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LVM (Logical Volume Manager) is a software that allows you to manage multiple hard disk space by creating logical volumes. Using LVM you can create, grow and shrink partitions as per your needs. LVM is made up of three components: Physical Volume, Volume Group and Logical Volume. Each volume group is made up of physical volumes. You can extend or reduce a volume group by adding or removing physical volumes.

Benefits of LVM

If you have multiple hard drives, through LVM you can group all the hard drives into one large drive.

You can create and resize new partitions as needed.

You can add an extra hard disk to a current volume group to increase space.

Note: This tutorial assumes you are using Ubuntu and have three hard disks (/dev/sda, /dev/sdb and /dev/sdc).

Create Partition on /dev/sdb and /dev/sdc

First you need two unpartitioned hard disks “/dev/sdb” and “/dev/sdc.” You need to create physical volume on this hard disk and need to create a partition on each hard disk for this.

To create a partition on “/dev/sdb”, run:

sudo

fdisk

/

dev

/

sdb

Answer all the questions shown below.

Repeat the same process for /dev/sdc.

To re-read the partition table without rebooting, run the following commands:

sudo

partprobe

/

dev

/

sdb

sudo

partprobe

/

dev

/

sdc Create the Physical Volumes

A physical hard disk is divided into one or more physical volumes. Here we will create a single physical volume on each hard disk.

To create the physical volume on “/dev/sdb1” and “/dev/sdc1”, run

sudo

pvcreate

/

dev

/

sdb1

/

dev

/

sdc1

It will output something like this.

Create the Volume Group

A combination of one or more physical volumes is called a Volume Group. You can use the vgcreate command to create a volume group from one or more physical volumes.

To create the volume group “VG1” on a physical volume (/dev/sdb1 and /dev/sdc1), run the following command:

sudo

vgcreate VG1

/

dev

/

sdb1

/

dev

/

sdc1

The output is something like this.

To verify the volume group, run

sudo

vgdisplay

/

dev

/

VG1

and its output.

Now we have a single 19.52 GB size volume group (VG1).

Creating the Logical volume

The volume groups can be divided into logical volumes and assigned mount points. When the size of logical volumes are full, you can add required free space from the volume group.

Now create the logical volume (LV1 and LV2) of 5 GB size.

sudo

lvcreate VG1

-L

+5G

-n

LV1

sudo

lvcreate VG1

-L

+5G

-n

LV2

Change “VG1” to the volume group name. The -L flag specifies the size of the partition, while the -n flag specifies the name of the logical volume.

To verify the logical volume, run

sudo

lvdisplay

and its output.

Finally, we have successfully created an LVM partition of 5GB.

Format and Mount the LVM Partition (LV1, LV2)

To use the logical volumes, we need to format them first. We can format the LVM partition using the ext4 file-system with the following command:

sudo

chúng tôi

/

dev

/

VG1

/

LV1

sudo

chúng tôi

/

dev

/

VG1

/

LV2

Create a directory in “/mnt” for a mounting partition.

sudo

mkdir

/

mnt

/

LV1-mount

/

mnt

/

LV2-mount

Mount the LVM partition by editing the “/etc/fstab” file.

sudo

nano

/

etc

/

fstab

Add the following line:

/

dev

/

VG1

/

LV1

/

mnt

/

LV1-mount ext4 defaults

0

0

/

dev

/

VG1

/

LV2

/

mnt

/

LV2-mount ext4 defaults

0

0

For the changes to take effect without rebooting the system, run

sudo

mount

-a

To verify the mount:

sudo

df

-h

It will output something like this.

Resize Logical Volumes

One of the benefits of LVM is to extend or reduce the size of the partitions. We can resize the logical volumes on the fly without rebooting the server. We can easily extend/reduce the logical volumes using lvextend/resize2fs commands.

Extend Logical Volume

In some situations, we need to expand the size of a low space partition. We can easily expand any partition using the lvextend command. We can extend logical volumes only if the volume group has enough free space.

To extend the logical volume LV1 from 5GB to 6GB, run

The logical volume is 6 GB, but the file system on that volume is still only 5 GB.

To make the file system use the entire 6 GB available, run

sudo

resize2fs

/

dev

/

VG1

/

LV1

The output is something like this.

Reduce Logical Volume

Reducing logical volume is a more interesting part than any other part in logical volume management. Before reducing logical volume, it is good to back up the data.

You need to perform the following steps to reduce logical volumes.

First, to unmount the logical volume LV2, run

sudo

umount

/

dev

/

VG1

/

LV2

Then check for the file-system error using the following command:

sudo

e2fsck

-f

/

dev

/

VG1

/

LV2

Next, reduce the logical volume LV2 from 5GB to 4GB by running

sudo

resize2fs

-p

/

dev

/

VG1

/

LV2 4G

sudo

e2fsck

-f

/

dev

/

VG1

/

LV2

Mount the file-system back to the mount point.

sudo

mount

/

dev

/

VG1

/

LV2

/

mnt

/

LV2-mount

Check the new size of logical volume by running

sudo

df

-h

The output is something like this.

Delete Logical Volume

To delete a logical volume, you need to unmount then volume before you can delete it.

To delete a logical volume LV1, run

sudo

umount

/

dev

/

VG1

/

LV1

sudo

lvremove

/

dev

/

VG1

/

LV1 Conclusion

Hitesh Jethva

Over 5 years of experience as IT system administrator for IT company in India. My skills include a deep knowledge of Rehat/Centos, Ubuntu nginx and Apache, Mysql, Subversion, Linux, Ubuntu, web hosting, web server, squied proxy, NFS, FTP, DNS, Samba, ldap, Openvpn, Haproxy, Amazon web services, WHMCS, Openstack Cloud, Postfix Mail Server, Security etc.

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What Is Mastodon And How To Sign Up For It

Mastodon is increasingly being talked about recently, especially after Elon Musk’s takeover of Twitter on October 28, 2023.

Mastodon isn’t new at all, in fact, it debuted in March 2024 by laying out a completely different approach to the world of social networking.

A huge number of users have hopped onto this new Twitter alternative platform due to Twitter’s New 8 dollar Blue Subscription and verification rules.

If you are willing to sign up for Mastodon then read this detailed guide and learn the ways to sign up for it.

Firstly, you have to download the Mastodon app and install it.

Now, you will have to select a server of your preference.

Then, select Create Account or Apply For An Account.

Mention all the required details and then select Sign Up.

Finally, open your email to verify your email address and you will be signed it.

Musk’s decision to monetize blue ticks was a bone of contention among regular Twitter users. It has been reported that Musk’s plan to put Twitter entirely behind the paywall is actually acting as a boon to Mastadon.

If are you planning to switch from Twitter, then you can easily join this decentralized, federated social media platform.

If you are eager to use Mastodon for private DM-ing or quote-tweeting then Mastodon is not for you, but if you want to try out something new and interesting on the social internet then do give it a try.

Mastodon may look like a clone of Twitter at first glance but it’s not so.

The underlying system behind this microblogging platform is far more different than what appears from the outside.

This Twitter alternative gives people more control over the content they see.

Here, you can follow other users, create or like posts, and even re-tweet but in Mastodon’s lingo re-tweeted is termed as tooted.

Not only this you can also hashtag, share media and do a lot more.

As Mastodon’s user base is smaller it will lead to more personal and direct communication.

Mastodon users can sign up from their individual servers with their own theme, language, rule, and moderation policy.

Instead of signing up on an account on a single website, users can choose to join their own independent servers.

Twitter is very well-resourced but Mastodon’s service recently stalled due to the huge influx of new users after Twitter announced its new policy.

As per Mastodon’s CEO Eugen Rochko, almost half a million new users have signed up across all the servers within a span of a week since the users are searching for a new online home.

Elon Musk’s Twitter takeover hasn’t gone well with much of the Twitter userbase and many of them have taken a step towards this decentralized alternative named Mastodon.

How Does Mastodon Make Money?

Mastodon makes its money from donations, crowdfunding, sponsorships, and grants.

How Do You Message On A Mastodon?

Messaging on Mastodon is called Toot.

This is what you need to do for messaging on Mastodon:

Write the message you want to post in the Compose column in the “What is on your mind?” textbox.

Is Mastodon Encrypted?

Direct messages on Mastodon are not end-to-end encrypted.

The user base of Twitter is huge compared to Mastodon’s but the global audience of Twitter can shift to Mastodon in the coming days due to the Twitter take-over.

What Is Microsoft Dev Box And How To Sign Up For It?

After the boom of the Internet, Cloud computing is considered the next big thing in the IT industry. Microsoft too wanted to ride the bandwagon, hence, they introduced Microsoft Dev Box, an accumulation of apps and services developed for developers to access the pre-configured workstations. In this post, we are going to see everything that you need to know about Microsoft Dev Box and how to sign up for it.

What is Microsoft Dev Box?

Microsoft Dev Box is a cloud-based service for developers. It is a workstation that aims at giving the programmers a ready-to-use environment for coding. According to Microsoft, the box will allow developers to focus on codes “only they can write”.

Perks of Microsoft Dev Box

Microsoft Dev Box can be your go-to tool if you are a programmer. It has a lot of perks and features that you will enjoy. Let us talk about them separately.

Top-notch Integration

The tool takes Windows 365 as its base and then adds features that allow programmers to build a virtual environment inside it. Now, this virtualized environment that you created will work on almost all the browsers, making it super easy for you to access the tool from anywhere.

Not only that, whenever you want, you can create new environments and delete the old ones. Needless to say, these Dev Boxes can be used in the local Azure region using the gigabit connections. This gives you the accessibility to a lot of different features.

The integration capacity of these boxes doesn’t end there, they are designed to work on all the IDEs or Integrated Development Environments and SDK or Software Development Kit. So, it doesn’t matter what you use, the box will not force you to leave your comfort zone.

Because they are made by Microsoft, they work perfectly on Windows and also support cross-platform development using Windows Subsystem on Linux.

Focus on TeamWork

It is somewhat necessary that every member of the team has their own set of tools. This will ensure maximum productivity as everyone can work at the same time in harmony. Microsoft Dev Box gives every member of the team, developer or non-developer, the required tools to carry out their task.

You can also connect the Dev Box with the developers in the Local Region using Azure Global Network. This will not only allow you to flex your programming know-how but will also help you in getting in touch with some experienced developers.

Built-in security and management

Because of the fact that the Dev Box is integrated with Microsoft 365, it is easy for the IT administrator to manage Dev Boxes together with Cloud PCs in Microsoft Intune and Microsoft Endpoint Manager.

The IT admin can also configure security features using the Microsoft Azure Platform. They configure conditional access policies, allowing users to connect via a compliant device, and can provide you with added security features such as MFA sign-in, or configure risk-based sign-in policies to take care of suspicious codes and data of the customer.

Read: Network tools in F12 Developer Tools of Edge browser 

How to sign up for Microsoft Dev Box?

As of now, the release date of these boxes is not announced. However, there is a waiting list for its private preview that requires you to sign up. To do the same, visit this link and enter the required information to sign up. After signing up, you will be able to see some demos and other features of this service.

Read: How to disable or enable Developer Mode in Windows

How do I get a Microsoft developer account?

You can easily create Microsoft Developer Account by following the prescribed steps.

Now, enter your Microsoft account’s login credentials and sign in. If you don’t have a Microsoft account, create one.

Select Account country/region using the drop-down menu.

Select the account type and follow the on-screen instructions to create your account.

Hopefully, this will allow you to get your Microsoft Dev Account.

How much does a Microsoft Dev account cost?

That’s it!

Posts for Programmers:

What Is Amazon Top Up And How Do You Use It?

The answer is Amazon Top Up, and here we explain how it works. 

What is Amazon Top Up?

As the name suggests, it’s a way to top up your Amazon account with funds, but without the need for a credit or debit card. You can either pay cash or load Amazon gift cards onto your account so that you have money to spend. 

Amazon Top Up is a UK-specific name, but the same service is also available in the US under the name Amazon Cash. 

How does Amazon Top Up work? 

Amazon Top Up is quite straightforward (and the instructions are basically the same for Amazon Cash). 

First, you’ll need a barcode that will identify your account and ensure that the money goes there. You get this from the Top Up page on Amazon’s website. It can be delivered in one of two ways: sent to your phone via SMS or as a file you can print and take with you to the shop.

If you have an iPhone, you’ll also see the option to save that barcode to the Wallet app for quick access in store.

Amazon

Next, it’s time to visit a shop to do the top up with your cash. In the UK these include any that show the PayPoint, Payzone or epay logos, plus Poundland and the Post Office. You can search Amazon’s list of participating stores to see which one is the closest to you.  

When you get there you can ask the cashier to top-up your account by scanning the barcode and then paying a minimum of £5 and maximum of £250, all of which is added to the Amazon Gift Card balance of your account.

If you forget to bring the barcode with you, you can still add money and then get a printed purchase code which you then use to add the amount you topped up onto your Amazon Gift Card balance by going to the Redeem page on your account.

Does Amazon Top-Up cost anything?

No. There are no charges for adding money to your account. In fact, Amazon often runs promotions where the company will give you free credit if you add a certain amount onto your account. Recently these included an extra £5 when you added £60 and on Prime Day the same deal applied if you added £40, so it’s worth checking online for any promotions before you use the Top Up service. 

Can I only use cash to top-up my Amazon account?

No, there are different ways to add money. You can also use a credit card if you want or there are gift cards which can be bought in supermarkets and then redeemed on your account. 

Amazon Auto Top Up

If you like the idea of pre-paying money onto your account, or maybe this is for your children and you want to pay their pocket money onto Amazon so they can shop for things there, then Auto Top Up is worth investigating. With this you set up a monthly amount that is paid onto your Amazon Gift Card balance so that you have money to spend. This could be useful if you like to budget and know that you won’t be able to resist a little splurge at some point in the month. 

Amazon

To use this service you’ll need to go to the Auto Top Up page while logged into your Amazon account. Here you’ll be able to set how much will be paid and the intervals (every day, week, two weeks or month). You can also set a minimum threshold so if your account is down to the last £10 then it will be automatically topped up by your specified regular amount. 

Obviously, this works using a linked credit/debit card rather than cash, as the automated nature requires access to your bank account details.

So that’s how to pay for Amazon using cash, and how to top up your account automatically. If you want to get even more from your Amazon account then see our guide on everything you need to know about Amazon Prime.

How To Set Up Mission Control In Mac And Make It Work For You

Mac OS X’s Mission Control is an exceptionally useful feature that lends itself very well to a multi-tasking/multi-application workflow, all within the small footprint of a single monitor. In this article we will show the various ways to customize and master Mission Control so that it works well for you and improves your productivity.

Customizing Mission Control

2. Check “Group windows by application.” This will help you see what similar applications should be sent to their own desktop.

3. Also, select the “As Space” option for your Dashboard widgets (e.g. Weather, Calculator, Unit Converter, Movies, etc.).

4. Finally, if you’re using an older Mac desktop or laptop, you will want to assign the function keys “F5” and “F6” to the “Show Desktop” and “Show Dashboard” commands. This way “F3” brings up Mission Control (alternatively use the keyboard combo “Control + up arrow”), “F4” brings up Launch Pad (an iOS-like way of organizing your applications), “F5” brings up Desktop (sans the application windows which allows you to quickly see what files and folders you’re keeping there), and “F6” brings up your Dashboard for access to useful aforementioned widgets.

Customizing Your Desktops

Now that you have tweaked Mission Control’s preferences for optimal use, it’s time to make some desktops to create function-specific workspaces to improve your workflow.

A typical arrangement could look like the following:

Desktop #1 – Productivity Workspace (e.g. Adobe Photoshop or MS Word).

Desktop #2 – Communications Workspace (e.g. Mac Mail or GMail)

Desktop #3 – Social Media Workspace (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, etc.)

Desktop #4 – Entertainment Workspace (e.g. iTunes or Spotify)

1. Press “Control + Up arrow” or “F3.”

3. Dashboard will have its own desktop as well as any current application that you’re working on at the moment when you invoke Mission Control.

Assign Applications to Their Own Desktops

1. Go back to Desktop #1 by using “Control + Left arrow.”

2. Launch all of the applications that you want to use, e.g. Photoshop, Google Chrome, Mac Mail or a web-based email client, iTunes, Spotify.

3. Re-engage Mission Control via “Control + Up arrow” or “F3.”

4. Drag each application up to its own desktop. For example: Photoshop on Desktop #1, Facebook on Desktop #2, Mail on Desktop #3, and iTunes on Desktop #4. Then select any desktop that you want to use.

5. Use “Control + Right arrow” and “Control + Left arrow” to very quickly switch between desktops.

Use MC in Slow Motion

1. Hold down the “Shift” key when invoking function keys “F3,” “F4,” and “F5.” This will make your screens move in slow motion (including transitioning between Mission Control, Launch Pad, and Dashboard). This could be helpful if you have a lot of applications running, and you need to slow down and take a look at what you actually need.

Conclusion

You will find that when you start working this way – assigning applications to their own desktops, switching between desktops as you work from one application to another, using quick and helpful widgets like Unit Converter or Dictionary in Dashboard, or finding the application you need the most based on function in Launch Pad – all of this becomes second nature making your workflow incredibly efficient.

And there are additional benefits such as when your boss comes around the corner while you are idling away on Facebook located on Desktop #3. You can use an instantaneous “Control + Left arrow” (twice) and you are back on Photoshop editing that background image for the banner ad you’re supposed to be working on. And they’ll never be the wiser. Mission accomplished!

Nick Iandolo

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How To Set Up And Use Gmail In Outlook: Windows, Mac, And Mobile

With web-based email clients the norm nowadays, Microsoft’s Outlook might seem outdated. However, there are a lot of strong use cases for Outlook, and it’s a great tool for monitoring multiple email accounts. But how do you set up Gmail in Outlook?

Below, we tell you how to set up Gmail in Outlook across multiple platforms. Generally, if you use any of Microsoft’s Outlook apps, we’ve got the instructions you need.

Read more: How to delete Gmail search history

QUICK ANSWER

DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS

Outlook for Windows

Outlook for macOS

Microsoft Outlook for Android and iOS

Set up Gmail in Outlook on macOS

Gary Sims / Android Authority

On macOS, adding Gmail to Outlook is a little different from how you do it on Windows. You’ll still need to prove to Google that you own the account, which will involve two-factor authentication with your smartphone. However, you’ll need to use your browser to actually log in to your account. Don’t worry, you only need to do this once to get set up.

First, open your default browser (Safari, Chrome, etc.) and make sure you are logged in with Google. You can do this by visiting chúng tôi and making sure the account you want to use is logged in. If it’s not, go through the usual steps of logging in. First-time logins will ask for two-factor authentication using your smartphone.

A dialog box will pop up. When it does, enter your Gmail account.

With your email entered, hit the Continue button.

Outlook will match your email to the provider, which should be Google. If, for whatever reason, it doesn’t, just hit Choose The Provider and select the appropriate company.

Your default browser will open, and you’ll need to choose your desired account. Since you already logged in during Step 1, the appropriate account should be listed here. Select it.

Success! You’ve set up Gmail in Outlook. Hit the Done button and watch all your email download.

Set up Gmail in Outlook for Android

Install the Outlook app for Android.

Open the app. On the welcome screen, hit Add Account.

You don’t need to enter your email address in the box that appears. Instead, just hit Add Google Account.

A dialog box will pop up asking you which account you’d like to add. Tap the Gmail account you want or hit Add Another Account to connect to a different one.

Once you’ve selected the appropriate account, you’ll need to grant access to Microsoft. Hit Allow.

Success! At this point, you can either add another account (hit the Add button) or hit Maybe Later if you’re finished.

Set up Gmail in Outlook for iOS

Install the Outlook app for iOS.

Open the app. Type in your email address and then hit Add Account.

Enter the password for your account in the next dialog box and then tap Sign In.

At this point, you will likely need to authenticate your login using two-factor authentication. This could involve a text message or other notification on your phone. Follow the instructions and grant access to the Outlook app.

Once authenticated, you’re done! You can either add another account (hit the Let’s Do It button) or hit Maybe Later if you’re finished.

Read more: How to recover deleted emails from Gmail

FAQs

Yes. In all Outlook apps, you can connect as many accounts as you wish. Just repeat the instructions above until you’ve added all your accounts. You can also connect your Google calendars to Outlook if you like.

The apps for Windows and macOS are not free. You’ll need to buy them outright or subscribe to Office 365. However, the Android and iOS apps are free.

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