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What Is Password Cracking and Its Common Methods Think no one can crack your password? Think again! What is Password Cracking?

It is the process of guessing the correct password to an account in an unauthorized way using an algorithm or common passwords. Password cracking involves various techniques like comparing stored passwords or using an algorithm to generate passwords that will match.

Not only this cybercriminals even use records obtained from the data breach to crack user accounts.


Password Cracking techniques

Protective measures to stay protected from Password Cracking

Password Cracking Techniques

Attackers use various techniques to crack passwords. We will discuss the most common ones in this article:

Dictionary Attack:

This one is the most common method used by threat actors. In a dictionary attack, cybercriminals use a file containing words that can be found in dictionary and are common passwords. In other words, in a dictionary attack, criminals use documents that have all the common words used by people to create their passwords.

Brute Force Attack:

Like a dictionary attack, the brute force attack is also a favorite password cracking technique used by cybercriminals. Here hackers instead of using simple words, use all possible alphanumeric character combinations. Brute force attacks are very time consuming as criminals have to use different combinations one by one but eventually they crack the password.

Rainbow Table Attack

Instead of comparing passwords directly and then comparing its hash to crack a password, in rainbow table attack a per-compiled table is used. This table is used to recover the hash. Each rainbow table attack contains a well-defined set of characters. This technique reduces the time involved in guessing a password.


Why take all this pain when there’s an easy way to get the password: simply ask the user for their passwords. Cybercriminals send phishing emails that redirect users to fake websites to trick them into entering their personal information and other important details. This page them skims the passwords and hackers get what they wanted via a phishing attack.

Social Engineering

This password cracking technique gives phishing attacks think outside the box concept. In Social Engineering, attackers pose as tech guys or representatives of a genuine organization and ask victims to share network access passwords and other important information. This social engineering trick works as victims usually share all the information.


Malware is malicious software that steals information from the user’s system and sends it to criminals. Malware can be installed on the user’s system using various methods and once it is installed it starts stealing the information.

Offline Password Cracking

Assuming you are safe when you are locked out of the system after entering an incorrect password three or four times would have been true if there was no offline password cracking method. This method takes place offline, using a set of hashes in a password file. Once criminals have access to these files they start password cracking on their own machine using this method.


Keylogger is a type of a malicious program which tracks all the keystrokes of the user’s system. Everything that the user type will be recorded and then sent to the attackers.

Guessing The Passwords

The most simple technique to hack a password is guessing it. Criminals take note of the user’s activity to guess passwords, this technique only works when users have not used any password creating software.

In addition to these methods, hackers use Password Cracking tools to illegally access your account.

Password Cracker Tools

Note: We do not recommend using any of these tools. We are listing them just for information to explain your password can be cracked easily. Hence you need to use a strong password to stay protected.

1. RainbowCrack – this falls into a hash cracker tool category that uses faster password cracking techniques instead of brute force tools. A computational process in which plain text and hash pairs are calculated via a hash algorithm and then stored in a rainbow table. This password cracking method can be time-consuming, but once the table is created cracking password becomes easy and fast when compared with brute force tools.

2. Brutus – this password cracker tool is a widely used remote online flexible password cracking tool. It supports multi-stage authentication engines and can connect with 60 targets at a time. Its two most outstanding features are resume and load using these feature hackers can pause the attack and can resume anytime they want.

The only drawback of this tool is, it can be used on Windows only and is not updated in years.

3. John the Ripper – another powerful tool that can be used on Linux, Unix, macOS X, Windows. This tool offers great features to crack the password. The plus point of this tool, it is an open-source password cracking tool.

Read Full Review of Tweakpass

Protective Measures to Stay Protected from Password Cracking

Above we have listed top 3 password cracking tools. Certainly, these tools are effective that is the reason they are widely used. But this doesn’t mean you cannot do anything. To stay protected you should create strong passwords that are hard to guess and crack. Following are a few tips that will help you stay protected from Password Cracking.

1. Password length is the most important factor, longer it is hard it is to guess. If you keep a small password it can be easily cracked. Therefore, uses at least 8 characters long password.

2. Use an alphanumeric password, this again makes password cracking difficult. Try to create a password that has a combination of small letters, capital letters, special characters, & numbers.

3. Avoid using the same password everywhere. Hackers can use data collected from a data breach to guess the password and access your account.

4. Avoid using a dictionary word, pet’s name, anniversary date, phone number, driver license number while creating a password. All these details can be obtained from anywhere and are easy to guess.

5. Never use worst passwords like 123456, Password, letmein, admin, welcome, login, abc123, monkey, etc.

Password is what secures your web account, financial account, from unauthorized access. These password cracking techniques and tools are proof that your passwords can be easily cracked. Therefore, it is important to use password managers and create a strong password to avoid a mishappening.

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What Is Vpn Tunnel: Common Types Of Vpn Tunneling Protocols

VPNs are becoming popular with each passing day. They are available to everyone for free and premium if you want fast servers and better security. You might have heard about VPN Tunnel. But, have you ever wondered about what it is and how does it work? This is the guide for you to know all about VPN Tunnel and Common types of VPN Tunneling protocols.

What is VPN Tunnel

Normally, when we connect our devices to the internet via WiFi or ethernet, or mobile data, our devices directly connect to the Internet Service providers without anything in the middle. Our entire traffic is routed through the internet service provider.

But, when you connect to the internet through a VPN, you are not directly connected to the internet service provider. VPN acts as the middleman between your device and the internet service provider. Your entire traffic and data are now routed through VPN and your internet service provider has no access to it. The connection that establishes between your device and the VPN is called a VPN tunnel. In most of the free VPN services, the tunnels are not properly encrypted which leaves your data exposed.

Read: What is a VPN, and Why should we use a VPN?

Common Types of VPN Tunneling Protocols

VPN tunnels are encrypted using various protocols that depend and differ from every VPN service provider. Each type of VPN tunnel provides you with some level of security and makes your data secure. When we use a VPN program on our device, we don’t have to do anything. Those tunneling protocols are undertaken by the VPN program. There is a need that we have to know how secure are our VPN connections and what tunneling protocols are they using. Let’s see the types of VPN Tunneling Protocols.

The different types of VPN tunneling protocols are

PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)





Let’s see what they are in detail.

1]  PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)

PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) is considered the least secure tunneling protocol. It is also the oldest among the protocols. It was created by Microsoft and released with Windows 95. You don’t need to have any technical expertise to use PPTP. All you need is a username and password with a server address to make the connection. PPTP is also the fastest VPN Tunneling protocol since its encryption level is too low. If you don’t bother about security, this might work for you in terms of speed.

2] L2TP/IPSec 3] SSTP

Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP) is also developed by Microsoft and used with Windows Vista SP1 and later versions. It has the ability to transport data through Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Hence, the name Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol. SSL secures the data that passes through it with different ports which can bypass most of the firewalls. SSTP is natively supported on Windows and not available on any other platforms. Even the protocol is not audited publicly for the possibility of any backdoor entries.

 4] OpenVPN

OpenVPN is the open-source VPN tunneling protocol that encrypts the data that passes through it with AES-256 like L2TP. The difference between the two is the code that is available openly for audits and anyone can find the vulnerabilities and fix them. That is the reason it is considered the most secure VPN tunneling protocol. Also, it is supported on different platforms and most of the VPN service providers use this for the same reason. OpenVPN provides faster connections and can bypass almost every firewall.

5] WireGuard

This is the new and latest VPN tunneling protocol which aims to be fast, secure, lightweight, and easy to use. It is a security-focused protocol that uses proven cryptography protocols and algorithms to secure the data. WireGuard is not available on some of the VPN service providers though it is better in speed and security than OpenVPN as it is the latest technology and the VPN service providers are in the process of incorporating it into their programs.

These are the various types of VPN tunneling protocols that we use in a VPN.

Read: How to Export and Import VPN connections on Windows.

Here’s What A $10 Million Lab Dedicated To Cracking Iphones Looks Like

Kicking off 2023, security and privacy is a hot topic between the latest standoff between Apple and the FBI over the Pensacola incident as well as Apple reportedly abandoning its plan to bring end-to-end encryption to iCloud backups. With an in-depth report on what a robust iPhone cracking operation looks like from the inside, Fast Company shares some fascinating details and photos of NYC’s $10 million cyber lab.

Fast Company calls New York City’s High Technology Analysis Unit lab “ground zero in the encryption battle” between US government and tech companies like Apple. And it goes way beyond some third-party devices made by companies like Cellebrite or Grayshift.

The district attorney of Manhattan, Cyrus Vance Jr., and the city’s cybercrime unit have built this electronic prison for a very specific purpose: to try, using brute force algorithms, to extract the data on the phones before their owners try to wipe the contents remotely.

The report highlights “nearly 3,000 phones” waiting to be cracked at the lab when Fast Company visited. The High Technology Analysis Unit’s director, Steven Moran says they have created a special, custom process with open source software to deal with the amount of devices they get and to know what third-party vendors to work with for cracking iPhones.

On the day I visited the cyber lab, there were nearly 3,000 phones, most related to active criminal investigations, that Moran had not yet been able to access. The team has built a proprietary workflow management program, using open source software, to triage the incredible volume of incoming devices and to escalate the most important cases. “So if a third party were to say ‘hey, we have a solution that will work on iOS 12.1.2 and it costs X amount of dollars,’ I can see within five seconds that that’s going to affect 16 different phones,” Moran says.

After the San Bernardino case, Manhattan district attorney Cyrus Vance Jr. said they decided to build out the high tech lab.

“We had to figure out what we were going to do with this new situation over which we had no control,” Vance says. So at a cost of some $10 million, Vance decided to build his own high-tech forensics lab—the first of its kind within a local prosecutor’s office.

With that budget, the High Technology Analysis Unit’s director, Steven Moran got some seriously powerful hardware, custom software, and a team of security experts.

The lab’s supercomputer is able to create up to 26 million passcode guesses a second and there’s a “robot that can remove a memory chip without using heat.”

Moran stocked the cyberlab with mind-bending hardware and a crack team of technology experts, many of whom are ex-military. Proprietary software provides prosecutors with real-time information about each smartphone in their possession, which can be removed from the radiofrequency-shielded room using Ramsey boxes—miniaturized versions of the isolation chamber that allow technicians to manipulate the devices safely. In other corners of the lab are a supercomputer that can generate 26 million random passcodes per second, a robot that can remove a memory chip without using heat, and specialized tools that can repair even severely damaged devices.

Another interesting statistic, 4 out of 5 smartphones that the DA’s office in Manhattan get are now locked, when five years ago, only 52% were.

Five years ago, only 52% of the smartphones that the District Attorney’s office obtained were locked. Today, that figure is 82%. Vance says the cybercrime lab is able to successfully crack about half of the phones in his possession, but whenever Apple or Google update their software, they have to adapt.

The Manhattan DA is also aware that the lab he’s been able to create isn’t a possibility for most cities and highlights his belief that it’s not the answer.

Vance is careful to say that he’s not “whining” about the problem. He knows he is better off than 99% of the other jurisdictions in the country. Thanks in part to the billions of dollars the city has collected from prosecuting financial crimes on Wall Street, Vance is able to continue operating his $10 million lab. “But it’s not the answer,” he says, “and it’s not the answer for the country because we are an office that is uniquely able to pay for expensive services.”

In the end, Vance just wants prosecutors to have all the tools available to do their jobs. “You entrust us with this responsibility to protect the public,” he says. “At the same time, they”—Apple and Google— “have taken away one of our best sources of information. Just because they say so. It’s not that some third party has decided, this is the right thing for Apple and Google to do. They just have done it.”

But of course, Apple is likely to change its position or focus on iPhone security and privacy, so the cat and mouse game will continue on.

The full Fast Company piece on Manhattan’s high tech iPhone cracking lab is definitely worth a read.

Images via Fast Company

FTC: We use income earning auto affiliate links. More.

What Are The Different Types Of Plant Bioinformatic Methods?


Bioinformatics, biotic and abiotic, GWAS, NGS, plant breeding, plant sequencing, plant pathogen, sequence analysis, computational proteomics, microarray data analysis, bio-ontology, biological database.


In plant biotechnology, the amount of information has multiplied exponentially with many databases available from many individual plant species. Efficient bioinformatics tools and methodologies are also developed to allow rapid genome sequence and the study of plant genome in the ‘omics’ approach.

Bioinformatics, as a new emerging interdisciplinary field, has many tools and techniques that are essential for efficient sorting and organizing of biological data into databases. Bioinformatics can be referred to as a computer-based scientific field which applies mathematics, biology, and computer science to form into a single discipline for the analyses and interpretation of genomics and proteomics data.

In short, the main components of bioinformatics are (a) the collection and analysis of databases and (b) the development of software tools and algorithms as a tool for interpretation of biological data. Bioinformatics played a crucial role in many areas of biology as its applications provide various types of data, including nucleotide and amino acid sequences, protein domains and structure as well as expression patterns from various organisms.

Biotechnology and Bioinformatics for Plant Breeding

Plant breeding can be defined as the changing or improvement of desired traits in plants to produce improved new crops for the benefit of humankind. The revolution of life science in molecular biology and genomics has enabled the leaps forward in plant breeding by applying the knowledge and biological data obtained in genomics research on crops.

The evolution of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and other sequencing technologies produces a large size of biological data which requires databases to store the information. SNP is the unique allelic variation within a genome of same species, which can be used as biological markers to locate the genes associated with desired traits in plants such as rice, wheat, and maize.


In rice biotechnology, one of the most widely known GM rice is golden rice. Golden rice is a variety of rice engineered by introducing the biosynthetic pathway to produce β-carotene (pro-vitamin A) into staple food to resolve vitamin A deficiency.

Vitamin A is an essential nutrient to humans as it helps with development of vision, growth, cellular differentiation, and proliferation of immune system; insufficient intake of vitamin A may lead to childhood blindness, anemia, and reduced immune responsiveness against infection.


Wheat, as the most widely grown consumed crop, together with rice and maize contributes more than 60% of the calories and protein for our daily life. Advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms and other bioinformatics tools have revealed the extensive structural rearrangements and complex gene content in wheat, which revolutionized wheat genomics with the improvement of wheat yield and its adaptation to diverse environments.

For instance, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an approach used in genome research which allows rapid screening of raw data to select specific regions with agronomic traits.


Maize, a globally important crop, not only has a wide variety of uses in terms of economic impact but can also serve as genetic model species in genotype to phenotype relationship in plant genomic studies.

The introduction of NGS techniques in several crops including maize allowed the rapid de novo genome sequencing and production of huge amount genomics and phenomics information. The integration and visualization of high-quality data with these tools enables quick prioritizing phenotype of interest in crops, which play a crucial role in the improvement of plant breeding.

Bioinformatics for Studying Stress Resistance in Plants

Stress response in plants can be divided into biotic and abiotic. Biotic stress mainly refers to negative influence caused by living organism such as virus, fungi, bacteria, insects, nematodes, and weeds while abiotic stress refers to factors such as extreme temperature, drought, flood, salinity, and radiation which dramatically affect the crop yield.

NGS technologies and other potent computational tools, which allowed sequencing of whole genome and transcriptome, have led to the extensive studies of plants towards stress response on a molecular basis.

Bioinformatics Approaches to Study Resistance to Plant Pathogen

The study of plant pathogens plays an essential role in the study of plant diseases, including pathogen identification, disease etiology, disease resistance, and economic impact, among others. Plants protect themselves through a complex defense system against a variety of pathogens, including insects, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. A clearer picture of plant-pathogen interactions in the context of transcriptomic and proteomics can be visualized through the application of different bioinformatics tools, which in turn made feasible the engineering resistance to microbial pathogen in plant.

Applications of Bioinformatics in Plant Biotechnology

The introduction of bioinformatics and computational biology into the area of plant biology is drastically accelerating scientific invention in life science.

Sequence analysis is the most fundamental approach to obtaining the whole genome sequence such as DNA, RNA, and protein sequence from an organism’s genome in modern science.

A complete sequence data consists of coding and non-coding regions, which can act as a necessary precursor for any functional gene that determines the unique traits possessed by organisms.

With the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and some other omics technologies used to examine plants genomics, more and more sequenced plants genome will be revealed.

To deal with these vast amounts of data, the development and implementation of bioinformatics allow scientists to capture, store, and organize them in a systematic database.


What Are The Common Myths About Digital Marketing?

Many think that email marketing will instantly bring customers in the door, yet this isn’t typically true. Email may help build customer relationships and inform valuable target audiences about current news or sales, but it cannot guarantee success on its own.

Common Digital Marketing Myths

Some myths to consider −

Myth #2: Once a Website is Built, Digital Marketing is Done!

This is a common misconception as simply creating a website or launching a new product does not guarantee success. Digital marketing involves a strategy and ongoing effort to promote your business on the web, through social media content, email campaigns, search engine optimization techniques, and more.

It’s important to monitor the results of your digital marketing efforts in order to track progress, adjust aspects of your strategy if necessary and even reinvest into certain channels that prove successful over time. Website building is only one piece of the puzzle – there are many other steps involved in reaching an audience online.

Building a website can be the first step in your digital marketing strategy, but it’s just that: the first step. Yes, having an online presence will help get you noticed and established by potential customers, but there are numerous other avenues that need to be considered too. You also need to factor in the costs of ongoing maintenance and upkeep of the site as well as ensuring full accessibility across different platforms such as desktop and mobile devices.

Myth #3: The Target Market is Not Mostly Online

This is totally false. According to Pew Research Center, over 90% of American adults use the internet and 74% are active on social networks. That statistic only speaks for North America, but globally well over billions of people have access to the web.

No other medium offers such an immense pool of potential customers or clients. Whatever your target market may be (demographics or location-based), there’s a good chance that they’re online seeking what you offer- so don’t miss out!

This is one of the most common myths about digital marketing. It’s simply not true that none of your target markets is online, as modern technology has made it possible for people from all walks of life to access the internet. This means that no matter what demographic you are looking to reach, they are likely to be present on some form of digital platform or another.

In fact, many studies have shown that even individuals within traditionally “hard-to-reach” demographics such as older age ranges and lower income brackets are becoming increasingly plugged into digital solutions. So don’t let this myth deter you from leveraging the power of digital marketing; there’s a good chance your customers can be reached without difficulty!

Myth #4: Digital Marketing is Not Paid at All

Additionally, although platforms that are traditionally associated with digital marketing may have free versions available, companies usually need to pay more for premium features or services that can maximize their success on these channels. Although there is no one-size-fits-all solution when it comes to digital marketing budgets, many businesses allocate an increasing portion of their overall budget towards this essential strategy every year in order to remain competitive in their industry.

Don’t forget about SEO costs either; these are essential if you want your website and content to appear at the top of search engine results. It’s easy to overlook some of these expenses when budgeting for digital marketing projects, so ensure that all potential financial commitments have been accurately estimated before launching campaigns or investing in paid media online.

Myth #5: There Are Many Social Channels That You Have to Manage

This is not entirely true. Sure, there are a lot of different social media channels out there right now and more are being created every day. But even if you don’t have time to manage all of them, it’s still possible to maximize your presence on one or two that fit with your business objectives.

Focus on what has the most potential for success and start growing your reach organically on these platforms before expanding further into other social networks. Make sure to research each platform’s user demographics thoroughly so you know where your target market hangs out online and focus resources in those areas first before branching out when necessary.

This is a common misconception, as you don’t need to manage them all. By doing your research, deciding on what channels are the most beneficial for your business, and tailoring content accordingly it can be managed easily without getting bogged down.


A better approach is to focus on the social channels that do matter and get a real conversation going. Focus on creating content that addresses issues of interest to their target audience, or provides value through unique insights regardless of channel.

Vmmem Windows 11: What Is It & How To Fix Its High Memory

vmmem Windows 11: What is it & How to Fix its High Memory




Windows 11’s vmmem high memory usage issue can be addressed by tweaking with WSL.

Once you restart the Windows Subsystem for Linux, the high memory usage will go down.

Alternatively, you can limit it manually by editing the configuration file.



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This tool repairs common computer errors by replacing the problematic system files with the initial working versions. It also keeps you away from system errors, BSoDs, and repairs damages made by malware and viruses. Fix PC issues and remove viruses damage now in 3 easy steps:

Download and Install Fortect on your PC

Launch the tool and Start scanning to find broken files that are causing the problems

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readers this month.

Why is vmmem using high memory in Windows 11?

Computer memory is one of the most critical components of a PC. RAM (Random Access Memory), ROM (Read Only Memory), and cache are the three forms of memory.

To put it another way, when the computer is in use, the CPU will transport the data that needs to be operated into memory for operation and then communicate the result after the operation is finished.

WSL (Windows Subsystem for Linux) reserves a large amount of RAM even when it is not required. It can consume up to 80% of your available memory. This has been lowered to 50% in current iterations of Windows, up to a maximum of 8GB.

The interaction between vmmem in Windows 11 and Docker is also problematic. According to some, Docker eats up to 70% of available RAM, causing their machine to slow substantially.

Vmmem is in charge of virtual machine processes and memory management. This means that the process is the virtual machine’s beating heart, where all of the VM’s activities and applications take place.

In our daily lives, virtual machines (VMs) are commonly employed, and they need the use of host system resources such as the CPU, memory, storage, and network.

Expert tip:

How can I fix vmmem high memory usage in Windows 11? 1. Restart Windows Subsystem for Linux

The Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) is a component of the Windows operating system that allows you to run a Linux file system, as well as Linux command-line tools and graphical user interface (GUI) applications, directly on the OS.

2. Limit the RAM usage

Open File Explorer and enter the following path inside the search bar: C:Usersyour-username.wslconfig

Now type in the following commands and save the file. This will limit the amount of RAM vmmem will use, thus fixing the vmmem high memory usage problem: [wsl2] memory=2GB

3. Use a third-party tool

PC problems will always arise, and resolving them is not always as simple as it appears. However, there are specialized programs available, such as Fortect, that may help you resolve these issues.

When left unattended for an extended period of time, file clutter can cause a system to crash completely, making the optimization a welcome breath of fresh air.

In order to prolong your computer’s life, you need to perform regular maintenance check-ups. We’ve gone through the most relevant solutions that can solve the Windows 11 vmmem high memory usage issue.

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