Trending December 2023 # Whatsapp Images And Videos Not Downloading Issues Fixed # Suggested January 2024 # Top 12 Popular

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Typically, images and videos received on WhatsApp will download normally when you tap on them. Yet, many users are facing the issue where tapping a media file throws you an error that says, “download failed”, “download was unable to complete,” “please try again later,” and similar. If you are unable to download images and videos from WhatsApp, the following fixes will help you solve the media download issue on WhatsApp.

1. Manually Download Photos and Videos (WhatsApp Web)

If you’re using WhatsApp Web (the desktop version of WhatsApp which was recently updated to not even require your smartphone nearby each time you sign in), then it has its own host of problems and fixes.

If you’ve tried that but are still having problems with WhatsApp Web, then try the following tips.

2. Clear Browser Data (WhatsApp Web)

If WhatsApp Web is failing to download photos and videos (or is otherwise not working properly), then you should try clearing your browser cache and cookies to give it a clean slate.

3. Sign Out and Back In Again (WhatsApp Web)

WhatsApp Web doesn’t have a great reputation for stability, and while its major recent updates have brought some welcome improvements they have also made the browser version of WhatsApp a bit unreliable.

The rest of this tips will focus on the mobile versions of WhatsApp, but note that some of the fixes may apply to WhatsApp Web too, so don’t stop reading!

4. Restart Phone

The first step you should always perform when you are troubleshooting an app or device is to restart it. Likewise, with the WhatsApp images and videos not downloading issue, restart your Android phone or iPhone. Sometimes just restarting the phone will fix the media not downloading issue on WhatsApp.

5. Check WhatsApp Server for Issues

At times, the problem could be with WhatsApp itself. It has happened several times where people are unable to send messages, download images, and similar. To verify whether WhatsApp is down or not, you can use third-party tools like Outage.Report or DownDetector. Open one of the websites, and the tool will tell you whether WhatsApp servers are working properly or not.

Having the correct date and time on your phone is important for WhatsApp to sync to its servers, otherwise you won’t be able to download images or videos, as mentioned on the official WhatsApp support page.

7. Audit Internet Problems

Many times, users are unable to download media files on WhatsApp due to an issue with their Internet connection. These troubleshooting tips should help with the issue:

If you are using WhatsApp on Wi-Fi, start by restarting your router.

Next, try opening a website on your phone. If the website doesn’t load or images do not load properly, your Wi-Fi connection may be down.

You can also try switching between Wi-Fi and mobile data to identify whether the Internet connection is causing the issue.

Make sure you have enough data balance.

Try turning Airplane mode on and off on your device for a while.

For Wi-Fi networks, try to forget the Wi-Fi, then connect to it again.

If possible, try to connect to a different Wi-Fi connection or router.

You can also try changing the DNS server for your router. If you are on Android, find out how to use Google DNS or OpenDNS.

Disable the metered Wi-Fi connection on Android.

Enable data roaming on your phone if you are not in your home state.

8. Check Mobile Data Settings (iPhone) 9. Check Network for Problems

You should be using the fastest, correct network for the proper functioning of WhatsApp.

10. Allow WhatsApp to Access Photos 11. Check Media Auto-Download Settings

If there are problems with WhatsApp not automatically downloading images and videos on your phone, you should take a look at the media auto-download settings in WhatsApp.

12. Turn Off Data Saver Modes

Both Android and iPhone come with data-saving modes. If media isn’t auto-downloading on your phone, try disabling these modes.

13. Check Available Storage

Your phone should have sufficient storage to be able to download media files from WhatsApp. If the phone doesn’t have enough storage, files won’t be able to download.

14. Unmount SD Card

If you are using a memory card on your Android phone, often that is responsible for causing media download issues in WhatsApp. To fix it, you will need to either remove the card or unmount it.

15. Turn Off Move Content to SD Card

If your Android phone offers a native setting for moving data to an SD card, you should try turning it off for WhatsApp.

16. Enable Save to Camera Roll (iPhone) 17. Ask for File to Be Resent

If you are getting the “Ask XYZ to resend the file” error while downloading old media files from WhatsApp, that’s what you will need to do. The person could have cleared the chat, leaving you unable to download the files. Request that the sender resend the file.

18. Clear WhatsApp Cache (Android)

Try clearing the cache for WhatsApp on your Android phone. Doing so will not delete your chats or any associated media.

Restart the phone after clearing the cache. Do not tap on “Clear data” (or Clear data), as it will delete your WhatsApp chats.

19. Turn Off Ad Blocker

If you are using adblocker apps on your phone, try turning them off for a while to see if they are conflicting with WhatsApp media.

Many times, updating WhatsApp also helps to fix the issue of images and videos not downloading.

Go to the Play Store (Android) and App Store (iPhone) and search for WhatsApp. Tap on the “Update” button if available. Restart the phone. Don’t worry, as updating WhatsApp will not delete your chats.

21. Reinstall WhatsApp

If the issue persists, uninstall WhatsApp from your phone and install it again. However, make sure to back up the data first using the native option. You can back up to Google Drive on Android and iCloud on iPhone. That way you will not lose your chats and files.

22. Rename WhatsApp Folder (Android)

On Android, apart from uninstalling WhatsApp, you should also try renaming the existing WhatsApp folder. This is done so that WhatsApp creates a new folder when you install it again. However, this is a nuclear option so please make sure that you back up your WhatsApp data first. Once that is done, uninstall WhatsApp.

Then install WhatsApp again and restore your data from back up. If something goes wrong, you will find your old WhatsApp database and files in the renamed folder.

23. Reset Network Settings

You should try resetting the network settings on your Android phone or iPhone. Doing so will delete all the saved networks (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, etc.) and connected devices. You will need to add and pair them again. However, it can solve issues like images and videos not downloading on WhatsApp.

24. Reset App Preferences

Similar to resetting network settings, you should try to reset all settings on your phone. Doing so will not delete your personal data. However, all settings on your phone will be reset. So if a setting is responsible for WhatsApp images and videos not downloading, resetting the settings should fix it.

After trying each fix, I would suggest you restart your phone. Hopefully, you should be able to download images and videos normally from WhatsApp. Once that happens, check out Android apps to enhance the WhatsApp experience.

Mehvish Mushtaq

Mehvish is a tech lover from Kashmir. With a degree in computer engineering, she’s always been happy to help anyone who finds technology challenging. She’s been writing about technology for over six years, and her favorite topics include how-to guides, explainers, tips and tricks for Android, iOS/iPadOS, Windows, social media, and web apps.

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The 10 Best Science Images, Videos, And Visualizations From The 2023 Vizzies

Elizabeth Marchiondo was really excited when a colleague brought this dead chameleon to her lab. [ Read more ].

The best visualizations communicate complex subjects with evocative images, enlightening illustrations, and engrossing interactive media–all things we value tremendously at Popular Science. So we’re especially pleased to partner with the National Science Foundation to award the Vizzies. The international competition, which the agency has led for more than a decade, recognizes the finest illustrations, photographs, videos, graphics, and apps, whether produced by academic researchers, artists, or hobbyists.

How We Chose The Winners

During two rounds of judging, science and visualization experts at the National Science Foundation and Popular Science winnowed 303 entries to 50 finalists, 10 in each category. To arrive at the Experts’ Choice, a panel of final-round judges rated the visualizations on their artistic merit and communication excellence. Readers voted online for the People’s Choice. Each of the winners was vetted for accuracy by independent experts.

The Final-Round Judges

David Bolinsky, medical animator and co-founder of e.mersion studios

Bennett Foddy, professor of game design at New York University’s Game Center

Soraya Gage, general manager of NBC Learn, an NBC News division

Lena Groeger, science journalist and news apps developer at ProPublica

Robert Kosara, research scientist at Tableau Software

Marcia Rudy, special exhibitions and programs at the New York Hall of Science

Rita Teutonico, executive associate director of the School of Environment, Arts, and Society at Florida International University

Jan Willem Tulp, head of the data visualization studio TULP Interactive

The Winners Photography Illustration Video

Expert’s Choice: Beautiful Chemistry, by Yan Liang, Xiangang Tao, Wei Huang, Edison (Qi) Zheng, and Jiyuan Liu

People’s Choice: How Origami Is Inspiring Scientific Creativity, by Larry Howell, Julie Walker, Robert Lang, Spencer Magleby, and Brian Wilcox

Posters & Graphics

Expert’s Choice: Hippocampal Neurons, by Robert E. Clark

People’s Choice: From Icefield To Ocean, by Kristin Timm, Shad O’Neel, Allison Bidlack, and Eran Hood

Games & Apps

Expert’s Choice: Glassbrain, by Adam Gazzaley, Roger Anguera-​Singla, Rajat Jain, Tim Mullen, Christian Kothe, John Fesenko, Oleg Konings, Matt Omernick, and David Ziegler

People’s Choice: NASA Visualization Explorer, by Goddard Space Flight Center’s NASA Viz Group; Helen-Nicole Kostis, project manager

—Additional reporting by Alexandra Ossola, Neel V. Patel, and Katie Peek

This article was originally published in the March 2023 issue of Popular Science, under the title “The 2023 Vizzies.”

False-Color X-Ray Of A Snapping Turtle

While X-raying a snapping turtle, Ted Kinsman was surprised to see it had dozens of eggs inside. [Read more]

Alcian Blue And Alizarin Red Chameleon

Elizabeth Marchiondo was really excited when a colleague brought this dead chameleon to her lab. [Read more]


Matteo Farinella depicts brain cells and neurons as a sprawling network of intertwined tree roots and branches. Read more

Juan Fernández Firecrown Cabbage Tree

Both the birds and the tree in this illustration are nearing extinction. [Read more]

Beautiful Chemistry

A professor in China finds the art in basic science and shares it in this video.

How Origami Is Inspiring Scientific Creativity

A lab demonstrates the use of origami as a design tool for engineers in this video.

Hippocampal Neurons

One of the most important structures in the brain happens to resemble a sea horse, so neuroscientist Robert Clark merged the two together.

From Icefield To Ocean

The Alaskan coastal glaciers, as illustrated in this poster, are “more than just ice.” [Read more]


You can use this app to watch waves and signals ping across your brain in real-time. [Read more]

NASA Visualization Explorer

This app brings NASA data to the masses. [Read more]

Microsoft Store Not Downloading Apps? 11 Ways To Fix

We have a guide detailing how you can fix Microsoft Store slow download issues. In this tutorial, however, we’ll walk you through 11 things to do when Microsoft Store isn’t downloading apps on your Windows 10 computer.

Table of Contents

1. Check Internet Connection

It’s impossible to navigate the Microsoft Store, let alone download apps without an active internet connection. Therefore, if your download is stuck on pending, your first port of call should be to check your PC’s internet connection.

Open other internet-dependent apps and check if they work. Better yet, launch your web browser and see if you’re able to visit webpages. Restart your router or try other Wi-Fi troubleshooting tips if you’re unable to access the internet via Wi-Fi.

For wired connections, unplug the ethernet cable or modem and plug it back in. If the ethernet connection remains slow or doesn’t work, refer to the tips in this guide on fixing ethernet connectivity woes.

2. Disable VPN or Proxy

In the Network & Internet menu, go to the Proxy tab and toggle off the Use a proxy server option.

With VPN and proxy servers disabled, try downloading from the Microsoft Store and check if it goes through.

3. Force Quit Microsoft Store

Reopen Microsoft Store and try downloading the app(s) again. Proceed to the next solution if the apps won’t download or they’re stuck on pending.

4. Check Date and Time Settings

One more thing: scroll to the Synchronize your clock section and select the Sync now button.

That will immediately synchronize and update your PC’s date and time with the Windows Time Server. Return to the Microsoft Store and check if you can now download apps.

5. Check Storage Space and Settings

If the Microsoft Store is still not downloading or if your computer doesn’t have sufficient storage space. That’s a no brainer. So if your apps get stuck in the download queue, launch the File Explorer and confirm that you have enough storage space on your hard disk to accommodate the app(s).

6. Clear Microsoft Store Cache

Microsoft Store generates and stores temporary files (called Cache Data) on your computer. These files help Microsoft Store perform faster on your computer. However, when these files get corrupt, they sometimes cause the Microsoft Store to malfunction.

Windows will launch the Microsoft Store automatically after clearing the cache. Try downloading an app and check if it goes through.

7. Reconnect Your Microsoft Account 8. Reset Microsoft Store

Still can’t download apps from the Microsoft Store? You should give the app a reset. When you reset an app, Windows will delete the app’s data and settings from your computer. That could help eliminate issues causing the app to malfunction.

Afterward, launch Microsoft Store, sign in with your Microsoft account details and see if you can now download and install app updates from the store. 

9. Run the Windows Store Troubleshooter

Windows has a built-in tool that diagnoses and fixes issues with the Microsoft Store or apps downloaded from the store. It’s called the Windows Store Apps troubleshooter. You’ll find it tucked away in the Troubleshoot menu of your PC’s settings.

10. Update Microsoft Store

Yes, you need to update the Microsoft Store like you do with every other app on your computer. Otherwise, you might experience issues downloading (other) apps if you run an outdated version of the Microsoft Store. 

11. Install Windows Update

If none of the solutions above resolves the problem, check if your PC is running the latest Windows 10 build. An outdated or bug-ridden Windows 10 version may be the root cause of the app download failure you’re experiencing on the Microsoft Store. So make sure you install the latest update on your computer.

Get Microsoft Store Downloading Apps Again

Difference Between Arbitrage Funds And Fixed Deposits

It is hard to overstate the importance of saving for emergencies and creating investments. It is difficult to predict the future, therefore the best anyone can do is to prepare for uncertainty by saving and investing properly. There is a wide variety of investments available, from those with a high level of risk to those with a lesser level of risk, and from those with a long-term commitment to those with a shorter time horizon.

An investor’s decision on the investment type is driven exclusively by his risk tolerance and time horizon for recouping his initial investment. Typical investment vehicles for the general populace include fixed deposits and arbitrage funds.

What are Arbitrage Funds?

If you’re looking to limit your risk as much as possible but still make money off of volatile markets, this equity-focused mutual fund is the way to go. Investors should still do market research to evaluate if the investment is a good fit for their portfolio, even when the risk is lower.

They are common in the cash and futures markets and profit from the inconsistencies in the pricing of funds that should trade at the same rate. Therefore, even though the price differences between the two markets are often not large, an investor will acquire stocks in the cash market and then sell the interest in those stocks in the futures market. Since the margins that arbitrage funds deal with are so small, they must trade a large volume to produce sizable profits.

Arbitrage funds, which aim to profit because multiple markets supply differing prices for the same stock, are likewise traded on several exchanges. For this reason, an investor can buy shares of stock at a discount and immediately sell them for a profit.

Some benefits of arbitrage funds include the following −

Due to the simultaneous nature of the purchases and sales, the risk associated with this strategy is low.

They do well even when markets are highly volatile.

When compared to the normal income tax rate, the equity funds rate is lower.

Because of the large number of transactions needed, the associated cost ratios might be considerable.

It is risky to rely on them since payments are unpredictable.

What are Fixed Deposits?

These investments, which may also go by the label “time deposits,” provide a higher rate of return to their owners up to the moment they mature. You may buy them at any bank, credit union, or charity shop. There is a shortage of capital, thus interest rates have been raised to reflect that. Additionally, the maturity date may be anything from one week to five years in the future; nonetheless, they cannot be redeemed before that time. Investors, however, are not allowed to get their money out or cancel the deal without potentially costly penalties.

For this reason, investors with a low-risk tolerance often choose fixed deposits.

Pay out the same amount of interest every year for the duration of the investment.

Their threat is minimal at best.

Have a high rate of investment return relative to other accessible investment options.

They haven’t settled on a deposit amount yet.

However, they are not without their share of negatives, such as the following −

Investors bear the risk of losing interest or paying the penalty if they remove their money before it fully accumulates.

Though they have higher interest rates, they ignore the mounting inflationary threat.

Differences − Arbitrage Funds and Fixed Deposits

The following table highlights how Arbitrage Funds are different from Fixed Deposits −

Characteristics Arbitrage Funds Fixed Deposits

Definition Arbitrage funds are a form of equity-focused mutual fund that can help conservative investors profit from volatile market situations. Investments in fixed deposits earn a higher interest rate during the duration of the deposit up to its maturity date. There will be no risk to the investor’s initial capital till then.

Risks involved There are a number of dangers associated with arbitrage funds, including high expense ratios because of the large number of trades needed and unreliability because of the funds’ speculative returns. One possible drawback of fixed deposits is that investors may lose interest or be charged if they withdraw their money before the term of the deposit has expired.

Interest rate Funds that specialize in arbitrage trading can have exceptional rates of return.

Fixed deposit interest rates are low.

Liquidity Arbitrage funds often have greater liquidity. The amount of money that may be withdrawn from a fixed deposit is quite little.


For those looking to make money in volatile markets without taking on too much risk, equity-focused mutual funds known as “arbitrage funds” are a great option. They provide enhanced liquidity in addition to high-interest rates. But fixed deposits, a special kind of investment account, provide a higher rate of interest to savers up until the moment their money matures.

It is important for investors to exercise caution when committing funds to fixed deposits since they may be unable to do so without losing interest or incurring a penalty. Regardless, these are examples of safe investing options.

Adobe Premiere Pro Not Exporting Full Video? How We Fixed It

Adobe Premiere Pro not Exporting Full Video? How We Fixed it Fix Adobe Premier error and get back to work in no time




Even though Adobe Premiere Pro is an industry-standard in terms of video editing software, sometimes it won’t export videos.

A first step would be to make sure that Adobe Premiere Pro is updated to the latest version available.

Also, you should make some adjustments in the rendering optimization settings, among other solutions.

Find in the article below more troubleshooting steps for this video exporting issue in Premiere Pro, so read on!



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Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

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readers this month.

Adobe Premiere Pro has become an industry standard when it comes to video editing, but many users reported that Adobe Premiere does not export video.

This can be a big problem, and that’s why we have found the best solutions for you to solve this problem easily, so keep reading.

What can I do if Premiere Pro is not exporting any video?

Before proceeding with any troubleshooting steps, make sure that the root of the problem isn’t just you having an outdated version of Adobe Premiere Pro.

Remember that Adobe constantly updates its software, and this means that your current version is most likely dated by now.

That being said, make sure you have the latest version installed, only go for the troubleshooting steps afterward.

Additionally, you should proceed to install the newest updates of the software and get brand-new features of Adobe Premiere Pro.

2. Restart your PC

You would be surprised to know how many times the errors can be solved with a simple restart of your computer.

Restarting your computer is always the first thing you should do after encountering an error and before applying any other fixes.

3. Ensure that you have enough storage space

If Adobe Premiere does not export video, it’s possible that you don’t have enough storage space. To fix this issue, try freeing up some space and try again.

The error may also occur if you are using an external hard drive as a storage device for exported videos. Try to export the videos to the internal hard drive and see if it is resolved.

This is particularly helpful if you are getting Disk Full, I/O Error, or Invalid output drive error.

4. Close the other programs

If you are getting Unable to save file. Destination file is in use by Premiere, or destination file is in use by Adobe Media Encoder error, then look for any other application that might be using the destination file.

Expert tip:

5. Change the rendering optimization preferences

In the case that Adobe Premiere does not export video, the issue might be related to virtual memory. You can fix this by changing the rendering optimization preference from Performance to Memory.

6. Check for Folder permission

If you are writing into a folder without appropriate permission, you may encounter Unable to create or open output file error.  To fix this, you need to take full control of the said folder.

Adobe Premiere Pro does not require Full Control on any location but only permission for reading and writing. But, providing Full Control permission can resolve permission-related errors.

 7. Change the codec format

By default, Premiere Pro uses h.264 or MPEG codec format for rendering videos. However, due to compression issues, you may get the following message error:

Codec compression error. This codec may be unable to support the requested frame size, or there may be a hardware or memory problem error.

To fix this, try to change the codec format as above explained.

8. Check Media for file corruption

If Adobe Premiere does not export video it is possible that some frames of the project may be corrupt.

One way to fix this is to disable all tracks but one and export the video. Do this for all the tracks until you can recreate the exporting error.

If found, save the project with a different name and export the project by removing the problematic frame or track.

After that, create a new project and open the problematic track or frame and save it with a new name. Open the exported video and import the newly saved corrupt frame and insert it into the completed project.

Export the video, and you should be able to render it without any error.

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Classify Images Of Iris Dataset And Hyperparameters

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.


Have you ever thought about how machines can tell whether a person has a disease or not by just analyzing their images? Have you heard of a recent revolutionary invention of FastTag, which significantly reduces the waiting time of vehicles in tool booths, or have you ever wondered how the face recognition system of your smartphone works? All these are examples of Image Classification.

In layman’s terms, categorizing and identifying sets of pixels or vectors inside an image by predetermined criteria is known as image classification. It is possible to develop the classification legislation using one or more spectral or textural properties. “Supervised” and “unsupervised” categorization techniques are two common types.

In this article, we will learn how we can create neural network models to perform classification on IRIS Dataset. We will als

Use cross-entropy loss. We will also plot the loss and accuracy curves on the training and test sets. To support our claim, we will find the best configuration for our network (a combination of the best learning rate, the best number of epochs, and the activation function).

What is Hyperparameter Tuning

The number of neurons, activation function, optimizer, learning rate, batch size, and epochs are the hyperparameters that need to be tuned. We must adjust the number of layers must be in the second stage. Other traditional algorithms do not possess this.

Finding a set of ideal hyperparameter values for a learning algorithm and using this tuned algorithm on any data set is hyperparameter tuning. The model’s performance is maximized using that set of hyperparameters, which minimizes a predetermined loss function and results in better outcomes with fewer mistakes.

Some insights about the dataset:

1. It consists of three classes: Setosa, Versicolor, and Virginia.

2. There are four different features: sepal length, sepal width, petal length, and petal width.

3. You can download the complete dataset from this link.

Code Implementation

Below are all the required libraries during the execution of the code. Some are math, which is used to perform mathematical functions. Like pandas used in loading and pre-processing of the dataset, etc.

import math import random import numpy as np from math import exp import pandas from them.autonotebook import tqdm from matplotlib import pyplot as plt import matplotlib as mlt import seaborn from random import seed from random import random

We will load the downloaded CSV file using Pandas library

3. Pre-processing of Dataset: Python Code:

We will drop the column of Id as we don’t require this field in this article. After that, we will use a label encoder to convert all the categorical data to numerical data. Finally, we will divide our dataset into the training and testing sets using sklearn’s train_test_split method.

df = df.drop('Id',axis=1) epc, iter, arg1, ret, var2 = 0, 1, 1e-2, 1e-3, 1e-5 n_epoch1, n_epoch2, n_epoch3 = 15, 20, 25 If = df.drop(['Species'], axis=1) If Df = df['Species'] Df Df = sklearn.preprocessing.LabelEncoder().fit_transform(Df) Df import sklearn tests_size = 0.20 trains_size = 0.80 var = True x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test = sklearn.model_selection.train_test_split(If, Df, test_size = tests_size, shuffle = var) value_train = x_train.values value_test = x_test.values x_train = value_train x_test = value_test

The loss function assesses how your machine learning algorithm predicts the featured data set. In other words, loss functions gauge how well your model can forecast the desired result.

The SGD method expands on the Gradient Descent and fixes various issues with the GD algorithm. The drawback of gradient descent is that it uses a lot of memory to load the complete n-point dataset at once to compute the derivative of the loss function.

The “learning rate” or “step size” refers to how frequently the weights are changed during training. In particular, the learning rate is a hyperparameter that can be customized and used to train neural networks. Its value is typically modest and positive, falling between 0.0 and 1.0.

We will vary the learning rate from 0.001 to 0.002 to 0.003 and observe the changes.

lr_value = [1e-3, 1e-2, 1e-1] model = Training_Model() channel, tere = 3, 0 activation1, activation2 = 'tanh', 'sigmoid' s1 = Add_layers(channel, activation=activation1) s2 = Add_layers(channel, activation=activation2) model.joinl(s1) model.joinl(s2) = lr_value[tere] p1,p2,p3, p4 = loss,train_loader, test_loader, optimizer model.configr(config, loss_function = p1, optimizer= p4, train_loader = p2,test_loader = p3) history = plot(history)

Learning Rate = 1e-3 Learning Rate = 1e-2 Learning Rate = 1e-1 Convolution, pooling, normalizing, and many other layers are examples. For instance, MaxPool is significant since it reduces sensitivity to the position of features. We’ll go through each layer and examine its importance as we go.

In the code below, we will change the number of layers, keep everything the same, and then observe the change in loss and accuracy curves.

model = Training_Model() channel, fg =3,0.001 activation1, activation2 = 'sigmoid', 'sigmoid' s1 = Add_layers(channel, activation=activation1) s2 = Add_layers(channel, activation=activation2) model.joinl(s1) model.joinl(s2) config.LR = fg p1,p2,p3, p4 = loss,train_loader, test_loader, optimizer model.configr(config, loss_function = p1, optimizer= p4, train_loader = p2,test_loader = p3)history = model_summary(model) plot(history)

An artificial neural network may learn complicated patterns in the data with the aid of an activation function, which is a function that is introduced to the network. In contrast to a neuron-based model in human brains, the activation function determines what we should send signals to the next neuron at the end.

In the below code, we will change the activation function firstly as Relu and then Tanh and compare the accuracy and loss curves in both of them. We will add different layers containing different activation functions as per our needs.

model = Training_Model() channel, temp1 = 3, 0.001 activation1, activation2 = 'relu', 'sigmoid' s1 = Add_layers(channel, activation=activation1) s2 = Add_layers(channel, activation=activation2) model.joinl(s1) model.joinl(s2) config.LR = temp p1,p2,p3, p4 = loss,train_loader, test_loader, optimizer model.configr(config, loss_function = p1, optimizer= p4, train_loader = p2,test_loader = p3) history = model_summary(model) plot(history)

Activation Function = Relu Activation Function = tanh The word “epoch” is applied to the number of passes the machine learning algorithm has made across the training dataset. Typically, datasets are organized into batches (especially when the data is extensive).

In the code below, we will take the number of epochs first as five and then as 12, keep everything as it is, and then observe the loss and accuracy curves.

model = Training_Model() channel, temp, temp1 =3, 0.001, 5 temp1 +=5 activation1, activation2 = 'tanh', 'sigmoid' s1 = Add_layers(channel, activation=activation1) s2 = Add_layers(channel, activation=activation2) model.joinl(s1) model.joinl(s2) config.LR, config.epochs = temp, temp1 p1,p2,p3, p4 = loss,train_loader, test_loader, optimizer model.configr(config, loss_function = p1, optimizer= p4, train_loader = p2,test_loader = p3)history = model_summary(model) plot(history)

Epochs = 5 Epochs = 12


As a result of the preceding experiments, we can conclude that the weight initialization approach significantly impacts the model’s accuracy. The vanishing gradient and overfitting problems develop due to erroneous weight initialization. As a result, the graphs show that better optimization and faster convergence are impossible. Furthermore, compared to other hyperparameter tuning methods, the combination of the tanh and sigmoid functions is an excellent choice for hyperparameters since it helps attain higher accuracy. Furthermore, the plots of the loss and accuracy curves show an improvement in accuracy with a decrease in the loss curves.

Furthermore, the use of sigmoid and tanh activations, as well as random weight initialization, can be solved by using the activation function of Relu or leaky relu, as well as better optimizers like Adam and better weight initialization approaches like He or Xavier initialization.


You can download the complete code of this article using this link.

In this article, we have learned how to train a convolutional neural network to train an IRIS Dataset. We will also check the performance of our model by varying various hyperparameters like Learning Rate, No. of epochs, Activation Function, and No. Of Layers.

In layman’s terms, optimization means programs or techniques that modify your neural network’s weights and learning rates to minimize losses. Optimizers facilitate quicker outcomes.

Despite the above hyperparameters, there are also many hyperparameters in the CNN model, like the size of kernels, number of kernels, length of strides, and pooling size, which directly affect the performance and training speed of CNNs.

An inbuilt library named Keras-tuner can automatically give you the best hyperparameters that suit your dataset and classification problem. We will discuss more in upcoming blogs.

Major points of this article:

1. Firstly, we have discussed the dataset, its code for loading and pre-processing also visualize it.

2. After that, we discussed the code for model training, in which we discussed code for the loss function, activation function, CNN layers, etc.

3. Further, we have discussed the various hyperparameters tuning like learning rate, no. of epochs, etc.

4. Finally, the article discusses the best set of hyperparameters that suits our model.

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