-of-mind − Why are you launching this campaign or attempting to become viral? Is it to broaden your audience, raise awareness for a cause, improve your SEO, or perhaps it’s to publicise a specific occasion? As soon as someone notices you are paying attention, you may begin evaluating and streamlining each phase of the procedure.

Keep your message concise − A key component of any marketing strategy is straightforward, easily digestible material. Before you lose your audience’s interest, your content should be concise and to the point. You only have a few seconds to make an impression, so keep that in mind.

Pieces of viral material are uncommon − The unicorns of marketing, they are. They do, however, all have traits in common that raise their chances of being popular online. Let’s examine some of my favourite instances in greater detail and draw attention to the underlying marketing approach that contributed to their success.


Keep in mind that original, never-before-seen material is essential when establishing a viral marketing campaign. It ought to be captivating enough to draw in your viewers. They ought to be able to connect with the viral marketing’s central idea. You may plan the optimal moment to publish your material that will go viral and do so to quickly reach your target market.

How Does The Chargeback Process Work?

When you launch a new product or service, there is always the risk that it may not be fully financially viable. You might want to take into account the fact that people may not see your product in the best light, either because they are too impatient or too uneducated about what you’re offering.

What Is The Chargeback Process?

The chargeback process can be defined as a reimbursement of a buyer’s transaction that purchases with their credit card. This might seem like a simple process, but it is not. Chargebacks, along with their nearly identical counterpart reversals, are something that you need to take very seriously.

The chargeback process is a way for customers to receive their money back when they do not get the product or service they were promised. A chargeback occurs when a customer initiates a request with the credit card company to revoke or reverse the charges that they authorized on their card.

The main two reasons why someone would initiate this kind of action are that either they didn’t receive their product or service according to what was agreed upon, or they believed that they were charged twice, and both cases can be problematic.

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Who Are The Participants In The Chargeback Process?

In the chargeback process, there are five main participants: the customer, the merchant, the issuing bank, the acquiring bank, and the credit card network. The first one is the customer who initiates the chargeback. They can be any person who has a card and gets charged for a product or service that they didn’t receive.

The second participant is the merchant who sold the product or service to this customer. The third participant is the issuing bank in the chargeback process. This is a bank that made the card and, therefore, can be contacted by the acquiring bank when a chargeback occurs in order to clarify any necessary details.

How Can Merchants Fight Chargebacks?

When a customer initiates a chargeback against you, you need to respond to this request because, in another way, you’ll be charged. So the right way for any merchant is to appeal the chargeback using the following evidence:

The date of transaction.

Delivery verification.

All the transaction history.

All the communications between the customer and cardholder about the order.

Any information about the order delivery.

There may be any other evidence depending on the substance of the claim.

What Happens When You Accept A Chargeback?

When you accept chargeback, any amount you were supposed to pay to the customer will be subtracted from your bank account, and you have nothing left. This might be difficult to accept, especially if this is the first time this has happened, not only because you’re not used to it but also because there are always ways to avoid chargebacks.

When you agree to a chargeback, you’ll be charged and pay the transaction fee. Then your funds will be removed from your account, and the money will be returned to the person who initiated the chargeback.

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What Are The Best Ways To Prevent Chargebacks?

Your best way to prevent chargebacks is to handle them properly before they happen. Make sure that customers have complete confidence in your products or services. If they’re not satisfied, they’ll probably initiate a chargeback.

What Happens After The Chargeback Process?

The chargeback process will end up in one of the following three outcomes, which are:

A merchant refuses a chargeback. This is the hardest thing to accept because you might think this situation is impossible. Yes, it is possible if you do everything right to prevent this from happening. However, if the customer does not have evidence to support his claim, he might not even get charged back.

Retain the transaction and file an appeal. If your customer’s claim is valid but with some changes or modifications, see that that could still be a success for your business, follow this last route.

Appeal the case against the customer. You will have a lot of information on your side, which means you could win the chargeback, but it may be difficult to convince your bank.


Chargebacks are a reality for every merchant. However, it is possible to prevent them from happening, and it is possible to be victorious in the end if you follow these guidelines carefully. You need to know some important aspects about chargebacks, which will help you keep the numbers in your favor.

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