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What is Selenium?

Selenium is a free (open-source) automated testing framework used to validate web applications across different browsers and platforms. You can use multiple programming languages like Java, C#, Python, etc to create Selenium Test Scripts. Testing done using the Selenium testing tool is usually referred to as Selenium Testing.

Selenium Tool Suite

Selenium Software is not just a single tool but a suite of software, each piece catering to different Selenium QA testing needs of an organization. Here is the list of tools

Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

Selenium Remote Control (RC)


Selenium Grid

At the moment, Selenium RC and WebDriver are merged into a single framework to form Selenium 2. Selenium 1, by the way, refers to Selenium RC.

Video Tutorial Selenium

Who developed Selenium?

Since Selenium is a collection of different tools, it also had different developers. Below are the key persons who made notable contributions to the Selenium Project

Primarily, Selenium was created by Jason Huggins in 2004. An engineer at ThoughtWorks, he was working on a web application that required frequent testing. Having realized that their application’s repetitious Manual Testing was becoming increasingly inefficient, he created a JavaScript program that would automatically control the browser’s actions. He named this program the “JavaScriptTestRunner.”

Seeing potential in this idea to help automate other web applications, he made JavaScriptRunner open-source, which was later re-named Selenium Core. For those interested in exploring other options for web application testing, take a look at these Selenium alternatives.

The Same Origin Policy Issue

Same Origin policy prohibits JavaScript code from accessing elements from a domain that is different from where it was launched. Example, the HTML code in chúng tôi uses a JavaScript program “randomScript.js”. The same origin policy will only allow chúng tôi to access pages within chúng tôi such as chúng tôi chúng tôi or chúng tôi However, it cannot access pages from different sites such as chúng tôi or chúng tôi because they belong to different domains.

This is the reason why prior to Selenium RC, testers needed to install local copies of both Selenium Core (a JavaScript program) and the web server containing the web application being tested so they would belong to the same domain

Birth of Selenium Remote Control (Selenium RC)

Unfortunately; testers using Selenium Core had to install the whole application under test and the web server on their own local computers because of the restrictions imposed by the same origin policy. So another ThoughtWork’s engineer, Paul Hammant, decided to create a server that will act as an HTTP proxy to “trick” the browser into believing that Selenium Core and the web application being tested come from the same domain. This system became known as the Selenium Remote Control or Selenium 1.

Birth of Selenium Grid

Birth of Selenium IDE

Shinya Kasatani of Japan created Selenium IDE, a Firefox and Chrome extension that can automate the browser through a record-and-playback feature. He came up with this idea to further increase the speed in creating test cases. He donated Selenium IDE to the Selenium Project in 2006.

Birth of WebDriver

Simon Stewart created WebDriver circa 2006 when browsers and web applications were becoming more powerful and more restrictive with JavaScript programs like Selenium Core. It was the first cross-platform testing framework that could control the browser from the OS level.

Birth of Selenium 2

In 2008, the whole Selenium Team decided to merge WebDriver and Selenium RC to form a more powerful tool called Selenium 2, with WebDriver being the core. Currently, Selenium RC is still being developed but only in maintenance mode. Most of the Selenium Project’s efforts are now focused on Selenium 2.

So, Why the Name Selenium?

The Name Selenium came from a joke that Jason cracked once to his team. During Selenium’s development, another automated testing framework was popular made by the company called Mercury Interactive (yes, the company who originally made QTP before it was acquired by HP). Since Selenium is a well-known antidote for Mercury poisoning, Jason suggested that name and his teammates took it. So that is how we got to call this framework up to the present.

What is Selenium IDE?

What is Selenium Remote Control (Selenium RC)?

Selenium RC was the flagship testing framework of the whole Selenium project for a long time. This is the first automated web testing tool that allows users to use a programming language they prefer. As of version 2.25.0, RC can support the following programming languages:

What is WebDriver?

The WebDriver proves to be better than Selenium IDE and Selenium RC in many aspects. It implements a more modern and stable approach in automating the browser’s actions. WebDriver, unlike Selenium RC, does not rely on JavaScript for Selenium Automation Testing. It controls the browser by directly communicating with it.

The supported languages are the same as those in Selenium RC.







What is Selenium Grid?

Selenium Grid is a tool used together with Selenium RC to run parallel tests across different machines and different browsers all at the same time. Parallel execution means running multiple tests at once.


Enables simultaneous running of tests in multiple browsers and environments.

Saves time enormously.

Utilizes the hub-and-nodes concept. The hub acts as a central source of Selenium commands to each node connected to it.

Selenium Browser and Environment Support

Because of their architectural differences, Selenium IDE, Selenium RC, and WebDriver support different sets of browsers and operating environments.

  Selenium IDE WebDriver

Browser Support Mozilla Firefox and Chrome

Google Chrome 12+


Internet Explorer 7+ and Edge


HtmlUnit and PhantomUnit

Operating System Windows, Mac OS X, Linux All operating systems where the browsers above can run.

Note: Opera Driver no longer works

How to Choose the Right Selenium Tool for Your Need

Tool Why Choose?

Selenium IDE

To learn about concepts on automated testing and Selenium, including:

Locators such as id, name, xpath, css selector, etc.

Executing customized JavaScript code using runScript

Exporting test cases in various formats.

To create tests with little or no prior knowledge in programming.

To create simple test cases and test suites that you can export later to RC or WebDriver.

To test a web application against Firefox and Chrome only.

Selenium RC

To design a test using a more expressive language than Selenese

To run your test against different browsers (except HtmlUnit) on different operating systems.

To deploy your tests across multiple environments using Selenium Grid.

To test your application against a new browser that supports JavaScript.

To test web applications with complex AJAX-based scenarios.


To use a certain programming language in designing your test case.

To test applications that are rich in AJAX-based functionalities.

To execute tests on the HtmlUnit browser.

To create customized test results.

Selenium Grid

To run your Selenium RC scripts in multiple browsers and operating systems simultaneously.

To run a huge test suite, that needs to complete in the soonest time possible.

A Comparison between Selenium and QTP(now UFT)

Advantages and Benefits of Selenium over QTP

Selenium QTP

Open source, free to use, and free of charge. Commercial.

Highly extensible Limited add-ons

Can run tests across different browsers Can only run tests in Firefox, Internet Explorer and Chrome

Supports various operating systems Can only be used in Windows

Supports mobile devices QTP Supports Mobile app test automation (iOS & Android) using HP solution called – HP Mobile Center

Can execute tests while the browser is minimized Needs to have the application under test to be visible on the desktop

Can execute tests in parallel. Can only execute in parallel but using Quality Center which is again a paid product.

Advantages of QTP over Selenium

QTP Selenium

Can test both web and desktop applications Can only test web applications

Comes with a built-in object repository Has no built-in object repository

Automates faster than Selenium because it is a fully featured IDE. Automates at a slower rate because it does not have a native IDE, and only third-party IDE can be used for development.

Data-driven testing is easier to perform because it has built-in global and local data tables. Data-driven testing is more cumbersome since you have to rely on the programming language’s capabilities for setting values for your test data

Can access controls within the browser(such as the Favorites bar, Address bar, Back and Forward buttons, etc.) Cannot access elements outside of the web application under test

Provides professional customer support No official user support is being offered.

Has native capability to export test data into external formats Has no native capability to export runtime data onto external formats

Parameterization Support is built Parameterization can be done via programming but is difficult to implement.

Test Reports are generated automatically No native support to generate test /bug reports.

Cost(because Selenium is completely free)

Flexibility(because of a number of programming languages, browsers, and platforms it can support)

Parallel testing(something that QTP is capable of but only with use of Quality Center)


The entire Selenium Software Testing Suite is comprised of four components:

Selenium IDE, a Firefox and chrome add-on that you can only use in creating relatively simple test cases and test suites.

Selenium Remote Control, also known as Selenium 1, is the first Selenium tool that allowed users to use programming languages in creating complex tests.

WebDriver, is the newer breakthrough that allows your test scripts to communicate directly to the browser, thereby controlling it from the OS level.

Selenium Grid is also a tool that is used with Selenium RC to execute parallel tests across different browsers and operating systems.

Selenium RC and WebDriver was merged to form Selenium 2.

You're reading What Is Selenium? Introduction To Selenium Automation Testing

Store Variables, Echo, Alert, Popup Handling In Selenium Ide

In this tutorial, we will learn, Store commands, Echo commands, Alerts and Popup handling.

Selenium IDE Variables Store

To store variables in Selenium IDE, we use the “store” command. The illustration below stores the value “tutorial” to a variable named “myVariable.”

To access the variable, simply enclose it in a ${ … } symbol. For example, to enter the value of “myVariable” onto the “userName” textbox of Mercury Tours, enter ${myVariable} in the Value field.


This command stores either “true” or “false” depending on the presence of the specified element. The script below stores the Boolean value “true” to “var1” and “false” to “var2”. To verify, we will use the “echo” command to display the values of var1 and var2. The Base URL for the illustration below was set to Mercury Tours homepage.


This command is used to store the inner text of an element onto a variable. The illustration below stores the inner text of the tag in Facebook onto a variable named ‘textVar.’

Since it is the only element in the page, it is safe to use ‘css=h1’ as our target. The image below shows that Selenium IDE was able to save the string “Sign Up” in the ‘textVar’ variable by printing its value correctly.

Alerts, Popup, and Multiple Windows

Alerts are probably the simplest form of pop-up windows. The most common Selenium IDE commands used in handling alerts are the following:

Alerts Uses



retrieves the message of the alert and asserts it to a string value that you specified



asserts if an Alert is present or not

storeAlert retrieves the alert message and stores it in a variable that you will specify

storeAlertPresent returns TRUE if an alert is present; FALSE if otherwise



retrieves the message of the alert and verifies if it is equal to the string value that you specified



verifies if an Alert is present or not

Remember these two things when working with alerts:

Selenium IDE will not be able to handle alerts that are within the page’s onload() function. It will only be able to handle alerts that are generated after the page has completely loaded.

In this example, we will use the storeAlert command to show that even though Selenium IDE did not show the actual alert, it was still able to retrieve its message.

Step 2. Create the script as shown below.

Step 3. Execute the script and do not expect that you will be able to see the actual alert.


Confirmations are popups that give you an OK and a CANCEL button, as opposed to alerts which give you only the OK button. The commands you can use in handling confirmations are similar to those in handling alerts.







However, these are the additional commands that you need to use to instruct Selenium which option to choose, whether the OK or the CANCEL button.



You should use these commands before a command that triggers the confirmation box so that Selenium IDE will know beforehand which option to choose. Again, you will not be able to see the actual confirmation box during script execution.

Let us test a webpage that has a button that was coded to show whether the user had pressed the OK or the CANCEL button.

Step 2. Create the script as shown below. This time, we will press the OK button first.

Step 3. Execute the script and notice that you do not see the actual confirmation, but the webpage was able to indicate which button Selenium IDE had pressed.

Step 4. Replace the “chooseOkOnNextConfirmation” command with “chooseCancelOnNextConfirmation” and execute the script again.

Multiple Windows

We use the selectWindow command in switching between windows.

Transfer control from the parent window to the newly launched Facebook window using the “selectWindow” command and its title as the locator

Verify the title of the new window

Select back the original window using the “selectWindow” command and “null” as its target.

Verify the title of the currently selected window

Step 2. Create the script as shown below.

We need the “pause” command to wait for the newly launched window to load before we could access its title.

Step 3. Execute the script. Notice that the Test Case passed, meaning that we were able to switch between windows and verify their titles successfully.

Always remember that setting selectWindow’s target to “null” will automatically select the parent window (in this case, the window where the element “link=here” is found)

Note: Facebook has changed the title since the creation of Tutorials. Please modify the code accordingly


The “store” command (and all its variants) are used to store variables in Selenium IDE

The “echo” command is used to print a string value or a variable

Variables are enclosed within a ${…} when being printed or used on elements

Selenium IDE automatically presses the OK button when handling alerts

When handling confirmation dialogs, you may instruct Selenium IDE which option to use:



Window titles are used as locators when switching between browser windows.

When using the “selectWindow” command, setting the Target to “null” will automatically direct Selenium IDE to select the parent window.

What Is Reliability Testing? (Example)

What is Reliability Testing?

Reliability Testing is a software testing process that checks whether the software can perform a failure-free operation in a particular environment for a specified time period. The purpose of Reliability testing is to assure that the software product is bug-free and reliable enough for its expected purpose.

Reliability means “yielding the same,” in other terms, the word “reliable” means something is dependable and that it will give the same outcome every time. The same is true for Reliability testing.

Reliability Testing Example

The probability that a PC in a store is up and running for eight hours without crashing is 99%; this is referred to as reliability.

Reliability Testing can be categorized into three segments,




The following formula is for calculating the probability of failure.

Probability = Number of failing cases/ Total number of cases under consideration Factors Influencing Software Reliability

The number of faults present in the software

The way users operate the system

Reliability Testing is one of the keys to better software quality. This testing helps discover many problems in the software design and functionality.

The main purpose of reliability testing is to check whether the software meets the requirement of customer reliability.

Reliability testing will be performed at several levels. Complex systems will be tested at the unit, assembly, subsystem, and system levels.

Why do Reliability Testing?

Reliability testing is done to test the software performance under the given conditions.

The objective behind performing reliability testing are,

To find the structure of repeating failures.

To find the number of failures occurring is the specified amount of time.

To discover the main cause of failure.

To conduct Performance Testing of various modules of software applications after fixing a defect.

After the release of the product too, we can minimize the possibility of the occurrence of defects and thereby improve the software reliability. Some of the tools useful for this are- Trend Analysis, Orthogonal Defect Classification, and formal methods, etc.

Types of reliability Testing

Software reliability testing includes Feature Testing, Load Testing, and Regression Testing

Feature Testing:-

Featured Testing checks the feature provided by the software and is conducted in the following steps:-

Each operation in the software is executed at least once.

Interaction between the two operations is reduced.

Each operation has to be checked for its proper execution.

Load Testing:-

Usually, the software will perform better at the beginning of the process, and after that, it will start degrading. Load Testing is conducted to check the performance of the software under the maximum workload.

Regression Test:-

Regression testing is mainly used to check whether any new bugs have been introduced because of fixing previous bugs. Regression Testing is conducted after every change or update of the software features and their functionalities.

How to do Reliability Testing

Reliability Testing is costly compared to other types of testing. So Proper planning and management is required while doing reliability testing. This includes the testing process to be implemented, data for the test environment, test schedule, test points, etc.

To begin with reliability testing, the tester has to keep following things,

Establish reliability goals

Develop operational profile

Plan and execute tests

Use test results to drive decisions

As we discussed earlier, there are three categories in which we can perform Reliability Testing,- Modeling, Measurement, and Improvement.

The key parameters involved in Reliability Testing are:-

Probability of failure-free operation

Length of time of failure-free operation

The environment in which it is executed

Step 1) Modeling

Software Modeling Technique can be divided into two subcategories:

1. Prediction Modeling

2. Estimation Modeling

Meaningful results can be obtained by applying suitable models.

Assumptions and abstractions can be made to simplify the problems, and no single model will be suitable for all situations. The major differences between the two models are:-

Issues Prediction Models Estimation Models

Data Reference It uses historical data It uses current data from software development.

When used in Development Cycle It will usually be created before the development or testing phases. It will usually be used later in the Software Development Life Cycle.

Time Frame It will predict reliability in the future. It will predict the reliability either for the present time or in the future time.

Step 2) Measurement

Software reliability cannot be measured directly; hence, other related factors are considered to estimate software reliability. The current practices of Software Reliability Measurement are divided into four categories:-

Mesurement 1: Product Metrics

Product metrics are the combination of 4 types of metrics:

Function point Metric:- Function Pont Metric is the method for measuring the functionality of Software Development. It will consider the count of inputs, outputs, master files, etc. It measures the functionality delivered to the user and is independent of the programming language.

Complexity is directly related to software reliability, so representing complexity is important. The complexity-oriented metric determines the complexity of a program’s control structure by simplifying the code into a graphical representation.

Test Coverage Metrics:- It is a way of estimating fault and reliability by completing software product tests. Software reliability means it is the function of determining that the system has been completely verified and tested.

Measurement 2: Project Management Metrics

Researchers have realized that good management can result in better products.

Good management can achieve higher reliability by using better development, risk management,and configuration management processes.

Measurement 3: Process Metrics

The quality of the product is directly related to the process. Process metrics can be used to estimate, monitor, and improve the reliability and quality of software.

Measurement 4: Fault and Failure Metrics

Fault and Failure Metrics are mainly used to check whether the system is completely failure-free. Both the types of faults found during the testing process (i.e. before delivery) as well as the failure reported by users after delivery are collected, summarized, and analyzed to achieve this goal.

Software reliability is measured in terms of the mean time between failures (MTBF). MTBF consists of

Mean to failure (MTTF): It is the time difference between two consecutive failures.

Mean time to repair (MTTR): It is the time required to fix the failure.


Reliability for good software is a number between 0 and 1.

Reliability increases when errors or bugs from the program are removed.

Step 3) Improvement

Improvement completely depends upon the problems occurred in the application or system, or else the characteristics of the software. According to the complexity of the software module, the way of improvement will also differ. Two main constraints, time and budget will limit the efforts put into software reliability improvement.

Example Methods for Reliability Testing

Testing for reliability is about exercising an application to discover and remove failures before the system is deployed.

There are mainly three approaches used for Reliability Testing

Test-Retest Reliability

Parallel Forms Reliability

Decision Consistency

Below we tried to explain all these with an example.

Test-Retest Reliability

To estimate test-retest reliability, a single group of examinees will perform the testing process only a few days or weeks apart. The time should be short enough so that the examinee’s skills in the area can be assessed. The relationship between the examinee’s scores from two different administrations is estimated through statistical correlation. This type of reliability demonstrates the extent to which a test is able to produce stable, consistent scores across time.

Parallel Forms Reliability

Many exams have multiple formats of question papers, these parallel forms of exam provide Security. Parallel forms reliability is estimated by administrating both forms of the exam to the same group of examinees. The examinee’s scores on the two test forms are correlated in order to determine how similar the two test forms function. This reliability estimate is a measure of how consistent examinees’ scores can be expected across test forms.

Decision Consistency

After doing Test-Retest Reliability and Parallel Form Reliability, we will get a result of examinees either passing or failing. The reliability of this classification decision is estimated in decision consistency reliability.

Importance of Reliability Testing

A thorough assessment of reliability is required to improve the performance of software products and processes. Testing software reliability will help software managers and practitioners to a great extent.

To check the reliability of the software via testing:-

A large number of test cases should be executed for an extended period to determine how long the software will execute without failure.

The test case distribution should match the software’s actual or planned operational profile. The more often a function of the software is executed, the greater the percentage of test cases that should be allocated to that function or subset.

Some of the Reliability testing tools used for Software Reliability are:

1. WEIBULL++:- Reliability Life Data Analysis

2. RGA:- Reliability Growth Analysis

3. RCM:-Reliability Centered Maintenance


Reliability Testing is an important part of a reliability engineering program. More correctly, it is the soul of a reliability engineering program. Furthermore, reliability tests are mainly designed to uncover particular failure modes and other problems during software testing.

In Software Engineering, Reliability Testing can be categorized into three segments,




Factors Influencing Software Reliability

The number of faults present in the software

The way users operate the system

What Is Adhoc Testing? (Types, Examples)

Adhoc testing is frequently carried out to break the system in unusual ways. Adhoc testing’s most remarkable aspect is that it lacks any test design approach for creating test cases.

The procedure is generally used to identify software flaws. Because adhoc testing lacks test cases, it is often carried out without documentation.

Take a closer look at the procedure. Ad-Hoc testing is a kind of testing that comes under the category of ‘Unstructured Testing.’

Structured Testing Vs. Unstructured Testing

StructuredTesting − Everything that happens throughout the testing method, from the development of test cases to their sequential execution, is written in this technique. This script is followed by the testers while doing tests.

Unstructured Testing − Testing is typically done by error guessing in this technique, where the testers construct the test cases throughout the testing process.

Adhoc Testing

Adhoc testing is a term that refers to testing that is done on the fly. It is a form of unstructured testing technique, as described above, in which no systematic strategy is made before the testing process begins. As a result, no requirement specification or test case preparation and design is done prior to testing.

Ad-hoc testing is generally carried out by a tester who is well-versed in the program under test, both in terms of what it does and how it works. This testing is carried out by constructing test cases at random using error guessing and running them without regard for any test criteria.

Finding possible regions of the program where mistakes may exist is an important aspect of this testing. Because of this, it’s also known as Monkey Testing or Random Testing. As a result, only those testers with a thorough understanding of the product should execute this test.

Ad-Hoc testing has the benefit of saving time that would otherwise be spent on documents such as test requirements, test case planning, design, and so on. It is also often done after the structured testing has been completed. This is done in order to uncover software problems that would not have been found by following the previously prepared test cases.

Adhoc Testing Types

Following are some of the types of Adhoc Testing −

Buddy Testing

Monkey Testing

Pair Testing

Buddy Testing

In this sort of Ad-Hoc testing, at least two individuals work together to conduct the tests. At least one software tester and one software developer normally make up this team.

This sort of testing occurs after the unit testing of a module has been finished.

On that module, the two ‘buddies’ collaborate to develop legitimate test cases.

This is done to ensure that the tester does not report problems caused by incorrect test cases. This form of testing may also be thought of as a hybrid of unit and system testing.

Monkey Testing

The term ‘monkey testing’ refers to the unpredictability of the technique utilized in this testing.

Random inputs are presented to the program under test, and their associated outputs are monitored.

Any occurrences of errors, inconsistencies, or system failures are identified based on the acquired outputs.

Pair Testing

This kind of testing is similar to buddy testing. In this case, however, just a couple of testers collaborate on the modules for testing.

They collaborate to uncover faults and problems by sharing ideas, views, and expertise on the same computer.

To acquire a distinct perspective on each issue, testers are partnered according to their knowledge levels and experience.

Adhoc Testing Characteristics

This testing occurs after the program has been subjected to formal testing methodologies. The reason for this is because ad-hoc tests are performed to discover application abnormalities that cannot be foreseen prior to testing.

This testing can only be carried out by testers who have a deep understanding of how the program works. Because good ‘error guessing’ can only be done when the tester understands what the program does and how it operates, this is the case.

The Ad-hoc testing approach is best for detecting defects and inconsistencies in an application that lead to serious gaps. Errors like this are often difficult to spot.

This kind of testing requires less time than other types of testing. This is due to the fact that it is carried out without any previous planning, design, or structure.

Ad-hoc testing is done just once since any faults discovered need retesting.

Adhoc Tests Examples

Testing an application’s functionality when the browser settings are altered. Identifying faults that occur when the JavaScript option is deactivated in various browsers, for example.

Putting the app through its paces on several platforms. It’s critical to test if the produced application runs smoothly across a variety of operating systems and browsers.

Providing inputs to the system that are outside of the valid-inputs range in order to see whether the application’s response is adequate.

Copying and modifying the application’s URL to make it run in a different browser. This is done to ensure that unauthenticated access to the system is not granted to any unauthorized users.

Going through a series of random actions or traveling around the program at random in order to verify the outcomes achieved by using a certain combination of odd inputs.

When Should Adhoc Testing Be Conducted?

When there isn’t enough time to complete extensive and thorough testing, which involves producing test requirements documents, test cases, and test case designs, ad-hoc testing is usually used. Following the completion of formal testing methodologies is the ideal time to undertake this sort of testing.

Ad-hoc testing, on the other hand, may be carried out in the midst of software development. It may be done after the program has been completely created, or even after just a few modules have been produced. It may also be carried out as part of the official testing procedure. However, there are a few instances in which this testing is not required. As a result, every tester must be aware of when to avoid this kind of testing.

The following are some examples of why ad-hoc testing should not be done −

When Beta testing is in progress, no ad hoc testing should be done. This is due to the fact that beta testing entails customers evaluating the generated software in order to make ideas for new features that should be included or to modify the requirements for it.

It is also recommended that this testing not be carried out in test cases that already include problems. Before the mistakes can be deleted from the system, they must first be properly recorded. The test cases must be retested once they have been fixed to confirm that they are operating properly.

What Benefits Does Adhoc Testing Offer?

Many mistakes that go undiscovered when just formal testing techniques are employed may be uncovered by randomly testing the program, which is one benefit of ad-hoc testing.

The testers are allowed to explore the program as they see fit, based on their intuition and comprehension of it. They may then run the tests as they proceed, assisting them in identifying mistakes as they go.

The application can be simply tested by both testers and developers since no test cases need to be prepared and built. This makes it easier for developers to write more effective and error-free code.

This testing may also aid in the construction of one-of-a-kind test scenarios that can discover problems ineffectively. As a result, such test cases may be combined with other scheduled test cases in formal testing.

Because there is no formal method for ad-hoc testing, it may be done at any point throughout the software development lifecycle.

It may be used in conjunction with other testing methods to create more informed and effective findings.

Drawbacks of Ad hoc Testing

It’s difficult for the tester to recreate an issue since the testing method isn’t defined and no specific test case is performed. This is because the tester must recall the precise procedures he took to get the mistake, which is not always achievable.

Erroneous errors are sometimes reported as a result of the tester randomly executing invalid test cases, which causes a problem in the following error correcting operations.

Ad-hoc testing will not be able to find any mistakes if the testers do not have previous knowledge of the workings of the application under test. This is due to the fact that testers must work through error guessing and construct and run test cases on the fly.

Ad-hoc testing does not guarantee that faults will be discovered. Proactive error guessing for testing is entirely dependent on the tester’s competence and expertise.

The amount of time and effort that goes into this testing is unknown since there are no previously established and documented test cases. Finding even a single mistake might take a long time in certain cases.

Conducting Adhoc Testing: Best Practices

It’s critical to understand the most effective and efficient methods to use the Ad-Hoc testing methodology in order to perform it properly. This is because if tests are not completed properly, the time and effort invested in them would be squandered. As a result, in order to undertake this sort of testing, one must be aware of the best practices that may aid in a more complete testing approach −

Expertise in Software

Ascertain that the tester assigned to the application’s ad-hoc testing has a thorough understanding of the application.

To support better ‘error guessing’ on the application, the tester must be conversant with all of the program’s capabilities.

Finding more mistakes, flaws, and inconsistencies becomes simpler with enough information to back up the tester’s testing method.

Identify Potentially Error-Prone Areas

If testers are unfamiliar with the program, the best approach is for them to begin their testing by looking for the section of the application where the most of the mistakes occur.

Selecting such sensitive locations for ad-hoc testing may aid in the detection of problems.

Determine which areas of the test should be prioritized.

It is best to begin testing with the portions of the program that are most often utilized by end-users or customers. This aids in the protection of critical features and the early detection of any bugs.

Make a rough plan for the test.

Although adhoc testing does not need any previous preparation or documentation, a basic strategy may be highly beneficial and efficient. Simply noting the important points and locations that need to be tested will assist the testers in covering most of the program in the shortest period of time.


To make testing easier, you’ll need the necessary tools such as debuggers, task monitors, and profilers.

What Is C Programming Language? Basics, Introduction, History

Let’s learn about C language in this basics of C language tutorial:

What is C Programming Langauge?

C is a general-purpose programming language that is extremely popular, simple, and flexible to use. It is a structured programming language that is machine-independent and extensively used to write various applications, Operating Systems like Windows, and many other complex programs like Oracle database, Git, Python interpreter, and more.

It is said that ‘C’ is a god’s programming language. One can say, C is a base for the programming. If you know ‘C,’ you can easily grasp the knowledge of the other programming languages that uses the concept of ‘C’

It is essential to have a background in computer memory mechanisms because it is an important aspect when dealing with the C programming language.

IEEE-the best 10 top programming language in 2023

In this

History of C language

In this C programming tutorial , you will learn basics of C language like:

The base or father of programming languages is ‘ALGOL.’ It was first introduced in 1960. ‘ALGOL’ was used on a large basis in European countries. ‘ALGOL’ introduced the concept of structured programming to the developer community. In 1967, a new computer programming language was announced called as ‘BCPL’ which stands for Basic Combined Programming Language. BCPL was designed and developed by Martin Richards, especially for writing system software. This was the era of programming languages. Just after three years, in 1970 a new programming language called ‘B’ was introduced by Ken Thompson that contained multiple features of ‘BCPL.’ This programming language was created using UNIX operating system at AT&T and Bell Laboratories. Both the ‘BCPL’ and ‘B’ were system programming languages.

In 1972, a great computer scientist Dennis Ritchie created a new programming language called ‘C’ at the Bell Laboratories. It was created from ‘ALGOL’, ‘BCPL’ and ‘B’ programming languages. ‘C’ programming language contains all the features of these languages and many more additional concepts that make it unique from other languages.

‘C’ is a powerful programming language which is strongly associated with the UNIX operating system. Even most of the UNIX operating system is coded in ‘C’. Initially ‘C’ programming was limited to the UNIX operating system, but as it started spreading around the world, it became commercial, and many compilers were released for cross-platform systems. Today ‘C’ runs under a variety of operating systems and hardware platforms. As it started evolving many different versions of the language were released. At times it became difficult for the developers to keep up with the latest version as the systems were running under the older versions. To assure that ‘C’ language will remain standard, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) defined a commercial standard for ‘C’ language in 1989. Later, it was approved by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in 1990. ‘C’ programming language is also called as ‘ANSI C’.

History of C

C Basic Commands

Following are the basic commands in C programming language:

C Basic commands Explanation

This command includes standard input output header file(stdio.h) from the C library before compiling a C program

int main() It is the main function from where C program execution begins.

{ Indicates the beginning of the main function.

Whatever written inside this command “/* */” inside a C program, it will not be considered for compilation and execution.

printf(“Hello_World! “); This command prints the output on the screen.

getch(); This command is used for any character input from keyboard.

return 0;

This command is used to terminate a C program (main function) and it returns 0.


It is used to indicate the end of the main function.

Where is C used? Key Applications

‘C’ language is widely used in embedded systems.

It is used for developing system applications.

It is widely used for developing desktop applications.

Most of the applications by Adobe are developed using ‘C’ programming language.

It is used for developing browsers and their extensions. Google’s Chromium is built using ‘C’ programming language.

It is used to develop databases. MySQL is the most popular database software which is built using ‘C’.

It is used in developing an operating system. Operating systems such as Apple’s OS X, Microsoft’s Windows, and Symbian are developed using ‘C’ language. It is used for developing desktop as well as mobile phone’s operating system.

It is used for compiler production.

It is widely used in IOT applications.

Why learn C Language?

As we studied earlier, ‘C’ is a base language for many programming languages. So, learning ‘C’ as the main language will play an important role while studying other programming languages. It shares the same concepts such as data types, operators, control statements and many more. ‘C’ can be used widely in various applications. It is a simple language and provides faster execution. There are many jobs available for a ‘C’ developer in the current market.

‘C’ is a structured programming language in which program is divided into various modules. Each module can be written separately and together it forms a single ‘C’ program. This structure makes it easy for testing, maintaining and debugging processes.

‘C’ contains 32 keywords, various data types and a set of powerful built-in functions that make programming very efficient.

Another feature of ‘C’ programming is that it can extend itself. A ‘C’ program contains various functions which are part of a library. We can add our features and functions to the library. We can access and use these functions anytime we want in our program. This feature makes it simple while working with complex programming.

Various compilers are available in the market that can be used for executing programs written in this language.

How C Programming Language Works?

C is a compiled language. A compiler is a special tool that compiles the program and converts it into the object file which is machine readable. After the compilation process, the linker will combine different object files and creates a single executable file to run the program. The following diagram shows the execution of a ‘C’ program

Nowadays, various compilers are available online, and you can use any of those compilers. The functionality will never differ and most of the compilers will provide the features required to execute both ‘C’ and ‘C++’ programs.

Following is the list of popular compilers available online:

Clang compiler

MinGW compiler (Minimalist GNU for Windows)

Portable ‘C’ compiler

Turbo C


‘C’ was developed by Dennis Ritchie in 1972.

It is a robust language.

It is a low programming level language close to machine language

It is widely used in the software development field.

It is a procedure and structure oriented language.

It has the full support of various operating systems and hardware platforms.

Many compilers are available for executing programs written in ‘C’.

A compiler compiles the source file and generates an object file.

A linker links all the object files together and creates one executable file.

It is highly portable.

Automation Without Intelligence Is Just Not Smart

Automation Without Intelligence is Just Not Smart Ben Bradley

Director of Strategic Accounts – Client Consulting

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The numbers are clear. Most marketers (nearly 70% of businesses) are using some type of Automation system. While there are many success metrics supporting the use of these systems (here and here are just a couple examples) this post isn’t about why you need to use an automation tool – it’s about how you can make it better.

The thing that that is missing from most intelligence systems is insight into what happens beyond your brands touch points. Most intelligence systems can tell you what is happening on your site, or with the brand engagements that you load.

However as marketers we need to remember the average short list of a B2B IT buyer consists of 2-3 vendors. We need to remove the mindset that the only relevant research our accounts/contacts have is with our brand.

The core theme that is repeated every single time is that an IT buying account will always engage with editorial content and other vendors equally, if not more than, with your brand. It happens to all of us, it’s a natural part of the research process to gather un-biased info, and then compare solutions and vendors.  The proof, when we looked at over 4,000 confirmed IT Buying projects and their content consumption journeys we saw:

70% of their content consumption journey was with Editorial content (Tips, news, eGuides, eZines, etc.) on the TechTarget network

30% of their content consumption journey was with Vendor content on the TechTarget network

Your view into the buyer’s content journey is further reduced when you consider that the average IT buyer looked at content from about 17 vendors, and has a short list of about 2 or 3 vendors. This reduces your part of the 30% vendor content consumption quickly. Intelligence is only truly gained when you get a view into ALL this activity.

Segmentation is the Holy Grail

One of my favorite marketers Avinash Kaushik has written a lot about the value of segmentation.  A sophisticated marketer is going to segment nurture streams to offer different content and experiences based on their user’s/accounts engagements. The key to segmentation is being able to pull in as many data points as possible.

Automation without intelligence

Let’s look at the above account journey example to see how you might nurture a contact from this journey. You could segment by:

One of The 11 assets they have engaged with

The event data you have (location, contact)

The site visits they had (when maybe who if they completed a reg page).

Automation with intelligence

Automation without intelligence has already been proven to drive massive returns, now imagine how much more effective it can be if you have many additional data points to segment by:

ALL Contacts at the account that have engaged in relevant research, not just those that download Your content

Priority ranking of all accounts based on key signals and research volume

Insight into which competing vendors they are downloading content from and the volume of engagement they have with each

Size and locations of the buying team, and changes to the team over the last 30,60,90 days

Key pain points and the frequency of research on those (IE – data storage management vs. disaster recovery)

The nurture stream and lead management process could dramatically change with this example:

You could launch a competitive attack campaign based on the knowing that Named Account X has downloaded 25% of their content from Competitor Y

You could deliver thought leadership content in the perfect cadence

Expand your account reach and influence on an account level with access to net new contacts

Adjust nurture streams based the volume and types of content the brand engaged with holistically

Use “signals” such as “Late Stage Signal” to identify when account view product spec sheets, demos and other late buy cycle stage content.

Deliver content based on specific pain points

All of this is based on the account journey across your content, your competitor’s content, and editorial content so you are given a better view into the buyer’s journey.

Intelligence only works when it’s actionable

Intelligence should be the foundation of your marketing strategy. Today’s marketers need to make sure they have access actionable intelligence. Actionable intelligence is being able to message contacts based on every step every step of their content journey, even those steps that are not with you.

Account-Based Marketing, audience segmentation, B2B marketing, content, marketing intelligence

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