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What is Reliability Testing?

Reliability Testing is a software testing process that checks whether the software can perform a failure-free operation in a particular environment for a specified time period. The purpose of Reliability testing is to assure that the software product is bug-free and reliable enough for its expected purpose.

Reliability means “yielding the same,” in other terms, the word “reliable” means something is dependable and that it will give the same outcome every time. The same is true for Reliability testing.

Reliability Testing Example

The probability that a PC in a store is up and running for eight hours without crashing is 99%; this is referred to as reliability.

Reliability Testing can be categorized into three segments,

Modeling

Measurement

Improvement

The following formula is for calculating the probability of failure.

Probability = Number of failing cases/ Total number of cases under consideration Factors Influencing Software Reliability

The number of faults present in the software

The way users operate the system

Reliability Testing is one of the keys to better software quality. This testing helps discover many problems in the software design and functionality.

The main purpose of reliability testing is to check whether the software meets the requirement of customer reliability.

Reliability testing will be performed at several levels. Complex systems will be tested at the unit, assembly, subsystem, and system levels.

Why do Reliability Testing?

Reliability testing is done to test the software performance under the given conditions.

The objective behind performing reliability testing are,

To find the structure of repeating failures.

To find the number of failures occurring is the specified amount of time.

To discover the main cause of failure.

To conduct Performance Testing of various modules of software applications after fixing a defect.

After the release of the product too, we can minimize the possibility of the occurrence of defects and thereby improve the software reliability. Some of the tools useful for this are- Trend Analysis, Orthogonal Defect Classification, and formal methods, etc.

Types of reliability Testing

Software reliability testing includes Feature Testing, Load Testing, and Regression Testing

Feature Testing:-

Featured Testing checks the feature provided by the software and is conducted in the following steps:-

Each operation in the software is executed at least once.

Interaction between the two operations is reduced.

Each operation has to be checked for its proper execution.

Load Testing:-

Usually, the software will perform better at the beginning of the process, and after that, it will start degrading. Load Testing is conducted to check the performance of the software under the maximum workload.

Regression Test:-

Regression testing is mainly used to check whether any new bugs have been introduced because of fixing previous bugs. Regression Testing is conducted after every change or update of the software features and their functionalities.

How to do Reliability Testing

Reliability Testing is costly compared to other types of testing. So Proper planning and management is required while doing reliability testing. This includes the testing process to be implemented, data for the test environment, test schedule, test points, etc.

To begin with reliability testing, the tester has to keep following things,

Establish reliability goals

Develop operational profile

Plan and execute tests

Use test results to drive decisions

As we discussed earlier, there are three categories in which we can perform Reliability Testing,- Modeling, Measurement, and Improvement.

The key parameters involved in Reliability Testing are:-

Probability of failure-free operation

Length of time of failure-free operation

The environment in which it is executed

Step 1) Modeling

Software Modeling Technique can be divided into two subcategories:

1. Prediction Modeling

2. Estimation Modeling

Meaningful results can be obtained by applying suitable models.

Assumptions and abstractions can be made to simplify the problems, and no single model will be suitable for all situations. The major differences between the two models are:-

Issues Prediction Models Estimation Models

Data Reference It uses historical data It uses current data from software development.

When used in Development Cycle It will usually be created before the development or testing phases. It will usually be used later in the Software Development Life Cycle.

Time Frame It will predict reliability in the future. It will predict the reliability either for the present time or in the future time.

Step 2) Measurement

Software reliability cannot be measured directly; hence, other related factors are considered to estimate software reliability. The current practices of Software Reliability Measurement are divided into four categories:-

Mesurement 1: Product Metrics

Product metrics are the combination of 4 types of metrics:

Function point Metric:- Function Pont Metric is the method for measuring the functionality of Software Development. It will consider the count of inputs, outputs, master files, etc. It measures the functionality delivered to the user and is independent of the programming language.

Complexity is directly related to software reliability, so representing complexity is important. The complexity-oriented metric determines the complexity of a program’s control structure by simplifying the code into a graphical representation.

Test Coverage Metrics:- It is a way of estimating fault and reliability by completing software product tests. Software reliability means it is the function of determining that the system has been completely verified and tested.

Measurement 2: Project Management Metrics

Researchers have realized that good management can result in better products.

Good management can achieve higher reliability by using better development, risk management,and configuration management processes.

Measurement 3: Process Metrics

The quality of the product is directly related to the process. Process metrics can be used to estimate, monitor, and improve the reliability and quality of software.

Measurement 4: Fault and Failure Metrics

Fault and Failure Metrics are mainly used to check whether the system is completely failure-free. Both the types of faults found during the testing process (i.e. before delivery) as well as the failure reported by users after delivery are collected, summarized, and analyzed to achieve this goal.

Software reliability is measured in terms of the mean time between failures (MTBF). MTBF consists of

Mean to failure (MTTF): It is the time difference between two consecutive failures.

Mean time to repair (MTTR): It is the time required to fix the failure.

MTBF = MTTF + MTTR

Reliability for good software is a number between 0 and 1.

Reliability increases when errors or bugs from the program are removed.

Step 3) Improvement

Improvement completely depends upon the problems occurred in the application or system, or else the characteristics of the software. According to the complexity of the software module, the way of improvement will also differ. Two main constraints, time and budget will limit the efforts put into software reliability improvement.

Example Methods for Reliability Testing

Testing for reliability is about exercising an application to discover and remove failures before the system is deployed.

There are mainly three approaches used for Reliability Testing

Test-Retest Reliability

Parallel Forms Reliability

Decision Consistency

Below we tried to explain all these with an example.

Test-Retest Reliability

To estimate test-retest reliability, a single group of examinees will perform the testing process only a few days or weeks apart. The time should be short enough so that the examinee’s skills in the area can be assessed. The relationship between the examinee’s scores from two different administrations is estimated through statistical correlation. This type of reliability demonstrates the extent to which a test is able to produce stable, consistent scores across time.

Parallel Forms Reliability

Many exams have multiple formats of question papers, these parallel forms of exam provide Security. Parallel forms reliability is estimated by administrating both forms of the exam to the same group of examinees. The examinee’s scores on the two test forms are correlated in order to determine how similar the two test forms function. This reliability estimate is a measure of how consistent examinees’ scores can be expected across test forms.

Decision Consistency

After doing Test-Retest Reliability and Parallel Form Reliability, we will get a result of examinees either passing or failing. The reliability of this classification decision is estimated in decision consistency reliability.

Importance of Reliability Testing

A thorough assessment of reliability is required to improve the performance of software products and processes. Testing software reliability will help software managers and practitioners to a great extent.

To check the reliability of the software via testing:-

A large number of test cases should be executed for an extended period to determine how long the software will execute without failure.

The test case distribution should match the software’s actual or planned operational profile. The more often a function of the software is executed, the greater the percentage of test cases that should be allocated to that function or subset.

Some of the Reliability testing tools used for Software Reliability are:

1. WEIBULL++:- Reliability Life Data Analysis

2. RGA:- Reliability Growth Analysis

3. RCM:-Reliability Centered Maintenance

Summary:

Reliability Testing is an important part of a reliability engineering program. More correctly, it is the soul of a reliability engineering program. Furthermore, reliability tests are mainly designed to uncover particular failure modes and other problems during software testing.

In Software Engineering, Reliability Testing can be categorized into three segments,

Modeling

Measurement

Improvement

Factors Influencing Software Reliability

The number of faults present in the software

The way users operate the system

You're reading What Is Reliability Testing? (Example)

What Is Adhoc Testing? (Types, Examples)

Adhoc testing is frequently carried out to break the system in unusual ways. Adhoc testing’s most remarkable aspect is that it lacks any test design approach for creating test cases.

The procedure is generally used to identify software flaws. Because adhoc testing lacks test cases, it is often carried out without documentation.

Take a closer look at the procedure. Ad-Hoc testing is a kind of testing that comes under the category of ‘Unstructured Testing.’

Structured Testing Vs. Unstructured Testing

StructuredTesting − Everything that happens throughout the testing method, from the development of test cases to their sequential execution, is written in this technique. This script is followed by the testers while doing tests.

Unstructured Testing − Testing is typically done by error guessing in this technique, where the testers construct the test cases throughout the testing process.

Adhoc Testing

Adhoc testing is a term that refers to testing that is done on the fly. It is a form of unstructured testing technique, as described above, in which no systematic strategy is made before the testing process begins. As a result, no requirement specification or test case preparation and design is done prior to testing.

Ad-hoc testing is generally carried out by a tester who is well-versed in the program under test, both in terms of what it does and how it works. This testing is carried out by constructing test cases at random using error guessing and running them without regard for any test criteria.

Finding possible regions of the program where mistakes may exist is an important aspect of this testing. Because of this, it’s also known as Monkey Testing or Random Testing. As a result, only those testers with a thorough understanding of the product should execute this test.

Ad-Hoc testing has the benefit of saving time that would otherwise be spent on documents such as test requirements, test case planning, design, and so on. It is also often done after the structured testing has been completed. This is done in order to uncover software problems that would not have been found by following the previously prepared test cases.

Adhoc Testing Types

Following are some of the types of Adhoc Testing −

Buddy Testing

Monkey Testing

Pair Testing

Buddy Testing

In this sort of Ad-Hoc testing, at least two individuals work together to conduct the tests. At least one software tester and one software developer normally make up this team.

This sort of testing occurs after the unit testing of a module has been finished.

On that module, the two ‘buddies’ collaborate to develop legitimate test cases.

This is done to ensure that the tester does not report problems caused by incorrect test cases. This form of testing may also be thought of as a hybrid of unit and system testing.

Monkey Testing

The term ‘monkey testing’ refers to the unpredictability of the technique utilized in this testing.

Random inputs are presented to the program under test, and their associated outputs are monitored.

Any occurrences of errors, inconsistencies, or system failures are identified based on the acquired outputs.

Pair Testing

This kind of testing is similar to buddy testing. In this case, however, just a couple of testers collaborate on the modules for testing.

They collaborate to uncover faults and problems by sharing ideas, views, and expertise on the same computer.

To acquire a distinct perspective on each issue, testers are partnered according to their knowledge levels and experience.

Adhoc Testing Characteristics

This testing occurs after the program has been subjected to formal testing methodologies. The reason for this is because ad-hoc tests are performed to discover application abnormalities that cannot be foreseen prior to testing.

This testing can only be carried out by testers who have a deep understanding of how the program works. Because good ‘error guessing’ can only be done when the tester understands what the program does and how it operates, this is the case.

The Ad-hoc testing approach is best for detecting defects and inconsistencies in an application that lead to serious gaps. Errors like this are often difficult to spot.

This kind of testing requires less time than other types of testing. This is due to the fact that it is carried out without any previous planning, design, or structure.

Ad-hoc testing is done just once since any faults discovered need retesting.

Adhoc Tests Examples

Testing an application’s functionality when the browser settings are altered. Identifying faults that occur when the JavaScript option is deactivated in various browsers, for example.

Putting the app through its paces on several platforms. It’s critical to test if the produced application runs smoothly across a variety of operating systems and browsers.

Providing inputs to the system that are outside of the valid-inputs range in order to see whether the application’s response is adequate.

Copying and modifying the application’s URL to make it run in a different browser. This is done to ensure that unauthenticated access to the system is not granted to any unauthorized users.

Going through a series of random actions or traveling around the program at random in order to verify the outcomes achieved by using a certain combination of odd inputs.

When Should Adhoc Testing Be Conducted?

When there isn’t enough time to complete extensive and thorough testing, which involves producing test requirements documents, test cases, and test case designs, ad-hoc testing is usually used. Following the completion of formal testing methodologies is the ideal time to undertake this sort of testing.

Ad-hoc testing, on the other hand, may be carried out in the midst of software development. It may be done after the program has been completely created, or even after just a few modules have been produced. It may also be carried out as part of the official testing procedure. However, there are a few instances in which this testing is not required. As a result, every tester must be aware of when to avoid this kind of testing.

The following are some examples of why ad-hoc testing should not be done −

When Beta testing is in progress, no ad hoc testing should be done. This is due to the fact that beta testing entails customers evaluating the generated software in order to make ideas for new features that should be included or to modify the requirements for it.

It is also recommended that this testing not be carried out in test cases that already include problems. Before the mistakes can be deleted from the system, they must first be properly recorded. The test cases must be retested once they have been fixed to confirm that they are operating properly.

What Benefits Does Adhoc Testing Offer?

Many mistakes that go undiscovered when just formal testing techniques are employed may be uncovered by randomly testing the program, which is one benefit of ad-hoc testing.

The testers are allowed to explore the program as they see fit, based on their intuition and comprehension of it. They may then run the tests as they proceed, assisting them in identifying mistakes as they go.

The application can be simply tested by both testers and developers since no test cases need to be prepared and built. This makes it easier for developers to write more effective and error-free code.

This testing may also aid in the construction of one-of-a-kind test scenarios that can discover problems ineffectively. As a result, such test cases may be combined with other scheduled test cases in formal testing.

Because there is no formal method for ad-hoc testing, it may be done at any point throughout the software development lifecycle.

It may be used in conjunction with other testing methods to create more informed and effective findings.

Drawbacks of Ad hoc Testing

It’s difficult for the tester to recreate an issue since the testing method isn’t defined and no specific test case is performed. This is because the tester must recall the precise procedures he took to get the mistake, which is not always achievable.

Erroneous errors are sometimes reported as a result of the tester randomly executing invalid test cases, which causes a problem in the following error correcting operations.

Ad-hoc testing will not be able to find any mistakes if the testers do not have previous knowledge of the workings of the application under test. This is due to the fact that testers must work through error guessing and construct and run test cases on the fly.

Ad-hoc testing does not guarantee that faults will be discovered. Proactive error guessing for testing is entirely dependent on the tester’s competence and expertise.

The amount of time and effort that goes into this testing is unknown since there are no previously established and documented test cases. Finding even a single mistake might take a long time in certain cases.

Conducting Adhoc Testing: Best Practices

It’s critical to understand the most effective and efficient methods to use the Ad-Hoc testing methodology in order to perform it properly. This is because if tests are not completed properly, the time and effort invested in them would be squandered. As a result, in order to undertake this sort of testing, one must be aware of the best practices that may aid in a more complete testing approach −

Expertise in Software

Ascertain that the tester assigned to the application’s ad-hoc testing has a thorough understanding of the application.

To support better ‘error guessing’ on the application, the tester must be conversant with all of the program’s capabilities.

Finding more mistakes, flaws, and inconsistencies becomes simpler with enough information to back up the tester’s testing method.

Identify Potentially Error-Prone Areas

If testers are unfamiliar with the program, the best approach is for them to begin their testing by looking for the section of the application where the most of the mistakes occur.

Selecting such sensitive locations for ad-hoc testing may aid in the detection of problems.

Determine which areas of the test should be prioritized.

It is best to begin testing with the portions of the program that are most often utilized by end-users or customers. This aids in the protection of critical features and the early detection of any bugs.

Make a rough plan for the test.

Although adhoc testing does not need any previous preparation or documentation, a basic strategy may be highly beneficial and efficient. Simply noting the important points and locations that need to be tested will assist the testers in covering most of the program in the shortest period of time.

Tools

To make testing easier, you’ll need the necessary tools such as debuggers, task monitors, and profilers.

What Is Selenium? Introduction To Selenium Automation Testing

What is Selenium?

Selenium is a free (open-source) automated testing framework used to validate web applications across different browsers and platforms. You can use multiple programming languages like Java, C#, Python, etc to create Selenium Test Scripts. Testing done using the Selenium testing tool is usually referred to as Selenium Testing.

Selenium Tool Suite

Selenium Software is not just a single tool but a suite of software, each piece catering to different Selenium QA testing needs of an organization. Here is the list of tools

Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

Selenium Remote Control (RC)

WebDriver

Selenium Grid

At the moment, Selenium RC and WebDriver are merged into a single framework to form Selenium 2. Selenium 1, by the way, refers to Selenium RC.

Video Tutorial Selenium

Who developed Selenium?

Since Selenium is a collection of different tools, it also had different developers. Below are the key persons who made notable contributions to the Selenium Project

Primarily, Selenium was created by Jason Huggins in 2004. An engineer at ThoughtWorks, he was working on a web application that required frequent testing. Having realized that their application’s repetitious Manual Testing was becoming increasingly inefficient, he created a JavaScript program that would automatically control the browser’s actions. He named this program the “JavaScriptTestRunner.”

Seeing potential in this idea to help automate other web applications, he made JavaScriptRunner open-source, which was later re-named Selenium Core. For those interested in exploring other options for web application testing, take a look at these Selenium alternatives.

The Same Origin Policy Issue

Same Origin policy prohibits JavaScript code from accessing elements from a domain that is different from where it was launched. Example, the HTML code in chúng tôi uses a JavaScript program “randomScript.js”. The same origin policy will only allow chúng tôi to access pages within chúng tôi such as chúng tôi chúng tôi or chúng tôi However, it cannot access pages from different sites such as chúng tôi or chúng tôi because they belong to different domains.

This is the reason why prior to Selenium RC, testers needed to install local copies of both Selenium Core (a JavaScript program) and the web server containing the web application being tested so they would belong to the same domain

Birth of Selenium Remote Control (Selenium RC)

Unfortunately; testers using Selenium Core had to install the whole application under test and the web server on their own local computers because of the restrictions imposed by the same origin policy. So another ThoughtWork’s engineer, Paul Hammant, decided to create a server that will act as an HTTP proxy to “trick” the browser into believing that Selenium Core and the web application being tested come from the same domain. This system became known as the Selenium Remote Control or Selenium 1.

Birth of Selenium Grid

Birth of Selenium IDE

Shinya Kasatani of Japan created Selenium IDE, a Firefox and Chrome extension that can automate the browser through a record-and-playback feature. He came up with this idea to further increase the speed in creating test cases. He donated Selenium IDE to the Selenium Project in 2006.

Birth of WebDriver

Simon Stewart created WebDriver circa 2006 when browsers and web applications were becoming more powerful and more restrictive with JavaScript programs like Selenium Core. It was the first cross-platform testing framework that could control the browser from the OS level.

Birth of Selenium 2

In 2008, the whole Selenium Team decided to merge WebDriver and Selenium RC to form a more powerful tool called Selenium 2, with WebDriver being the core. Currently, Selenium RC is still being developed but only in maintenance mode. Most of the Selenium Project’s efforts are now focused on Selenium 2.

So, Why the Name Selenium?

The Name Selenium came from a joke that Jason cracked once to his team. During Selenium’s development, another automated testing framework was popular made by the company called Mercury Interactive (yes, the company who originally made QTP before it was acquired by HP). Since Selenium is a well-known antidote for Mercury poisoning, Jason suggested that name and his teammates took it. So that is how we got to call this framework up to the present.

What is Selenium IDE?

What is Selenium Remote Control (Selenium RC)?

Selenium RC was the flagship testing framework of the whole Selenium project for a long time. This is the first automated web testing tool that allows users to use a programming language they prefer. As of version 2.25.0, RC can support the following programming languages:

What is WebDriver?

The WebDriver proves to be better than Selenium IDE and Selenium RC in many aspects. It implements a more modern and stable approach in automating the browser’s actions. WebDriver, unlike Selenium RC, does not rely on JavaScript for Selenium Automation Testing. It controls the browser by directly communicating with it.

The supported languages are the same as those in Selenium RC.

Java

C#

PHP

Python

Perl

Ruby

What is Selenium Grid?

Selenium Grid is a tool used together with Selenium RC to run parallel tests across different machines and different browsers all at the same time. Parallel execution means running multiple tests at once.

Features:

Enables simultaneous running of tests in multiple browsers and environments.

Saves time enormously.

Utilizes the hub-and-nodes concept. The hub acts as a central source of Selenium commands to each node connected to it.

Selenium Browser and Environment Support

Because of their architectural differences, Selenium IDE, Selenium RC, and WebDriver support different sets of browsers and operating environments.

  Selenium IDE WebDriver

Browser Support Mozilla Firefox and Chrome

Google Chrome 12+

Firefox

Internet Explorer 7+ and Edge

Safari, 

HtmlUnit and PhantomUnit

Operating System Windows, Mac OS X, Linux All operating systems where the browsers above can run.

Note: Opera Driver no longer works

How to Choose the Right Selenium Tool for Your Need

Tool Why Choose?

Selenium IDE

To learn about concepts on automated testing and Selenium, including:

Locators such as id, name, xpath, css selector, etc.

Executing customized JavaScript code using runScript

Exporting test cases in various formats.

To create tests with little or no prior knowledge in programming.

To create simple test cases and test suites that you can export later to RC or WebDriver.

To test a web application against Firefox and Chrome only.

Selenium RC

To design a test using a more expressive language than Selenese

To run your test against different browsers (except HtmlUnit) on different operating systems.

To deploy your tests across multiple environments using Selenium Grid.

To test your application against a new browser that supports JavaScript.

To test web applications with complex AJAX-based scenarios.

WebDriver

To use a certain programming language in designing your test case.

To test applications that are rich in AJAX-based functionalities.

To execute tests on the HtmlUnit browser.

To create customized test results.

Selenium Grid

To run your Selenium RC scripts in multiple browsers and operating systems simultaneously.

To run a huge test suite, that needs to complete in the soonest time possible.

A Comparison between Selenium and QTP(now UFT)

Advantages and Benefits of Selenium over QTP

Selenium QTP

Open source, free to use, and free of charge. Commercial.

Highly extensible Limited add-ons

Can run tests across different browsers Can only run tests in Firefox, Internet Explorer and Chrome

Supports various operating systems Can only be used in Windows

Supports mobile devices QTP Supports Mobile app test automation (iOS & Android) using HP solution called – HP Mobile Center

Can execute tests while the browser is minimized Needs to have the application under test to be visible on the desktop

Can execute tests in parallel. Can only execute in parallel but using Quality Center which is again a paid product.

Advantages of QTP over Selenium

QTP Selenium

Can test both web and desktop applications Can only test web applications

Comes with a built-in object repository Has no built-in object repository

Automates faster than Selenium because it is a fully featured IDE. Automates at a slower rate because it does not have a native IDE, and only third-party IDE can be used for development.

Data-driven testing is easier to perform because it has built-in global and local data tables. Data-driven testing is more cumbersome since you have to rely on the programming language’s capabilities for setting values for your test data

Can access controls within the browser(such as the Favorites bar, Address bar, Back and Forward buttons, etc.) Cannot access elements outside of the web application under test

Provides professional customer support No official user support is being offered.

Has native capability to export test data into external formats Has no native capability to export runtime data onto external formats

Parameterization Support is built Parameterization can be done via programming but is difficult to implement.

Test Reports are generated automatically No native support to generate test /bug reports.

Cost(because Selenium is completely free)

Flexibility(because of a number of programming languages, browsers, and platforms it can support)

Parallel testing(something that QTP is capable of but only with use of Quality Center)

Summary

The entire Selenium Software Testing Suite is comprised of four components:

Selenium IDE, a Firefox and chrome add-on that you can only use in creating relatively simple test cases and test suites.

Selenium Remote Control, also known as Selenium 1, is the first Selenium tool that allowed users to use programming languages in creating complex tests.

WebDriver, is the newer breakthrough that allows your test scripts to communicate directly to the browser, thereby controlling it from the OS level.

Selenium Grid is also a tool that is used with Selenium RC to execute parallel tests across different browsers and operating systems.

Selenium RC and WebDriver was merged to form Selenium 2.

Operators In C++ With Example: What Is, Types And Programs

What are Operators?

An operator is a symbol used for performing operations on operands. An operator operates operands. The operations can be mathematical or logical. There are different types of operators in C++ for performing different operations.

Consider the following operation:

a = x + y;

In the above statement, x and y are the operands while + is an addition operator. When the C++ compiler encounters the above statement, it will add x and y and store the result in variable a.

In this C++ Tutorial, you will Learn:

Types Of Operators in C++

There are mainly 6 different types of operators in C++

Arithmetic Operators

Relational Operators

Logical Operators

Bitwise Operators

Assignment Operators

Other Operators

Arithmetic Operators

They are the types of operators used for performing mathematical/arithmetic operations. They include:

Operator Description

+ addition operator Adds to operands.

– subtraction operator Subtracts 2nd operand from 1st operand.

* multiplication operator Multiplies 2 operands.

/ division operator. Divides numerator by denominator.

% modulus operator Returns remainder after division.

++ increment operator Increases an integer value by 1.

— decrement operator. Decreases an integer value by 1.

For example:

using namespace std; int main() { int a = 11; int b = 5; int c;

cout << “a + b is :” << a+b << endl;

cout << “a – b is :” << a-b << endl;

cout << “a * b is :” << a*b << endl;

cout << “a / b is :” << a/b << endl;

cout << “a % b is :” << a%b << endl;

cout << “a++ is :” << a++ << endl;

cout << “a– is :” << a– << endl;

return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring an integer variable a and initializing it to 11.

Declaring an integer variable b and initializing it to 5.

Declaring an integer variable c.

Printing value of operation a+b alongside other text on the console.

Printing value of operation a-b alongside other text on the console.

Printing value of operation a*b alongside other text on the console.

Printing value of operation a/b alongside other text on the console.

Printing value of operation a%b alongside other text on the console.

Printing value of operation a++ alongside other text on the console.

Printing value of operation a– alongside other text on the console.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Relational Operators

These types of operators perform comparisons on operands. For example, you may need to know which operand is greater than the other, or less than the other. They include:

Operator Description

== equal to operator. Checks equality of two operand values.

!= not equal to operator Checks equality of two operand values.

> great than operator Checks whether value of left operand is greater than value of right operand.

< less than operator. Checks whether value of left operand is less than value of right operand.

>= greater than or equal to operator Checks whether value of left operand is greater than or equal to value of right operand.

<= less than or equal to operator. Checks whether value of left operand is less than or equal to value of right operand.

For example:

using namespace std;

int main() { int a = 11; int b = 5;

cout << “a=11, b=5” << endl; if (a == b) { cout << “a == b is true” << endl; } else { cout << ” a == b is false” << endl; }

if (a < b) { cout << “a < b is true” << endl; } else { cout << “a < b is false” << endl; }

} else { }

return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring an integer variable a and initializing it to 11.

Declaring an integer variable b and initializing it to 5.

Printing some text on the console stating the values of variables a and b.

Performing the arithmetic operation, a==b in an if decision making statement to know whether it’s true or false. The { marks the beginning of the body of the if statement.

Text to print on the console if the operation a==b is true. The endl is a C++ keyword for end line. It pushes the cursor to start printing in the next line. The } marks the end of the body of the if statement.

The else part of the above if statement. It states what to do if the operation a==b is false.

Text to print on the console if the operation a==b is false. The endl is a C++ keyword for end line. It pushes the cursor to start printing in the next line. The } marks the end of the body of the else statement.

Performing the arithmetic operation, a<b in an if decision making statement to know whether it’s true or false. The { marks the beginning of the body of the if statement.

Text to print on the console if the operation a<b is true. The endl is a C++ keyword for end line. It pushes the cursor to start printing in the next line. The } marks the end of the body of the if statement.

The else part of the above if statement. It states what to do if the operation a<b is false.

Text to print on the console if the operation a<b is false. The endl is a C++ keyword for end line. It pushes the cursor to start printing in the next line. The } marks the end of the body of the else statement.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Logical Operators

The logical operators combine two/more constraints/conditions. Logical operators also complement evaluation of original condition under consideration. They include:

Operator Description

&& logical AND operator. The condition is true if both operands are not zero.

|| logical OR operator. The condition is true if one of the operands is non-zero.

! logical NOT operator. It reverses operand’s logical state. If the operand is true, the ! operator makes it false.

For example:

using namespace std; int main() { int a = 5, b = 2, c = 6, d = 4; cout << “a equals to b AND c is greater than dn”; else cout << “AND operation returned falsen”;

cout << “a equals to b OR c is greater than dn”; else cout << “Neither a is equal to b nor c is greater than dn”;

if (!b) cout << “b is zeron”; else cout << “b is not zero”;

return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added.

The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring 4 integer variables a, b, c and d and assigning them different values.

Using the && (AND) operator inside the if statement. It joins two conditions, value of a equals to value of b and, value of a is greater than value of b. First condition is false, second condition is true. False&&true is False, hence, the outcome of if is false.

Text to print on console if the above if statement is true. This won’t be executed.

Part to be executed if the above if statement is false.

Text to print on the console if the if statement is false. This will be executed.

Text to print on console if the above if statement is true. This will be executed.

Part to be executed if the above if statement is false.

Text to print on the console if the if statement is false. This will not be executed.

Checking whether value of variable is 0.

Text to print on console if the above if statement is true. This will not be executed.

Part to be executed if the above if statement is false.

Text to print on the console if the if statement is false. This will be executed.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators perform bit-level operations on operands. First, operators are converted to bit level then operations are performed on the operands. When arithmetic operations like addition and subtraction are done at bit level, results can be achieved faster. They include:

Operator Description

& (bitwise AND). It takes 2 numbers (operands) then performs AND on each bit of two numbers. If both are 1, AND returns 1, otherwise 0.

| (bitwise OR) Takes 2 numbers (operands) then performs OR on every bit of two numbers. It returns 1 if one of the bits is 1.

^ (the bitwise XOR) Takes 2 numbers (operands) then performs XOR on every bit of 2 numbers. It returns 1 if both bits are different.

<< (left shift) Takes two numbers then left shifts the bits of the first operand. The second operand determines total places to shift.

>> (right shift) Takes two numbers then right shifts the bits of the first operand. The second operand determines number of places to shift.

~ (bitwise NOT). Takes number then inverts all its bits.

using namespace std;

int main() { unsigned int p = 60; unsigned int q = 13; int z = 0;

z = p & q; cout << “p&q is : ” << z << endl;

z = p ^ q; cout << “p^q is : ” << z << endl;

z = ~p; cout << “~p is : ” << z << endl;

z = p << 2; cout << “p<<2 is: ” << z << endl;

return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring an unsigned integer variables p and assigning it a value of 60, which is, 0011 1100 in binary.

Declaring an unsigned integer variables q and assigning it a value of 13, which is, 0000 1101 in binary.

Declaring an integer variable z and initializing it to 0.

Performing the bitwise & (AND) operation on variables p and q and storing the result in variable z.

Printing the result of the above operation on the console alongside other text.

Printing the result of the above operation on the console alongside other text.

Performing the bitwise ^ (XOR) operation on variables p and q and storing the result in variable z.

Printing the result of the above operation on the console alongside other text.

Performing the bitwise ~ (NOT) operation on variables p and q and storing the result in variable z.

Printing the result of the above operation on the console alongside other text.

Performing the left shift operation on variable p and storing the result in variable z.

Printing the result of the above operation on the console alongside other text.

Performing the right shift operation on variable p and storing the result in variable z.

Printing the result of the above operation on the console alongside other text.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Assignment Operators

For example:

x = 5;

In the above example, x is the variable/operand, = is the assignment operator while 5 is the value. Here are the popular assignment operators in C++:

Operator Description

= (simple assignment operator) It assigns value on the right to variable on the left.

+= (Add AND assignment operator) It first adds value of left operand to value of right operand then assigns result to variable on the left.

-= (Subtract AND assignment operator) It first subtracts value of right operand from value of left operand then assigns result to variable on the left.

*= (Multiply AND assignment operator) It first multiplies value of left operand with value of right operand then assigns result to variable on the left.

/= (Division AND assignment operator) It first divides value of left operand by value of right operand then assigns result to variable on the left.

For example:

using namespace std; int main() { int x = 5; cout << “Initial value of x is ” << x << “n”;

x += 5; cout << “x += 5 gives :” << x << “n”;

x -= 5; cout << “x -= 5 gives : ” << x << “n”;

x *= 5; cout << “x *= 5 gives :” << x << “n”;

x /= 5; cout << “x /= 5 gives : ” << x << “n”;

return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added.

The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring an integer variables x and assigning it a value of 5.

Printing value of variable x alongside other text on the console. The n is a new line character. It moves the cursor to the next line when printing.

Adding 5 to value of variable x and assigning result to variable x.

Printing value of variable x on the console alongside other text.

Subtracting 5 from value of x and assigning result to variable x.

Printing value of variable x on the console alongside other text.

Multiplying value of variable x with 5 and assigning result to variable x.

Printing value of variable x on the console alongside other text.

Dividing value of variable x by 5 and assigning result to variable x.

Printing value of variable x on the console alongside other text.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Other Operators

Let us discuss other operators supported by C++:

sizeof operator

This operator determines a variable’s size. Use sizeof operator to determine the size of a data type.

For example:

using namespace std; int main() { cout<<“Size of int : “<< sizeof(int) << “n”;

cout<<“Size of char : ” << sizeof(char) << “n”;

cout<<“Size of float : ” << sizeof(float) << “n”;

cout<<“Size of double : ” << sizeof(double) << “n”;

return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Determining the size of integer data type using sizeof operator and printing it alongside other text on the console.

Determining the size of character data type using sizeof operator and printing it alongside other text on the console.

Determining the size of float data type using sizeof operator and printing it alongside other text on the console.

Determining the size of float data type using sizeof operator and printing it alongside other text on the console.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Comma Operator

The comma operator (,) triggers the performance of a sequence of operations. It expresses first operand and discards the result. Next, it evaluates the second operand and returns the value and type.

using namespace std; int main() { int x, y; y = 100; x = (y++, y + 10, 99 + y); cout << x; return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring two integer variables x and y.

Assigning the variable y a value of 100.

Incrementing value of y and assigning result to variable x. It start with y at 100, then increments it to 101 (y++). Next, y is added to 10. Finally, y, still at 101, is added to 99, giving 200. x is now 200.

Printing value of variable x on the console.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Conditional Operator

This operator evaluates a condition and acts based on the outcome of the evaluation.

Syntax:

Condition ? Expression2 : Expression3;

Parameters:

The Condition is the condition that is to be evaluated.

Expression1 is the expression to be executed if condition is true.

Expression3 is the expression to be executed if condition is false.

For example:

using namespace std; int main() { int a = 1, b; b = (a < 10) ? 2 : 5; cout << “value of b: ” << b << endl; return 0; }

Output:

Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring two integer variables a and b. Variable a has been assigned a value of 1.

Assigning value to variable b. If variable a is less than 10, b will be assigned the value 2, otherwise, b will be assigned a value of 5.

Printing value of variable b on the console alongside other text.

The main() function should return an value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Operators Precedence

A single operation may have more than one operator. In that case, operator precedence determines the one evaluated first.

The following list shows the precedence of operators in C++, with decreasing precedence from left to right:

Summary:

Operators are symbols for performing logical and arithmetic operations.

Arithmetic operators help us perform various arithmetic operations on operands.

Relational operators help us perform various comparison operations on operands.

Logical operators help us perform various logical operations on operands.

Bitwise operators help us perform bitwise operations on operands.

Assignment operators help us perform various arithmetic operations on operands.

The sizeof operator returns the size of a variable or data type.

The comma operator executes a sequence of operations.

The conditional operator evaluates a condition and acts based on the outcome.

Differences Between White Box Testing And Grey Box Testing.

In software development, testing is the most important stage in the process of delivery of any application or software as it is only testing that not only validates the quality of an application but also provides an opportunity for the developer to improve its product.

Every application is being developed in some high or low level language which means some code has been written for its development so based on the knowledge of the tester about the application there is a classification of testing namely White Box Testing and Grey Box Testing.

In this article, we will discuss the important differences between white box testing and grey box testing. Let’s start with some basics.

What is the White Box Testing?

The software testing technique in which the internal structures like data structure used in the code, internal design, code structure, working of the software, etc. are analyzed is referred to as white box testing. White box testing is also called structural testing or glass box testing or clear box testing.

The entire process of white box testing includes various tests such as – path testing, loop testing, condition testing, testing depending upon the memory perspective, and testing of the performance of the application.

In white box testing, the software developer tests every line of the program code and then sends the software to the testing team. The testing team performs black box testing on the code to verify the software along with the requirements. The testing team also identifies the bugs and sends the code to the developer to fix them.

Therefore, white box testing is performed to identify the internal security issues, check the functionality of conditional loops, and test the statements, functions, and objects at an individual level.

What is the Grey Box Testing?

A software testing technique used to test software with partial knowledge of the internal structure of the software is termed Grey Box Testing.

Grey box testing is performed to identify the loopholes in software due to improper code structure. This technique is commonly used to identify context-specific errors related to web systems. Basically, grey box testing is a combination of two software testing techniques namely white box testing and black box testing. Therefore, grey box testing provides the ability to test both the code part and presentation layer of the software.

The major techniques used for grey box testing include Matrix Testing, Regression Testing, Orthogonal Array Testing, and Pattern Testing. Grey box testing is widely used for testing applications for GUI, security assessment, web services, etc.

Difference between White Box Testing and Grey Box Testing

The following table highlights the important differences between White Box Testing and Grey Box Testing −

Key White Box Testing Grey Box Testing

Definition White box testing is the type of testing in which the tester knows the internal functionality of the application and thus does the testing on a functional basis. Grey box testing is the type of testing in which the tester is not aware of the end to end internal functionality of the system or application, so testing is mainly focused on the primary functionality of the system instead of end to end coverage of internal functionality.

Also known as Along with primary functionality testing, internal functionality is also covered in white box testing so it is also known as clear box testing, structural testing or code based testing. Grey box testing only covers the primary functionality testing of an application hence testing is also termed as Translucent testing

Performer White box testing requires knowledge about internal functionality of the application, so it is generally performed by testers and developers who have such knowledge. In case of Grey box testing, no such knowledge required, so it is generally done by end users along with testers and developers.

Basis of testing As testers are aware of internal functionality of the application hence they prepare the test data accordingly and tried to test almost every code scenario through these test cases. In Grey box testing, the primary functionality knowledge is provided through high level data flow diagrams and database flow diagrams so these are the basis for this type of testing.

Execution time It is obvious that as internal end to end functionality along with primary functionality is tested in this type of testing hence time of execution for this testing is more as compare to Grey box testing. Only primary testing is tested in this type of testing hence execution time for this testing is less as compare to White box testing.

Automation As most the part of this type of testing is based on the internal implemented code, hence automation of this testing is possible and also algorithms for this testing could be developed. In case of Grey box testing, no exposure to the internal implemented code, hence possibility of automation of this testing is less as compared to that of White box testing.

Conclusion

The most significant difference between white box testing and grey box testing is that white box testing requires the knowledge of the internal structure, thus performed by the developers; whereas grey box testing requires partial knowledge of the internal structure and is performed by endusers along with developers and the testing team.

What Is& What Is It Used For?

What is chúng tôi & What is it Used for? Check whether the file is legit and remove it if suspicious

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Winexesvc.exe file connects Linux hosts to Windows ones, allowing the former to command the latter.

It carries great malicious potential and can be used by hackers to try to harm your system.

Verifying the file’s legitimacy and performing regular deep scans on your PC keep you safe.

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INSTALL BY CLICKING THE DOWNLOAD FILE

To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool

Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:

Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

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Typically, Windows background processes and exe files don’t need your attention, though users occasionally report encountering unidentified ones, raising an alert for suspicious activity. So, how can you tell whether a file is safe, harmful, or just plain necessary? In this article, we’ll examine winexesvc.exe.

Keep reading to learn more about how it works and whether to keep or toss it.

What is winexesvc.exe?

As prompted by its extension, chúng tôi is an executable file. It’s part of the Windows Subsystem for Linux feature that enables the transmission of remote commands across a network.

If you have installed it and its running is crucial to daily operations, it’s probably safe to remain on your device. However, it can be harmful, especially if it uses too much CPU or GPU while running in the background.

You should know that .exe files might occasionally harm your system. Because of their immense malicious potential, malware can disguise itself as such a file.

Therefore, you should exercise caution when running unknown ones on your device. To be always on the safe side, you should always enable the best Windows 11 security settings.

What is chúng tôi used for?

To put it briefly, chúng tôi is used to receive files from a Linux server to a Windows one. In other words, chúng tôi is created by a winexe so that commands from a Linux host can be executed on a Windows one. Thus, it can be used by Linux-based apps to control a Windows system.

While it can be legit, as you now know, it can be targeted by hackers to cloak harmful code in the same filename. So, to be protected from malware, it’s crucial to ensure that the chúng tôi file on your computer has not been infected and is safe to stay.

Is chúng tôi safe? 1. Verify chúng tôi location

To determine whether it poses any danger to your device, consider its context. The first thing you can do is check its location. It’s normally located in: C:WindowsSystem32

If that’s the case, the risk is much lower. However, this doesn’t mean you’re completely safe because the file is in its standard location. And you will need to verify other aspects as well.

2. Check winexesvc.exe’s behavior

If its behavior is suspicious, such as slowing down your system, interfering with other processes, or taking up too much of your PC’s CPU, it might be a malicious file, and it’d be best to remove it from your device. Follow this guide for the best uninstaller software to ensure it’s completely gone from your system.

Note: Think about the file’s origins – if you, yourself, have downloaded it from a legitimate source, the risk is minimal. On the other hand, if you have no idea how it ended up on your device or if it comes from an unreliable source, it is much more dangerous.

3. Scan your PC for malware

⇒ Get ESET Internet Security

4. Check its digital signature

The legitimate file should have a legitimate company’s digital signature, while a malicious chúng tôi probably provided no data about it.

To prevent issues with chúng tôi is important to keep an organized workspace. This includes frequent deep scans, freeing up PC space, installing Windows updates, keeping your system and security software up-to-date, and regularly backing up your data.

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